List of nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States

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The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States. Established by Article III of the Constitution, the Court was organized by the 1st United States Congress through the Judiciary Act of 1789, which specified its original and appellate jurisdiction, created 13 judicial districts, and fixed the size of the Supreme Court at six – one chief justice and five associate justices.[1] During the 19th century, Congress changed the size of the Court on seven occasions, concluding with the Judiciary Act of 1869 which stipulates that the Court consists of the chief justice and eight associate justices.[2]

Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, and with the advice and consent (confirmation) of the United States Senate, appoint justices to the Supreme Court. Nominations the Supreme Court of the United States are considered to be official when the Senate receives a signed nomination letter from the president naming the nominee, which is then entered in the Senate's record. Since 1789, there have been 163 formal nominations of 144 persons to the Supreme Court. Through August 2018, 125 nominations have been successful; there is also one nomination pending before the Senate. Of the 37 that were unsuccessful, 11 nominees were rejected in Senate roll-call votes, 11 were withdrawn by the president, and 15 lapsed at the end of a session of Congress. Six of these unsuccessful nominees were subsequently nominated and confirmed to other seats on the Court.[3] Additionally, although confirmed, seven nominees either declined office or (in one instance) died before assuming office.

George Washington holds the record for most Supreme Court nominations, with 14 nominations (12 of which were confirmed). Making the second-most nominations were Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Tyler, with nine each (all nine of Roosevelt's were confirmed, while only one of Tyler's was). Three presidents—William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, and Jimmy Carter—did not make any nominations, as there were no vacancies while they were in office.[3]

An important role in this process is played by the Senate Judiciary Committee, which conducts a comprehensive evaluation of a nominee's background and qualifications before the Senate considers the nomination. Once confirmed to a seat on the Court, justices have life tenure, and so they serve until they die in office, resign or retire, or are impeached and removed from office. Even so, as it requires a separate presidential appointment, an incumbent associate justice who is nominated to be chief justice must undergo the confirmation process again. On rare occasions, presidents have been able to make Supreme Court appointments without the Senate's consent, when the Senate is in recess. Such "Recess appointments," however, are temporary, expiring at the end of the Senate's next session. Presidents have made recess appointments on 12 occasions, most recently in 1958.[3]

Summary of table[edit]

The table below lists all persons nominated for a seat on the Supreme Court since 1789, in chronological order by date of nomination, along with the actions taken by the president and the Senate on those nominations. Specifically, the table lists the following for each Supreme Court nomination:

  • name of each nominee, and their age at the time of nomination;
  • name of the president who made the nomination, and their political party affiliation;
  • "seat" vacant—the chief justiceship is denoted as "CJ" and the associate justiceships are numbered "1" through "10"—and last name of justice who most recently held it;
  • majority party in the Senate at the time of the nomination;
  • date on which the president formally made the nomination, by signing a nomination message;
  • outcome, the type and date of final action by the Senate, or of a nomination's withdrawal by the President;
  • numbers of days that elapsed from the date a nomination was formally submitted until the date of final Senate action or of the nomination's withdrawal.

The following final results of the nomination process are tracked:

  1. confirmed – nominations confirmed by the Senate (including those of persons who subsequently declined to serve, or who died before taking office);
  2. withdrawn – nominations withdrawn by the president prior to a confirmation vote;
  3. rejected – nominations rejected by the Senate;
  4. lapsed – nominations that lapsed at the end of a session of Congress without a Senate vote cast on whether to confirm (including nominations that were postponed or tabled by the Senate that were not given further consideration).

Additionally, where the final Senate action on a nomination was a roll-call vote (as opposed to a voice vote or unanimous consent), the totals for and against are noted.

In listing all persons ever nominated to the Supreme Court, the table includes the names of those who were not confirmed as well as those who were confirmed but did not assume office. For a list solely of the 113 individuals who assumed office and served on the Court see, List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Not included in the table are intended nominees, announced presidential selections whose names were withdrawn prior to being submitted to the Senate,[A] as such persons were never officially nominated to the Court.

Nominations[edit]

Nominee Nominated by Succession Nomination
Name Age President Party (Seat)   Justice Majority
party
Date
submitted
Outcome (vote)
and date
ND
John Jay 43 Washington None (CJ)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed
Sep. 26, 1789
2
John Rutledge 50 Washington None (1)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed
Sep. 26, 1789
2
William Cushing 57 Washington None (2)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed
Sep. 26, 1789
2
James Wilson 47 Washington None (3)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed
Sep. 26, 1789
2
John Blair Jr. 57 Washington None (4)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed
Sep. 26, 1789
2
Robert H. Harrison 44 Washington None (5)   Inaugural Pro Admin Sep. 24, 1789 confirmed[B]
Sep. 26, 1789
2
James Iredell 38 Washington None (5)   Inaugural Pro Admin Feb. 8, 1790 confirmed
Feb. 10, 1790
2
Thomas Johnson[C] 58 Washington None (1)   J. Rutledge Pro Admin Oct. 31, 1791 confirmed
Nov. 7, 1791
7
William Paterson 47 Washington None (1)   T. Johnson Pro Admin Feb. 27, 1793 withdrawn
Feb. 28, 1793
1
William Paterson 47 Washington None (1)   T. Johnson Pro Admin Mar. 4, 1793 confirmed
Mar. 4, 1793
0
John Rutledge[C] 56 Washington None (CJ)   Jay Federalist Dec. 10, 1795 rejected (10–14)[D]
Dec. 15, 1795
5
William Cushing[E] 63 Washington None (CJ)   Rutledge Federalist Jan. 26, 1796 confirmed[F]
Jan. 27, 1796
1
Samuel Chase 54 Washington None (4)   Blair Federalist Jan. 26, 1796 confirmed
Jan. 27, 1796
1
Oliver Ellsworth 50 Washington None (CJ)   Rutledge Federalist Mar. 3, 1796 confirmed (21–1)
Mar. 4, 1796
1
Bushrod Washington[C] 36 J. Adams Federalist (3)   Wilson Federalist Dec. 19, 1798 confirmed
Dec. 20, 1798
1
Alfred Moore 44 J. Adams Federalist (5)   Iredell Federalist Dec. 4, 1799 confirmed
Dec. 10, 1799
6
John Jay 55 J. Adams Federalist (CJ)   Ellsworth Federalist Dec. 18, 1800 confirmed[B]
Dec. 19, 1800
1
John Marshall 45 J. Adams Federalist (CJ)   Ellsworth Federalist Jan. 20, 1801 confirmed
Jan. 27, 1801
7
William Johnson 32 Jefferson Dem-Rep (5)   Moore Dem-Rep Mar. 22, 1804 confirmed
Mar. 24, 1804
2
Henry B. Livingston[C] 49 Jefferson Dem-Rep (1)   Paterson Dem-Rep Dec. 13, 1806 confirmed
Dec. 17, 1806
4
Thomas Todd 42 Jefferson Dem-Rep (6)   new seat Dem-Rep Feb. 28, 1807 confirmed
Mar. 2, 1807
2
Levi Lincoln Sr. 61 Madison Dem-Rep (2)   W. Cushing Dem-Rep Jan. 2, 1811 confirmed[B]
Jan. 3, 1811
1
Alexander Wolcott 52 Madison Dem-Rep (2)   W. Cushing Dem-Rep Feb. 4, 1811 rejected (9–24)
Feb. 13, 1811
9
John Quincy Adams 43 Madison Dem-Rep (2)   W. Cushing Dem-Rep Feb. 21, 1811 confirmed[B]
Feb. 22, 1811
1
Joseph Story 32 Madison Dem-Rep (2)   W. Cushing Dem-Rep Nov. 15, 1811 confirmed
Nov. 18, 1811
3
Gabriel Duvall 58 Madison Dem-Rep (4)   S. Chase Dem-Rep Nov. 15, 1811 confirmed
Nov. 18, 1811
3
Smith Thompson[C] 55 Monroe Dem-Rep (1)   Livingston Dem-Rep Dec. 5, 1823 confirmed
Dec. 9, 1823
4
Robert Trimble 49 J. Q. Adams Rep (A-C) (6)   Todd Pro-Jackson[G] Apr. 11, 1826 confirmed (27–5)
May 9, 1826
28
John J. Crittenden 41 J. Q. Adams Rep (A-C) (6)   Trimble Pro-Jackson Dec. 17, 1828 lapsed
57[H]
John McLean 43 Jackson Democratic (6)   Trimble Democratic Mar. 6, 1829 confirmed
Mar. 7, 1829
1
Henry Baldwin 49 Jackson Democratic (3)   Washington Democratic Jan. 4, 1830 confirmed (41–2)
Jan. 6, 1830
2
James Moore Wayne 57 Jackson Democratic (5)   W. Johnson Natl Rep Jan. 6, 1835 confirmed
Jan. 9, 1835
3
Roger B. Taney 57 Jackson Democratic (4)   Duvall Natl Rep Jan. 15, 1835 lapsed
47[H]
Roger B. Taney 58 Jackson Democratic (CJ)   Marshall Democratic Dec. 28, 1835 confirmed (29–15)
Mar. 15, 1836
78
Philip P. Barbour 52 Jackson Democratic (4)   Duvall Democratic Dec. 28, 1835 confirmed (30–11)
Mar. 15, 1836
78
John Catron 51 Jackson Democratic (7)   new seat Democratic Mar. 3, 1837 confirmed (28–15)
Mar. 8, 1837
5
William Smith 74 Jackson Democratic (8)   new seat Democratic Mar. 3, 1837 confirmed[B] (23–18)
Mar. 8, 1837
5
John McKinley[C] 57 Van Buren Democratic (8)   new seat Democratic Sep. 18, 1837 confirmed
Sep. 25, 1837
7
Peter Vivian Daniel 56 Van Buren Democratic (4)   Barbour Democratic Feb. 26, 1841 confirmed (25–5)
Mar. 2, 1841
4
John C. Spencer 56 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig Jan. 8, 1844 rejected (21–26)
Jan. 31, 1844
23
Reuben Walworth 55 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig Mar. 13, 1844 withdrawn
June 17, 1844
96
Edward King 50 Tyler None (3)   Baldwin Whig June 5, 1844 lapsed
10[I]
John C. Spencer 56 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig June 17, 1844 withdrawn
June 17, 1844
0
Reuben Walworth 55 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig June 17, 1844 lapsed
999N/A
Reuben Walworth 56 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig Dec. 4, 1844 withdrawn
Feb. 6, 1845
64
Edward King 50 Tyler None (3)   Baldwin Whig Dec. 4, 1844 withdrawn
Feb. 8, 1845
66
Samuel Nelson 52 Tyler None (1)   Thompson Whig Feb. 4, 1845 confirmed
Feb. 14, 1845
10
John M. Read 47 Tyler None (3)   Baldwin Whig Feb. 7, 1845 lapsed
999N/A
George Woodward 36 Polk Democratic (3)   Baldwin Democratic Dec. 23, 1845 rejected (20–29)
Jan. 22, 1846
30
Levi Woodbury[C] 56 Polk Democratic (2)   Story Democratic Dec. 23, 1845 confirmed
Jan. 3, 1846
11
Robert Cooper Grier 52 Polk Democratic (3)   Baldwin Democratic Aug. 3, 1846 confirmed
Aug.4, 1846
1
Benjamin R. Curtis[C] 42 Fillmore Whig (2)   Woodbury Democratic Dec. 11, 1851 confirmed
Dec. 23, 1851
12
Edward A. Bradford 38 Fillmore Whig (8)   McKinley Democratic Aug. 16, 1852 lapsed
15[I]
George E. Badger 57 Fillmore Whig (8)   McKinley Democratic Jan. 3, 1853 lapsed
39[H]
William C. Micou 46 Fillmore Whig (8)   McKinley Democratic Feb. 14, 1853 lapsed
999N/A
John A. Campbell 41 Pierce Democratic (8)   McKinley Democratic Mar. 21, 1853 confirmed
Mar. 22, 1853
1
Nathan Clifford 54 Buchanan Democratic (2)   Curtis Democratic Dec. 9, 1857 confirmed (26–23)
Jan. 12, 1858
34
Jeremiah S. Black 51 Buchanan Democratic (4)   Daniel Democratic Feb. 5, 1861 lapsed
999N/A
Noah Haynes Swayne 57 Lincoln Republican (6)   McLean Republican Jan. 21, 1862 confirmed (38–1)
Jan. 24, 1862
3
Samuel Freeman Miller 46 Lincoln Republican (4)   Daniel Republican July 16, 1862 confirmed
July 16, 1862
0
David Davis[C] 47 Lincoln Republican (8)   Campbell Republican Dec. 1, 1862 confirmed
Dec. 8, 1862
7
Stephen Johnson Field 46 Lincoln Republican (9)   new seat Republican Mar. 6, 1863 confirmed
Mar. 10, 1863
4
Salmon P. Chase 56 Lincoln Republican (CJ)   Taney Republican Dec. 6, 1864 confirmed
Dec. 6, 1864
0
Henry Stanbery 63 A. Johnson Natl Union (7)   Catron Republican Apr. 16, 1866 lapsed[J]
999N/A
Ebenezer R. Hoar 53 Grant Republican (10)   new seat Republican Dec. 14, 1869 rejected (24–33)
Feb. 3, 1870
51
Edwin Stanton 55 Grant Republican (3)   Grier Republican Dec. 20, 1869 confirmed[K] (46–11)
Dec. 20, 1869
0
William Strong 61 Grant Republican (3)   Grier Republican Feb. 7, 1870 confirmed
Feb. 18, 1870
1
Joseph P. Bradley 56 Grant Republican (10)   new seat Republican Feb. 7, 1870 confirmed (46–9)
Mar. 21, 1870
42
Ward Hunt 62 Grant Republican (1)   Nelson Republican Dec. 3, 1872 confirmed
Dec. 11, 1872
8
George Henry Williams 50 Grant Republican (CJ)   S. P. Chase Republican Dec. 1, 1873 withdrawn
Jan. 8, 1874
38
Caleb Cushing 73 Grant Republican (CJ)   S. P. Chase Republican Jan. 9, 1874 withdrawn
Jan. 13, 1874
4
Morrison Waite 57 Grant Republican (CJ)   S. P. Chase Republican Jan. 19, 1874 confirmed (63–0)
Jan. 21, 1874
2
John Marshall Harlan 44 Hayes Republican (8)   Davis Republican Oct. 16, 1877 confirmed
Nov. 29, 1877
44
William Burnham Woods 56 Hayes Republican (3)   Strong Democratic Dec. 15, 1880 confirmed (39–8)
Dec. 21, 1880
6
Stanley Matthews 56 Hayes Republican (6)   Swayne Democratic Jan. 26, 1881 lapsed
999N/A
Stanley Matthews 56 Garfield Republican (6)   Swayne Split Mar. 14, 1881 confirmed (24–23)
May 12, 1881
59
Horace Gray 53 Arthur Republican (2)   Clifford Split Dec. 19, 1881 confirmed (51–5)
Dec. 20, 1881
1
Roscoe Conkling 52 Arthur Republican (1)   Hunt Split Feb. 24, 1882 confirmed[B] (39–12)
Mar. 2, 1882
6
Samuel Blatchford 62 Arthur Republican (1)   Hunt Split Mar. 13, 1882 confirmed
Mar. 22, 1882
9
Lucius Q. C. Lamar II 62 Cleveland Democratic (3)   Woods Republican Dec. 6, 1887 confirmed (32–28)
Jan. 16, 1888
41
Melville Fuller 55 Cleveland Democratic (CJ)   Waite Republican Apr. 30, 1888 confirmed (41–20)
July 20, 1888
81
David Josiah Brewer 52 B. Harrison Republican (6)   Matthews Republican Dec. 4, 1889 confirmed (53–11)
Dec. 18, 1889
14
Henry Billings Brown 54 B. Harrison Republican (4)   Miller Republican Dec. 23, 1890 confirmed
Dec. 29, 1890
6
George Shiras Jr. 60 B. Harrison Republican (10)   Bradley Republican July 19, 1892 confirmed
July 26, 1892
7
Howell E. Jackson 60 B. Harrison Republican (3)   L. Lamar Republican Feb. 2, 1893 confirmed
Feb. 18, 1893
16
William B. Hornblower 42 Cleveland Democratic (1)   Blatchford Democratic Sep. 19, 1893 lapsed
999N/A
William B. Hornblower 42 Cleveland Democratic (1)   Blatchford Democratic Dec. 5, 1893 rejected (24–30)
Jan. 15, 1894
41
Wheeler H. Peckham 61 Cleveland Democratic (1)   Blatchford Democratic Jan. 22, 1894 rejected (32–41)
Feb. 16, 1894
25
Edward D. White 48 Cleveland Democratic (1)   Blatchford Democratic Feb. 19, 1894 confirmed
Feb. 19, 1894
0
Rufus W. Peckham 57 Cleveland Democratic (3)   H. Jackson Republican Dec. 3, 1895 confirmed
Dec. 9, 1895
6
Joseph McKenna 54 McKinley Republican (9)   Field Republican Dec. 16, 1897 confirmed
Jan. 21, 1898
36
Oliver W. Holmes Jr. 61 T. Roosevelt Republican (2)   Gray Republican Dec. 2, 1902 confirmed
Dec. 4, 1902
2
William R. Day 53 T. Roosevelt Republican (10)   Shiras Republican Feb. 19, 1903 confirmed
Feb. 23, 1903
4
William Henry Moody 52 T. Roosevelt Republican (4)   Brown Republican Dec. 3, 1906 confirmed
Dec. 12, 1906
9
Horace Harmon Lurton 65 Taft Republican (3)   R. Peckham Republican Dec. 13, 1909 confirmed
Dec. 20, 1909
7
Charles Evans Hughes 48 Taft Republican (6)   Brewer Republican Apr. 25, 1910 confirmed
May 2, 1910
7
Edward D. White[E] 65 Taft Republican (CJ)   Fuller Republican Dec. 12, 1910 confirmed
Dec. 12, 1910
0
Willis Van Devanter 51 Taft Republican (1)   E. D. White Republican Dec. 12, 1910 confirmed
Dec. 15, 1910
3
Joseph Rucker Lamar 53 Taft Republican (4)   Moody Republican Dec. 12, 1910 confirmed
Dec. 15, 1910
3
Mahlon Pitney 54 Taft Republican (8)   J. Harlan Republican Feb. 19, 1912 confirmed (50–26)
Mar. 13, 1912
23
James C. McReynolds 52 Wilson Democratic (3)   Lurton Democratic Aug. 19, 1914 confirmed (44–6)
Aug. 29, 1914
10
Louis Brandeis 59 Wilson Democratic (4)   J. Lamar Democratic Jan. 28, 1916 confirmed (47–22)
June 1, 1916
125
John Hessin Clarke 58 Wilson Democratic (6)   Hughes Democratic July 14, 1916 confirmed
July 24, 1916
10
William Howard Taft 63 Harding Republican (CJ)   E. D. White Republican June 30, 1921 confirmed
June 30, 1921
0
George Sutherland 60 Harding Republican (6)   Clarke Republican Sep. 5, 1922 confirmed
Sep. 5, 1922
0
Pierce Butler 56 Harding Republican (10)   Day Republican Nov. 21, 1922 lapsed
999N/A
Pierce Butler 56 Harding Republican (10)   Day Republican Dec. 5, 1922 confirmed (61–8)
Dec. 21, 1922
16
Edward Terry Sanford 57 Harding Republican (8)   Pitney Republican Jan. 24, 1923 confirmed
Jan. 29, 1923
5
Harlan F. Stone 52 Coolidge Republican (9)   McKenna Republican Jan. 5, 1925 confirmed (71–6)
Feb. 5, 1925
31
Charles Evans Hughes 67 Hoover Republican (CJ)   Taft Republican Feb. 3, 1930 confirmed (52–26)
Feb. 13, 1930
10
John J. Parker 44 Hoover Republican (8)   Sanford Republican Mar. 21, 1930 rejected (39–41)
May 7, 1930
47
Owen Roberts 55 Hoover Republican (8)   Sanford Republican May 9, 1930 confirmed
May 20, 1930
11
Benjamin N. Cardozo 61 Hoover Republican (2)   Holmes Republican Feb. 15, 1932 confirmed
Feb. 24, 1932
9
Hugo Black 51 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (1)   Van Devanter Democratic Aug. 12, 1937[L] confirmed (63–16)
Aug. 17, 1937
5
Stanley Forman Reed 53 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (6)   Sutherland Democratic Jan. 15, 1938 confirmed
Jan. 25, 1938
10
Felix Frankfurter 56 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (2)   Cardozo Democratic Jan. 5, 1939 confirmed
Jan. 17, 1939
12
William O. Douglas 40 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (4)   Brandeis Democratic Mar. 20, 1939 confirmed (62–4)
Apr. 4, 1939
15
Frank Murphy 49 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (10)   Butler Democratic Jan. 4, 1940 confirmed
Jan. 16, 1940
14
Harlan F. Stone[E] 68 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (CJ)   Hughes Democratic June 12, 1941 confirmed
June 27, 1941
15
James F. Byrnes 59 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (3)   McReynolds Democratic June 12, 1941 confirmed
June 12, 1941
0
Robert H. Jackson 49 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (9)   Stone Democratic June 12, 1941 confirmed
July 7, 1941
25
Wiley Blount Rutledge 48 F. D. Roosevelt Democratic (3)   Byrnes Democratic Jan. 11, 1943 confirmed
Feb. 8, 1943
28
Harold Hitz Burton 57 Truman Democratic (8)   O. Roberts Democratic Sep. 19, 1945 confirmed
Sep. 19, 1945
0
Fred M. Vinson 56 Truman Democratic (CJ)   Stone Democratic June 6, 1946 confirmed
June 20, 1946
14
Tom C. Clark 49 Truman Democratic (10)   Murphy Democratic Aug. 2, 1949 confirmed (73–8)
Aug. 18, 1949
16
Sherman Minton 58 Truman Democratic (3)   W. Rutledge Democratic Sep. 15, 1949 confirmed (48–16)
Oct. 4, 1949
19
Earl Warren[C] 62 Eisenhower Republican (CJ)   Vinson Republican Jan. 11, 1954 confirmed
Mar. 1, 1954
49
John Marshall Harlan II 55 Eisenhower Republican (9)   R. Jackson Republican Nov. 9, 1954 lapsed
999N/A
John Marshall Harlan II 55 Eisenhower Republican (9)   R. Jackson Republican Jan. 10, 1955 confirmed (71–11)
Mar. 16, 1955
65
William J. Brennan Jr.[C] 50 Eisenhower Republican (3)   Minton Democratic Jan. 14, 1957 confirmed
Mar. 19, 1957
64
Charles Evans Whittaker 56 Eisenhower Republican (6)   Reed Democratic Mar. 2, 1957 confirmed
Mar. 19, 1957
17
Potter Stewart[C] 43 Eisenhower Republican (8)   Burton Democratic Jan. 17, 1959 confirmed (70–17)
May 5, 1959
108
Byron White 44 Kennedy Democratic (6)   Whittaker Democratic Apr. 3, 1962 confirmed
Apr. 11, 1962
8
Arthur Goldberg 54 Kennedy Democratic (2)   Frankfurter Democratic Aug. 31, 1962 confirmed
Sep. 25, 1962
25
Abe Fortas 55 L. Johnson Democratic (2)   Goldberg Democratic July 28, 1965 confirmed
Aug. 11, 1965
14
Thurgood Marshall 58 L. Johnson Democratic (10)   Clark Democratic June 13, 1967 confirmed (69–11)
Aug. 30, 1967
78
Abe Fortas[E] 58 L. Johnson Democratic (CJ)   Warren Democratic June 26, 1968 withdrawn[M]
Oct. 2, 1968
98
Homer Thornberry 59 L. Johnson Democratic (2)   Fortas Democratic June 26, 1968 withdrawn
Oct. 2, 1968
98
Warren E. Burger 61 Nixon Republican (CJ)   Warren Democratic May 23, 1969 confirmed (74–3)
June 9, 1969
17
Clement Haynsworth 56 Nixon Republican (2)   Fortas Democratic Aug. 21, 1969 rejected (45–55)
Nov. 21, 1969
92
G. Harrold Carswell 50 Nixon Republican (2)   Fortas Democratic Jan. 19, 1970 rejected (45–51)
Apr. 8, 1970
79
Harry Blackmun 61 Nixon Republican (2)   Fortas Democratic Apr. 15, 1970 confirmed (94–0)
May 12, 1970
27
Lewis F. Powell Jr. 64 Nixon Republican (1)   H. Black Democratic Oct. 22, 1971 confirmed (89–1)
Dec. 6, 1971
45
William Rehnquist 47 Nixon Republican (9)   J. Harlan II Democratic Oct. 22, 1971 confirmed (68–26)
Dec. 10, 1971
49
John Paul Stevens 55 Ford Republican (4)   Douglas Democratic Nov. 28, 1975 confirmed (98–0)
Dec. 17, 1975
19
Sandra Day O'Connor 51 Reagan Republican (8)   Stewart Republican Aug. 19, 1981 confirmed (99–0)
Sep. 21, 1981
33
William Rehnquist[E] 61 Reagan Republican (CJ)   Burger Republican June 20, 1986 confirmed (65–33)
Sep. 17, 1986
89
Antonin Scalia 50 Reagan Republican (9)   Rehnquist Republican June 24, 1986 confirmed (98–0)
Sep. 17, 1986
85
Robert Bork 60 Reagan Republican (1)   Powell Democratic July 1, 1987 rejected (42–58)
Oct. 23, 1987
114
Anthony Kennedy 51 Reagan Republican (1)   Powell Democratic Nov. 30, 1987 confirmed (97–0)
Feb. 3, 1988
65
David Souter 50 G. H. W. Bush Republican (3)   Brennan Democratic July 25, 1990 confirmed (90–9)
Oct. 2, 1990
69
Clarence Thomas 43 G. H. W. Bush Republican (10)   T. Marshall Democratic July 8, 1991 confirmed (52–48)
Oct. 15, 1991
99
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 60 Clinton Democratic (6)   B. White Democratic June 14, 1993 confirmed (96–3)
Aug. 3, 1993
50
Stephen Breyer 55 Clinton Democratic (2)   Blackmun Democratic May 17, 1994 confirmed (87–9)
July 29, 1994
73
John Roberts 50 G. W. Bush Republican (8)   O'Connor Republican July 29, 2005 withdrawn
Sep. 6, 2005
39
John Roberts 50 G. W. Bush Republican (CJ)   Rehnquist Republican Sep. 6, 2005 confirmed (78–22)
Sep. 29, 2005
23
Harriet Miers 60 G. W. Bush Republican (8)   O'Connor Republican Oct. 7, 2005 withdrawn
Oct. 28, 2005
21
Samuel Alito 55 G. W. Bush Republican (8)   O'Connor Republican Nov. 10, 2005 confirmed (58–42)
Jan. 31, 2006
82
Sonia Sotomayor 54 Obama Democratic (3)   Souter Democratic June 1, 2009 confirmed (68–31)
Aug. 6, 2009
66
Elena Kagan 50 Obama Democratic (4)   Stevens Democratic May 10, 2010 confirmed (63–37)
Aug. 5, 2010
87
Merrick Garland 63 Obama Democratic (9)   Scalia Republican Mar. 16, 2016 lapsed
999N/A
Neil Gorsuch 49 Trump Republican (9)   Scalia Republican Feb. 1, 2017 confirmed (54–45)
Apr. 7, 2017
65
Brett Kavanaugh 53 Trump Republican (1)   Kennedy Republican July 10, 2018 pending
TBD
76
     Sources: [3][4][5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Such as Ronald Reagan's October 1987 selection of Douglas H. Ginsburg to be associate justice (in the aftermath of the Senate's rejection of the nomination of Robert Bork), which was withdrwn before being conveyed to the Senate.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Declined to serve.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nominee was serving on the Court under a recess appointment when the nomination was made.
  4. ^ This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the United States Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  5. ^ a b c d e Incumbent associate justice nominated for chief justice. Such appointments are subject to a separate confirmation process.
  6. ^ Declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  7. ^ The political allies of Andrew Jackson held a majority in the Senate over the allies of John Quincy Adams throughout Adams' presidency.
  8. ^ a b c Senate voted to postpone taking action on this nomination, effectively eliminating any prospect of confirmation. The number of days elapsed is measured from date the president formally made the nomination to the date of the action to postpone.
  9. ^ a b Senate voted to table taking action on this nomination, effectively eliminating any prospect of confirmation. The number of days elapsed is measured from date the president formally made the nomination to the date of the action to table.
  10. ^ On July 23, 1866, Andrew Johnson signed the Judicial Circuits Act into law. The Act, which provided for the gradual elimination of several seats on the Supreme Court, voided Stanbery's nomination, and effectively denied Johnson the opportunity of placing any justices on the Supreme Court.
  11. ^ Died prior to becoming a member of the Court.
  12. ^ Franklin D. Roosevelt's letter of nomination for Hugo Black was undated. August 12, 1937 is the date that letter was received in the Senate.
  13. ^ Continued to serve as an associate justice.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Judiciary Act of 1789". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved August 9, 2018. 
  2. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Circuit Judgeships". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved August 9, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d McMillion, Barry J.; Rutkus, Denis Steven (July 6, 2018). "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2017: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 8, 2018. 
  4. ^ "Supreme Court Nominations: present-1789". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Secretary, United States Senate. Retrieved August 11, 2018. 
  5. ^ "Party Division". United States Senate. Retrieved 6 September 2018. 

External links[edit]