List of numbers in Hindu scriptures

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The Hindu scriptures contain many numerical descriptions concerning distances, durations and numbers of items in the universe as seen from the perspective of Hindu cosmology.[1]


List[edit]

Property Number or measurement
Distance from Satyaloka to Vishnuloka (Brahmaloka-sanatana, abode of Brahman) [This is actually the distance to planet of Lord Vishnu within this material universe, brahmanda. However, original Vaikuntha-loka planets - with brahmajyoti or vaikuntha rays are beyond the eight coverings of universe. Hence, can not be measured by scientific logics] 26,200,000 yojanas (209,600,000 miles)[2][3]
Distance from Dhruvaloka (the pole star) to the Sun 3,800,000 yojanas
Distance from Dhruvaloka to Maharloka 10,000,000 yojanas
Distance from Maharloka to Janaloka 20,000,000 yojanas
Distance from Janaloka to Tapoloka 80,000,000 yojanas
Distance from Tapoloka to Satyaloka 120,000,000 yojanas
Distance from the Sun to Satyaloka 233,800,000 yojanas (1,870,400,000 miles)
Covering[clarification needed] of the Universe 260,000,000 yojanas (2,080,000,000 miles) away from the Sun{, each covering layer is 10 times bigger than previous [4]
Distance from the Sun to the Earth lower planetary systems called Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talātala, Mahātala, Rasātala and Pātāla[clarification needed][citation needed]
Distance from lower planets to Śesha Nāga lying on the Garbhodaka Ocean 30,000 yojanas[citation needed]
Depth of Garbhodaka ocean 249,800,000 yojanas deep[citation needed]
Total diameter of the Universe approximately 500,000,000 yojanas, or 4,000,000,000 miles[5]
Distance from planet Rāhu to the Sun 10,000 yojanas (80,000 miles)[citation needed]
Distance from Rāhu to planets of the Siddhas, Cāranas and Vidyādharas 1,000,000 yojanas[citation needed]
Distance from the Earth to the lower planetary systems — Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talātala, Mahātala, Rasātala and Pātāla 70,000 yojanas[citation needed]
Number of kinds of material bodies for soul, jivaatma (or species of life) in material world[clarification needed] 8,400,000[6][7][8]
* Number of species living in the water 900,000
* Number of kinds of sthāvara (non-moving living entities such as trees and plants) 2,000,000[9]
* Number of species of insects and reptiles 1,100,000[10]
* Number of species of birds 1,000,000[11]
* Number of varieties of quadrupeds 3,000,000[12]
* Number of human species[clarification needed] 400,000[13][14][15]
Number of Manus who manifest in one kalpa (one day of Brahmā) fourteen Manus[16]
Duration of one day of Brahmā 1,000 yugas (4.32 billion years)
Number of Manus who manifest during one month of Brahmā 420 Manus[17]
Number of Manus who manifest during one year of Brahmā 5,040 Manus[18]
Number of Manus who manifest during the lifetime of one Brahmā 504,000 Manus[19]
Total duration of four yugas (Satya+Treta+Dvapara+Kali) 4,320,000 years[20]
Number of the present Manu (Vaivasvata Manu) 7th Manu[citation needed]
Age of our (Vaivasvata) Manu 27 divya-yugas [27 x 4,320,000 solar years][citation needed]
Number of planetary systems[clarification needed] in this Brahmanda (material universe) [clarification needed] 14[21][22]
Duration of 100 years of Brahma (his lifetime duration) 311,040,000,000,000 years[23]
Duration of one manvantara, the lifespan of one Manu seventy-one yugas (=71*4,320,000 years)[citation needed]
Duration of Satya yuga 1,728,000 years[24]
Duration of Tretā-yuga 1,296,000 years[25]
Duration of Dvāpara-yuga 864,000 years[26]
Duration of Kali-yuga 432,000 years[27]
Duration of lifetime of human in Satya yuga around 100,000 years. [28]
Duration of lifetime of human in Tretā-yuga around 10,000 years [29]
Duration of lifetime of human in Dvāpara-yuga around 1,000 years.[30]
Duration of lifetime of human in Kali-yuga around 100 years which will be reduced gradually to 20 years )

[31] [32] [33] [34]

Time passed after beginning of Kali-Yuga (Battle of Kurukṣetra) around 5,114 years[citation needed]
Steeds of Indra 1,100[35]
Spiritual benefits of following Janmashtami Vows (fasting etc.) One ... becomes freed from the sins of ten million births.[36]
Happiness of liberation into impersonal Brahman (brahmajyoti) compared with happiness of devotional service to Bhagavan bhakti is trillionfold better than impersonalism [37]
Frequency with which Krishna descends to this planet every 8,640,000,000 years (once in a day of Brahma) [38]
Brahmanda - Hindu material universe. Each brahmanda appears after Mahavishnu's breathing out and when Garbhodakashayi Vishnu gives birth to Brahma on a Satyaloka's lotus. Brahma, creator of our universe lives 311,040,000,000,000 human years, and during his lifetimes, 504 000 Manus (Vedic Adams, first men are changing). Brahma creates 14 planetary systems which can be roughly compared to Seven heavens and seven earthes described in Abrahamic scriptures

Note: Where distances are given in yojana a rough equivalent is sometimes given in miles calculated at 8 miles to the yojana. The actual length of the yojana varied throughout its period of use between 4 and 9 miles.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Compare Chaudhary, Govind Vishnu (1997) [1968]. Vedic Numerology-A Treatise On Hindu Astronomy (2 ed.). p. 365. 
  2. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 5.23.9, The Vaikuntha planets begin 26,200,000 yojanas (209,600,000 miles) above Satyaloka. 
  3. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 2.5.39, brahmalokaḥ — the spiritual planets; sanātanaḥ — eternal. ... From the forefront of the chest up to the neck of the universal form of the Lord are situated the planetary systems named Janaloka and Tapoloka, whereas Satyaloka, the topmost planetary system, is situated on the head of the form. The spiritual planets, however, are eternal. ... Sometimes Satyaloka, the planet in which Brahmā resides, is also called Brahmaloka. But the Brahmaloka mentioned here is not the same as the Satyaloka planetary system. This Brahmaloka is eternal, whereas the Satyaloka planetary system is not eternal. And to distinguish between the two, the adjective sanātana has been used in this case. According to Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, this Brahmaloka is the loka or abode of Brahman, or the Supreme Lord. ... Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, therefore, rightly commenting on this verse /Bhagavad-gītā (9.11)/, says that the Brahmaloka mentioned here is Vaikuṇṭha, the kingdom of God, which is sanātana, or eternal, and is therefore not exactly like the material creations described above. 
  4. ^ Mahaprabhura Siksa: The teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by Bhaktivinode Thakura - Chapter 11. Prayojana: the ultimate goal, According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. By the mercy of both Krsna and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service. When a person receives the seed of devotional service he should take care of it by becoming a gardener and sowing the seed in his heart. If he waters the seed gradually by the process of sravana and kirtana the seed will begin to sprout. As one waters the bhakti lata bija, the seed sprouts, and the creeper gradually increases until it penetrates the walls of this universe and goes beyond the Viraja river between the spiritual world and the material world. It attains brahma-loka, the Brahman effulgence. Penetrating through that stratum, it reaches the spiritual sky and the spiritual planet Goloka Vrndavana.  line feed character in |quote= at position 509 (help)
  5. ^ Richard L. Thompson, Vedic cosmography and astronomy 
  6. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 2.3.2-7, Śukadeva Gosvāmī said that out of the 8,400,000 species of living entities, the human form of life is rare and valuable, and out of those rare human beings those who are conscious of the material problems are rarer still, and the still more rare persons are those who are conscious of the value of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, which contains the messages of the Lord and His pure devotees. 
  7. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 19.138, In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8,400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe. 
  8. ^ Bhagavad-gita 7.3, manusyanam sahasresu kascid yatati siddhaye yatatam api siddhanam kascin mam vetti tattvatah Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth.  line feed character in |quote= at position 44 (help)
  9. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya 19.138, There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species. 
  10. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya 19.138, There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species. 
  11. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya 19.138, There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species. 
  12. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya 19.138, There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species. 
  13. ^ Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya 19.138, There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthavara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species. 
  14. ^ In Search of the Ultimate Goal of Life by Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada, brahmananam sahasrebhyah satra-yaji visisyate satra-yaji-sahasrebhyah sarva vedanta-paragah sarva-vedanta-vit-kotya visnu-bhakto visisyate vaisnavanam sahasrebhya ekanty eko visisyate "Out of many, many thousands of brahmanas, one who is expert in the performance of sacrifices is considered the best. Out of many thousands of such experts in the performance of sacrifices, one who has surpassed all the knowledge in the Vedas is considered the best. Out of all those persons who have excelled in the studies of the Vedas, a person who is a devotee of Visnu, the Personality of Godhead, is considered the best. And out of many, many thousands of such worshipers of Visnu, one who is a pure Vaisnava or an exclusive devotee of Sri Krsna is the best because only he will attain the highest abode called Param-dhama, which is described in the Bhagavad-gita by Sri Krsna Himself. (Garuda Purana) ... muktanam api siddhanam narayana-parayanah sudurlabhah prasantatma kotisv api mahamune "Out of millions of great sages who are liberated souls, it is very difficult to find a sober devotee of Lord Narayana." (Bhag. 6.14.5)  line feed character in |quote= at position 46 (help)
  15. ^ Narada Bhakti Sutra 39, Purport, Lord Caitanya graphically describes the rarity of gaining the association of a pure devotee. The Lord tells Rupa Gosvami that there are unlimited living entities among 8,400,000 species, and all these living entities are wandering from body to body, planet to planet, within this universe. The few living entities in human bodies may be divided into the uncultured and the cultured -- those who are ignorant of the Vedic principles and those who know them. Among those who know the Vedic principles, roughly half simply give lip service to these principles while committing all kinds of sins in violation of these principles. Out of those who actually follow the Vedic principles, most seek material rewards like wealth, good birth, or elevation to heaven. Among millions of pious followers of the Vedic injunctions, one may be actually wise (a jnani). Out of many millions of such jnanis, Lord Caitanya says, one may actually become liberated from birth and death, and out of many millions of such liberated persons, a devotee of the Lord is very difficult to find. 
  16. ^ Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8: The Avataras, In one kalpa, or one day of Brahma, fourteen Manus are manifest. 
  17. ^ Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8: The Avataras, Thus if fourteen Manus appear in one day of Brahma, there are 420 Manus during one month of Brahma 
  18. ^ Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8: The Avataras, during one year of Brahma there are 5,040 Manus. 
  19. ^ Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8: The Avataras, Since Brahma lives for one hundred of his years, it is calculated that there are 504,000 Manus manifest during the lifetime of one Brahma. 
  20. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam 4.31.10, The duration of one day of Brahma is one thousand times greater than the four yugas, aggregating 4,320,000 years. 
  21. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.52, This universal egg, or the universe in the shape of an egg, is called the manifestation of material energy. Its layers of water, air, fire, sky, ego and mahat-tattva increase in thickness one after another. Each layer is ten times bigger than the previous one, and the final outside layer is covered by pradhāna. Within this egg is the universal form of Lord Hari, of whose body the fourteen planetary systems are parts. 
  22. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam 2.1.26, The universe is divided into fourteen planetary systems. Seven planetary systems, called Bhur, Bhuvar, Svar, Mahar, Janas, Tapas and Satya, are upward planetary systems, one above the other. There are also seven planetary systems downward, known as Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala, gradually, one below the other. 
  23. ^ Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8: The Avataras, One day of Brahma is calculated at 4 billion 320 million years, and Brahma lives for one hundred years on this scale. 
  24. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.11.19, The duration of the Satya millennium equals 4,800 years of the years of the demigods... As aforementioned, one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. 
  25. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.11.19, The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. 
  26. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.11.19, the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years /of the demigods/ ... The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years. 
  27. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.11.19, Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods... Kali-yuga, is 1,200 x 360, or 432,000 years. 
  28. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 4.9.22, In the Satya-yuga people generally lived for one hundred thousand years. 
  29. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam 4.9.62, in the Treta-yuga people lived for ten thousand years 
  30. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam 4.9.62, in Dvapara-yuga they /people/ lived for one thousand years 
  31. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.15.72, As far as kirtana is concerned, the sastras say, sravanam kirtanam visnoh: [SB 7.5.23] one should chant the glories of the Supreme Lord and the holy name of the Supreme Lord. This is clearly stated. Sravanam kirtanam visnoh: one should chant about and glorify Lord Visnu, not any demigod. Unfortunately, there are foolish persons who invent some process of kirtana on the basis of a demigod's name. This is an offense. Kirtana means glorifying the Supreme Lord, not any demigod. Sometimes people invent kālī-kīrtana or śiva-kīrtana, and even big sannyāsīs in the Māyāvāda school say that one may chant any name and still get the same result. 
  32. ^ Nārada-pañcarātra, The essence of all Vedic knowledge — comprehending the three kinds of Vedic activity [karma-kāṇḍa, jñāna-kāṇḍa and upāsanā-kāṇḍa], the chandas, or Vedic hymns, and the processes for satisfying the demigods — is included in the eight syllables Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna. This is the reality of all Vedānta. The chanting of the holy name is the only means to cross the ocean of nescience. 
  33. ^ Kali-santarana Upanisad, The sixteen words-Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare; Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare-are especially meant for completely destroying all the contamination of Kali. To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga, there is no alternative in all the Vedas except the chanting of this sixteen-word mantra.  line feed character in |quote= at position 55 (help)
  34. ^ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 1.1.21, This age of Kali is not at all suitable for self-realization as was Satya-yuga, the golden age, or Tretā- or Dvāpara-yugas, the silver and copper ages. For self-realization, the people in Satya-yuga, living a lifetime of a hundred thousand years, were able to perform prolonged meditation. And in Tretā-yuga, when the duration of life was ten thousand years, self-realization was attained by performance of great sacrifice. And in the Dvāpara-yuga, when the duration of life was one thousand years, self-realization was attained by worship of the Lord. But in the Kali-yuga, the maximum duration of life being one hundred years only and that combined with various difficulties, the recommended process of self-realization is that of hearing and chanting of the holy name, fame, and pastimes of the Lord. 
  35. ^ Murthy, S. S. N. (August 2005). "Number Symbolism in the Vedas" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS) 12 (3): 87–99. ISSN 1084-7561. Retrieved 2010-09-08. Steeds of Indra [...] 1100 
  36. ^ Janmastami vow, One who eats on Lord Krishna’s birthday is lowest of mankind. .. His pious credits of ten million births are at once destroyed. ... One who fasts, follows the Janmastami vow, and keeps an all-night vigil on this day becomes freed from the sins of ten million births. Of this there is no doubt. 
  37. ^ Srila Rupa Gosvami says that if brahmananda, or the happiness of becoming one with the Supreme, is multiplied by one trillionfold, it still cannot compare to an atomic fraction of the happiness derived from the ocean of devotional service. [1]
  38. ^ Bhagavad Gita As It Is - Preface, If personally I have any credit in this matter, it is only that I have tried to present Bhagavad-gita as it is, without adulteration. Before my presentation of Bhagavad-gita As It Is, almost all the English editions of Bhagavad-gita were introduced to fulfill someone's personal ambition. But our attempt, in presenting Bhagavad-gita As It Is, is to present the mission of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. Our business is to present the will of Krsna, not that of any mundane speculator like the politician, philosopher or scientist, for they have very little knowledge of Krsna, despite all their other knowledge. When Krsna says, man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru, etc., we, unlike the so-called scholars, do not say that Krsna and His inner spirit are different. Krsna is absolute, and there is no difference between Krsna's name, Krsna's form, Krsna's qualities, Krsna's pastimes, etc. This absolute position of Krsna is difficult to understand for any person who is not a devotee of Krsna in the parampara (disciplic succession). Generally the so-called scholars, politicians, philosophers, and svamis, without perfect knowledge of Krsna, try to banish or kill Krsna when writing commentary on Bhagavad-gita. Such unauthorized commentary upon Bhagavad-gita is known as Mayavadi-bhasya, and Lord Caitanya has warned us about these unauthorized men. Lord Caitanya clearly says that anyone who tries to understand Bhagavad-gita from the Mayavadi point of view will commit a great blunder. The result of such a blunder will be that the misguided student of Bhagavad-gita will certainly be bewildered on the path of spiritual guidance and will not be able to go back to home, back to Godhead. Our only purpose is to present this Bhagavad-gita As It Is in order to guide the conditioned student to the same purpose for which Krsna descends to this planet once in a day of Brahma, or every 8,640,000,000 years. This purpose is stated in Bhagavad-gita, and we have to accept it as it is; otherwise there is no point in trying to understand the Bhagavad-gita and its speaker, Lord Krsna. Lord Krsna first spoke Bhagavad-gita to the sun-god some hundreds of millions of years ago. We have to accept this fact and thus understand the historical significance of Bhagavad-gita, without misinterpretation, on the authority of Krsna. To interpret Bhagavad-gita without any reference to the will of Krsna is the greatest offense. In order to save oneself from this offense, one has to understand the Lord as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as He was directly understood by Arjuna, Lord Krsna's first disciple. Such understanding of Bhagavad-gita is really profitable and authorized for the welfare of human society in fulfilling the mission of life.  line feed character in |quote= at position 1719 (help)

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