List of non-marine molluscs of Venezuela

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Shells of non marine molluscs from Venezuela. Bivalves: Anodontites trapesalis; Paxyodon syrmatophorus; Mycetopoda pittieri. Gastropods: Pomacea doliodes; Megalobulimus oblongus.
Location of Venezuela

The non-marine molluscs of Venezuela are a part of the molluscan fauna of Venezuela (which is part of the wildlife of Venezuela). Non-marine molluscs are the snails, clams and mussels that live in freshwater habitats, and the snails and slugs that live on land. Sea-dwelling molluscs are not included in this list.

A number of species of non-marine molluscs are found in the wild in Venezuela.

Historical background[edit]

Studies on the knowledge of the Venezuelan malacofauna begin in the nineteenth century with the work of German malacologist Eduard von Martens around 1873 who published the first list of the mollusks Venezuela.[1] Three years later the German-Venezuelan Adolfo Ernst, taking as its starting point and extending Martens list, published a second list in 1876.[2] Subsequent to these two pioneering nineteenth century works, only sporadic descriptions were published in foreign publications. It took about half a century for new listings of malacofauna of Venezuela to be published, this time by American H. B. Baker in the mid-1920s.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Following Baker's work is beginning to make as many Venezuelan species descriptions and numerous national and regional listings including listings include: Adolfo Lutz, who in 1928 lists and makes observations on malacofauna Valencia lake and surrounding areas,[9] H. Richards G. Hummelinck & P. W. Malacofauna 1940 describing the island of Margarita,[10] Arias in 1952 and 1953 in which he describes the fauna of the regions of Baruta, El Hatillo and Perija region;[11][12] Thompson, who in 1957 described the shellfish National Park Henri Pittier and surrounding areas;[13] Martinez and Miranda in 1968 described pulmonate molluscs of Caracas and surrounding areas,[14] Fernández in 1982, which describes sitecueros of slugs and Venezuela,[15] Martinez et al. in 2004 which states bivalve fauna Venezuela freshwater,[16] Lasso and collaborators in 2009 which describes the fauna of the basin of the Orinoco.[17]

Diversity[edit]

Pomacea urceus family Ampullariidae member, one of the most diverse

The Venezuelan malacofauna not marine mollusks is composed of classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia, presenting a greater diversity of species in the gastropod.

In the freshwater gastropod families with more species are Ampullariidae (35 spp.) And Planorbidae (15 spp.).[8][14][17] In terrestrial gastropods include Ortalicidae (35 spp.) and Subulinidae (16 spp.).[6][7][11][12][13]

Among the bivalve families with more species are Mycetopodidade (17 spp.) and Hyriidae (10 spp.)[16][17]

Regarding the introduced species, the largest number of species is between terrestrial mollusks, primarily on families Subulinidae (6 spp.), Limacidae (4 spp.) And Helicidae (3 spp.)[14][15][18][19]

Distribution[edit]

The Venezuelan malacofauna marina not primarily distributed throughout the entire Venezuelan territory, but the greatest number of species and greater distribution has been reported for the river basin Orinoco.[16][17] The vast majority of species usually live in areas calm water pipes or flooding of rivers and lakes. Many of the species usually have local distributions such as slugs and seven of leathers that often live primarily in the areas of cultivation in the north and the Andean region,[14][15] However extend very widely distributed species that are can be located throughout the country as in the case of molluscs Ampullariidae amphibians and within the family which include Marisa cornuarietis,[8][20] Pomacea urceus (Guarura),[8][21][22][20] Pomacea glauca,[8][20] Pomacea dolioides.[8][20][23] Among the highlights landshells Megalobulimus oblongus (Guacara).[7][11][12][13][20]

In relation to introduced species is noteworthy that some of it was spread widely by middle natural environment among them are: Achatina fulica (Giant African Snail),[24][25] Arion subfuscus[15] Subulina octona,[7][10][26] and Thiara granifera[17][18][20] Melanoides tuberculata.[17][18][20]

List of non-marine molluscs of Venezuela[edit]

The list of non-marine molluscs of Venezuela consists of:

  • Freshwater gastropods: 9 families, 19 genera, 82 species.
  • Terrestrial gastropods: 26 families, 58 genera, 116 species.
  • Freshwater bivalves: 5 families, 11 genera, 31 species.

In total 30 families are listed, 88 genera and 229 species.

Freshwater gastropods[edit]

A shell of Pomacea glauca
A shell of Pomacea interrupta

Freshwater gastropods include:

Ampullariidae

Ancylidae

Hydrobiidae

Over 30 individuals of Pyrgophorus coronatus

Lymnaeidae
There are two native and four introduced species of Lymnaeidae in Venezuela:[35]

Two shells of Neritina puncticulata

Neritidae

Two shells of Pachychilus laevisimus

Pachychilidae

Two shells of Aplexa rivalis

Physidae

Two views of a shell of Planorbella duryi

Planorbidae

Two shells of Melanoides tuberculata

Thiaridae

A shell of Achatina fulica

Land gastropods[edit]

Land gastropods include:

Achatinidae

Arionidae

An active individual of Arion subfuscus

Bradybaenidae

Clausiliidae

Euconulidae

Ferussaciidae

Helicidae

Two shells of Helix pomatia

Helicinidae

Limacidae

Strophocheilidae

Neocyclotidae

Three views of a shell of Poteria translucida

Amphibulimidae

A shell of Dryptus marmoratus

Orthalicidae

Bulimulidae

Simpulopsidae

Odontostomidae

Pleurodontidae

Two shells of Labyrinthus leucodon
Two shells of Labyrinthus plicatus
Two shells of Labyrinthus umbrus

Pupillidae

Sagdidae

Scolodontidae

Systrophiidae

Spiraxidae

Streptaxidae

Subulinidae

An empty shell and a whole but retracted individual of Subulina octona

Succineidae

Thysanophoridae

Urocoptidae

A preserved specimen of Diplosolenodes occidentalis

Veronicellidae

A live individual of Sarasinula plebeia

Vertiginidae

Xanthonychidae

Freshwater bivalves[edit]

A whole shell of Castalia schombergiana
A whole shell of Diplodon granosus
Two whole shells of Paxydon syrmatophorus
A whole shell of Tamsiella tamsiana

Corbiculidae

Corbulidae

Hyriidae

Mycetopodidae

Pisidiidae

See also[edit]

Lists of molluscs of surrounding countries:

Overseas:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martens, E. von. 1873: die Binnenmollusken Venezuelas. Festschrift sue feier des 100 jaehr.Bestehens der Gesell. Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin.
  2. ^ Ernst, Adolf. 1876: Enumeración sistemática de las especies de moluscos terrestres y de agua dulce hallas hasta ahora en los alrededores de Caracas y demás partes de la república. Apuntes estadísticos del Distrito Federal. Caracas pp:77–85
  3. ^ Baker, Hocece B. 1923: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan Williamson Expedition in Venezuela. Occasional Paper of the Museum of Zoology
  4. ^ a b Baker, Hocece B. 1924: Land and freshwater molluscs of the dutch leeward island. Occasional Paper of the Museum of Zoology, 152:1–139.
  5. ^ Baker, Horace B. 1925: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan Williamson Expedition in Venezuela
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Baker, Horace Burrinton. 1926: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan-Willianson Expedicion in Venezuela. Occacional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan. Nº 167
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Baker, Horace B. 1930: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan – Williamson expedition in Venezuela. Occasional Paper of the Museum of zoology. 210:1–51
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Baker, Horace B. 1930: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan – Williamson expedition in Venezuela. Occasional Paper of the Museum of zoology. 210:1–95 PDF
  9. ^ Lutz, Adolfo 1928: Estudios de zoología y parasicología venezolana. Río de Janeiro.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Richards H. G. & Hummelinck P. W. (1940). "Land & Freshwater Mollusks from Margarita Island, Venezuela". Notulae Naturae 62 1–16. at Google Books.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Arias C, Sergio, 1952. Algunos moluscos de la región Baruta - EL Hatilllo. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle XII(31):47–65
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Arias C, Sergio. 1953: Algunos Moluscos de la región de Perijá. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle XIII(35):245–258
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Thompson, Fred G. 1957: A collection of mollusks from Northern Venezuela. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan, 591:1–13
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Martínez E, Rafael y Miranda A, Rafael E. 1968: Aspectos de la reproducción en moluscos pulmonados del área metropolitana de Caracas. En: Estudio de Caracas. Ecología vegetal - fauna Vol:II pp:123–165. Universidad Central de Venezuela. Caracas-Venezuela
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fernández de V, J. 1992: Contribución al conocimiento de las babosas y sietecueros (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía Maracay. 12(3–4):374–387.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Martínez E, Rafael, Cabrera, Amyra y Lasso Carlos A. 2004: Moluscos bivalvos (Unionacea y Mutelacea) de la cuenca del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, 159–160:283–303
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc Lasso, Carlos A., Martínez E, Rafael, Capelo, Juan Carlos., Morales Betancourt, Mónica y Sánchez-Maya, Alejandro. 2009: Lista de los moluscos (Gastropodos_Bivalvia) dulceacuícolas y estuarinos de la cuenca del Orinoco (Venezuela). Biota Colombiana, 10(1–2):63–74.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Ojasti, Juhani., González Jiménez, Eduardo, Szeplaki Otahola, Eduardo. y García Román, Luis B. 2001: Informe sobre las especies exótica en Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Caracas. 207p. ISBN 980-04-1254-9
  19. ^ Pérez, Julio E., Alfonsi, Carmen., Salazar, Sinatra K., Macsotay, Oliver., Barrios, Jorge. & Martínez Escarbassiere, Rafael. 2007: Especies marinas exóticas y criptogénicas en las costas de Venezuela. Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico de Venezuela. 46 (1): 79–96.PDF
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Catalogo de la colección de Moluscos del Museo de Biología de la Universidad Central (MBUCV-XIV)
  21. ^ a b Martínez E, Rafael. 1972: Observaciones sobre la reproducción de la Guarura (Pomacea urceus) molusco dulceacuícola muy abundante en la región de Camaguán (estado Guarico). Defensa de la Naturaleza. 2(5):41–45.
  22. ^ a b Burky, Kathieleen A. & Burky, Albert J. 1977: Buoyancy changes as related to respiratoy behavior in an amphibius sanil Pomacea urceus (Muller) from Venezuela. The Nautilus 91(3):97-1004
  23. ^ a b Martínez E, Rafael. y López S, Beatriz. 1997: Pomacea dolioides un molusco de los Llanos. Natura 107:59–60
  24. ^ a b Martínez Escarbassiere, Rafael. y Martínez Moreno, Enrique.1997: Nota Acerca De La Achatina (Lissachatina) Fulica (Bowdich, 1822), Peligroso Caracol Africano (Pulmonata Achatinidae) Introducido En Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 17(1):37–40.
  25. ^ a b Martínez-Escarbassiere, Rafael, Martínez, Enrique O. y Castillo, Otto. 2008: Distribución Geográfica De Achatina (Lissachatina) Fulica (Bowdich, 1882) (Gastropoda-Stylommatophora- Achatinidae) En Venezuela. Memoria De La Fundación La Salle De Ciencias 68(169): 93–106. ISSN 0037-8518 PDF ISSN 0037-8518.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hass, Fritz. 1962: Caribbean land molluscs Subulinidae and Oleacinidae. Studies on the Fauna od curaçao and other Caribbean Island, XIII(52):49–60
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Simone, L. R. L. 2006: Land and freshwater mollusca of Brazil. EEB, FAPESP, Sao Paulo. 390pp
  28. ^ Pain, Thomas. 1956: Pomacea of the Sierra de Merida, Venezuela. Journal of Conchology 24(5):175-176
  29. ^ a b c d Köhler, F. & Glaubrecht, M. 2006: The types of Ampullariidae Gray, 1824 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Malacological Collection of the Natural History Museum, Berlin: an annotated catalogue with lectotype designations. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Zoologische Reihe 82: 201–218.
  30. ^ Pain, Thomas. y Sergio Arias C. 1958: Descripción de una especie nueva de Pomacea de Venezuela. Museo de Historia Natural La Salle. Serie. Zoología. No 24.
  31. ^ Kennard, A. S., A. E. Salibury and B. B. Woodward. 1931: The types of Lamark genera of shell as selected by J. G. Children in 1823. Smitsonian Miselaneous Collections. 82(17):1–40.
  32. ^ a b Dos Santos, Sonia B. 2003: Estado atual do conhecimento dos ancilídeos na América do Sul (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Basommatophora). Revista de Biología Tropical 51 (Suppl. 3): 191–224. PDF
  33. ^ a b c Rodríguez, Gilberto. 1973: El sistema del lago de Maracaibo. Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científica (IVIC). Caracas 397p.
  34. ^ Nava, Mario., Severin, Héctor. y Machado Nakary. 2011. Distribución y taxonomía de Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae), en el sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Revista de Biología Tropical, 59 (3): 1165–1172. PDF
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Bargues M. D., González L C., Artigas P. & Mas-Coma S. (2011). "A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection". Parasites & Vectors 4: 200. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-200.
  36. ^ Pointier, J. P.; Noya, O.; Amarista, M.; Théron, A. (2004). "Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae): First record for Venezuela". Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 99 (6): 567–569. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762004000600005. PMID 15558164. 
  37. ^ Bargues M. D., Artigas P., Khoubbane M. & Mas-Coma S. (2011). "DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae)". Parasites & Vectors 4: 132. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-132.
  38. ^ a b c Flores, Celestino y Cáceres, Raquel. 1973: La familia Neritidea (Mollusca: Archaeogastropoda)en las aguas costeras de Venezuela. Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico. Universidad de Oriente. 12(2):1–13.
  39. ^ a b c Museo del mar 2001: Catálogo de moluscos Marinos clase Gastropoda. Fundación Muso del Mar Musro marino de Margarita Boca del Río. 20p
  40. ^ a b c d Bitter, Ricardo S. y Martínez E. Rafael. 2001: Inventario de los moluscos marinos en las costas del estado Falcón, Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 21(1):21–41.
  41. ^ Baker, Hocece B. 1923: The mollusca collected by the University of Michigan _ Williamson Expedition in Venezuela. Occasional Paper of the Museum of Zoology, 137:1–59
  42. ^ a b c d Pain, Thomas. 1956: Revision of the Melaniidae of British Guyana an Surinam. Basteria, 20(4–5):91–105
  43. ^ Wikispecies: Doryssa atra. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_atra
  44. ^ Wikispecies: Doryssa consolidata. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_consolidata
  45. ^ Wikispecies: Doryssa lamarckiana. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_lamarckiana
  46. ^ Wikispecies: Doryssa hohenackeri. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_hohenackeri
  47. ^ a b Martínez Escarbassiere, Rafael. y Rorero, Ramiro. 1995: Contribución al conocimiento de Diplodon (Diplodon) granosus granosus Brugeri (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) y Doryssa hohenackeri kappleri Vernhout (Gastropoda: Melaniidae) en el alto río Siapa (Departamento Río Negro), Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 16 (1):79–84.
  48. ^ Abbott, R. Tucker. 1955: Anatomy of the venezuelan gastropod, Doryssa kappleri- The Nautilus 69(2):44–46.
  49. ^ Wikispecies: Doryssa kappleri http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_kappleri
  50. ^ Wikispecie: Doryssa transversa. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Doryssa_transversa
  51. ^ Chrosciechowski Z. Przemyslaw K y Arcas, Enrique. 1989: Caracoles (gastrópodos) de agua dulce en el Valle de Caripe Estado Monagas, Venezuela. Boletín de la Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. XXIX(1–4):47–63
  52. ^ a b Prypchan, Sofía de., y Chrosciechowski, Przemyslaw. 1992: Invasión de las aguas dulces del litoral central venezolano (DF) por caracoles del genero Thiara (Melaniidae) Boletín de la Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. XXXII(1–4):50–58
  53. ^ a b Pointier, Jean Pierre., Balzán C, Carlos Y and Chrosciechowski, Przemyslaw. 1994: Técnicas de muestreo de los caracoles de agua dulce en Venezuela. Boletín de la Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. XXXIV(1–4):1–6
  54. ^ Chrosciechowski Z. Przemyslaw K. 1973: Notas sobre paragonimiasis y uno de sus hospedadores moluscos de reciente hallazgo en Venezuela. Boletín Informativo de la Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. XIII(5–6):167–174.
  55. ^ Arias, Sergio. 1959: Arion subfuscus (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Aulacopoda), un molusco paleártico adaptado en Venezuela. Memoria de de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle. 19(52):23–26.
  56. ^ a b c Loosjes, F. G. & Loosjes-Van Bemmel, A. C. W. 1966: some anatomical, systematical and geographical data on Neniinae (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen 77:3–60 PDF
  57. ^ Breure, A. S. H. (1976). "Helicina (Helicina) microdina huberi subspec.nov., a new land snail from northern Venezuela and Colombia". Basteria 40: 143-145. PDF.
  58. ^ a b Breure A. S. H. & Schlögl J. (2010). "Additional notes on Orthalicidae from the Chimantá massif, Venezuelan Guayana, with descriptions of new species of Plekocheilus Guilding, 1828 (Mollusca, Gastropoda)". Zootaxa 2416: 51–60. preview.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h Breure A. S. H. (2009). "New Orthalicidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from Venezuelan Guayana: unravelling secrets from the Lost World". Zootaxa 2065: 25–50. preview.
  60. ^ Weyrauch, Wolfgang K. 1967: Descripción y notas sobre Gratrópodos terrestres de Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Brasil y Perú. Acta Zoológica Lilloana, XXI:457–499
  61. ^ Robinson D. G., Hovestadt A., Fields A. & Breure A. S. H. (July 2009). "The land Mollusca of Dominica (Lesser Antilles), with notes on some enigmatic or rare species". Zoologische Mededelingen 83 http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/83/nr03/a13
  62. ^ Martínez E, R. 1991: “Nota acerca de la presencia de la babosa Omalonyx (O.) pattersonae Tillier, 1891 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Succinidae) de Venezuela”. Acta Biológica Venezuelica. 14(2):65–69.
  63. ^ a b c d e Gomes, Suzete R. 2007: Filogenia morfológica de Veronicellidae, filogeniamolecular de Phyllocalis Colosi e descriçao de uma nova espécie para la família (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Gomes, Suzete R. 2007. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre. 175p. PDF
  64. ^ Martítnez E, Rafael. 1987: Corbicula manilensis molusco introducido en Venezuela. Acta Científica Venezolana 38:384–385
  65. ^ Martínez E, Rafael. 1983: Contribución al conocimiento de la gloquidia de Castalia ambigua multisulcata Hupé 1857, “Guacuco de río” (Mollusca: Lamellibranquia: Hyriidae). Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 11(4):197–213.
  66. ^ a b c d e f Cummings, Kevin S. & Mayer, Christine A. 1997: The Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Etherioidea) of Venezuela Illinois Natural History Survey. http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/animals_plants/mollusk/SA/Ven.html
  67. ^ Wikispecies: Castalia ambigua http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Castalia_ambigua
  68. ^ Wikispecies: Castalia orinocensis http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Castalia_orinocensis
  69. ^ Wikispecies: Castalia Schombergiana http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Castalia_schombergiana
  70. ^ Wikispecies: Castalia stevensi http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Castalia_stevensi
  71. ^ Wikispecies: Dilodon granosus http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Diplodon_granosus
  72. ^ Dilodon losadae http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Diplodon_losadae
  73. ^ Wikispecies: Dilodon flucki http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Diplodon_flucki
  74. ^ Wikispecies: Paxyodon syrmatophorus http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Paxydon_syrmatophorus
  75. ^ Wikispecies: Prisodon obliquus http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Prisodon_obliquus
  76. ^ Wikispecies: Triplodon stevensii http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Triplodon_stevensii
  77. ^ Wikispecies: Anodontites trapesialis. http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Anodontites_trapesialis
  78. ^ Wikispecies: Mycetopoda pittieri http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Mycetopoda_pittieri
  79. ^ Wikispecies: Tamsiella tamsiana http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tamsiella_tamsiana

External links[edit]

  • Breure A. S. H. (2009). Radiation in land snails on Venezuelan tepui islands. In: Cohen A. et al. (eds.) Evolutionary islands: 150 years after Darwin' Abstracts: 38. Leiden. PDF.
  • Breure A. S. H. (1976). "Over de landmollusken van het Nationale Park "Henri Pittier", Venezuela". Correspondentieblad van de Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging 172: 569–572. PDF.
  • Breure A. S. H. (1975). "Description of a collecting trip in Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela". De Kreukel 11(7): 83–116. PDF.