List of official languages

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This is a list of official, or otherwise administratively-recognized, languages of sovereign countries, regions, and supra-national institutions.

Official languages of sovereign countries, wholly or partly[edit]

A[edit]

Afar:

Afrikaans:

Aja-Gbe:

Akan (Akuapem Twi, Ashante Twi, Fante):

Albanian:

Amharic:

Anii:

Arabic (see also List of countries where Arabic is an official language):

Armenian:

Assamese:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages, and with English as a link language)

Aymara:

Azerbaijani:

B[edit]

Balanta:

Bambara:

Bariba:

Basque:

Bassari:

Bedik:

Belarusian:

Bengali:

Berber:

Biali:

Bislama:

Boko:

Bomu:

Bosnian:

Bozo:

Buduma:

Bulgarian:

Burmese:

C[edit]

Cantonese:

Catalan:

Chinese, Mandarin:

Chichewa:

Chirbawe (Sena):

Comorian

Croatian:

Czech:

  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia (legislation states that a person using Czech language at a Slovak institution must be treated as if using Slovak language)

D[edit]

Dagaare:

Dagbani:

Dangme

Danish:

Dari:

  • Afghanistan (a local variant of Persian, but defined as "Dari" in the Afghan constitution; together with Pashto)[28]

Dendi:

Dhivehi:

Dioula:

Dogon:

Dutch:

Dzongkha:

E[edit]

English (see also List of countries where English is an official language):

Estonian:

Ewe-Gbe:

F[edit]

Fijian:

Filipino:

Finnish:

Fon-Gbe:

Foodo:

Formosan:

French (see also List of countries where French is an official language):

Official language in:

Fula:

G[edit]

Ga:

Gàidhlig:

Gbe:

Gen-Gbe:

Georgian:

German:

Official language in 21 cantons:

Gonja:

Gourmanché

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

  • India

H[edit]

Haitian Creole:

Hakka:

Hassaniya:

Hausa:

Hebrew:

Hindi:

Hiri Motu:

Hungarian:

I[edit]

Igbo:

Icelandic:

Indonesian:

Irish:

Italian:

Official language in:

J[edit]

Japanese:

  • Japan (de facto)

Jola:

K[edit]

Kabye:

Kalanga:

Kannada:

  • India (with 21 other regional Languages, and with English as a link language)

Kanuri:

Kasem:

Kazakh:

Khmer:

Kinyarwanda:

Kirundi:

Kissi

Khoisan:

Korean:

Korean Sign Language:

Kpelle:

Kurdish:

Kyrgyz:

L[edit]

Lao:

Latvian:

Lithuanian:

Lukpa:

Luxembourgish:

M[edit]

Macedonian:

Malagasy:

Malay:

Malinke:

Maltese:

Mamara:

Manding (Mandinka, Malinke):

Mandinka:

Mandjak:

Mankanya:

Manx Gaelic:

Māori:

  • New Zealand (with English and New Zealand Sign Language)

Marshallese:

Mauritian Creole

Mbelime:

Moldovan

Mongolian:

Montenegrin:

Mossi:

N[edit]

Nambya:

Nateni:

Nauruan

Ndau:

Ndebele (Northern):

Ndebele (Southern):

Nepali:

New Zealand Sign Language:

  • New Zealand (with English and Māori)

Noon:

North Korean:

Northern Sotho:

Norwegian:

  • Norway (two official written forms - Bokmål and Nynorsk)

Nzema:

O[edit]

Oniyan:

Ossetian:

P[edit]

Palauan:

Papiamento:

Pashto:

Persian:

Polish:

Portuguese:

Punjabi:

Q[edit]

Quechua:

R[edit]

Romanian:

Romansh:

Russian:

S[edit]

Safen:

Samoa

Sango

Sena:

Serbian:

Serer:

Seychellois Creole

Shona:

Sinhala:

Slovak:

Slovene:

Somali:

Songhay-Zarma:

Soninke:

Sotho:

Spanish:

Susu:

Swahili:

Swati:

Swedish:

Syenara:

T[edit]

Tajik:

Tagalog:

Tamasheq:

Tamil:

Tammari:

Tasawaq:

Tebu:

Telugu:

Tetum:

Thai:

Tigrinya:

Tok Pisin:

Toma:

Tonga:

Tongan

Tsonga:

Tswana:

Turkish:

Turkmen:

Tuvaluan

U[edit]

Ukrainian:

Urdu:

  • Pakistan (with English)
  • Fiji (with English and Bau Fijian; known constitutionally as Hindustani as an umbrella term to cover Urdu, as well as Hindi.)

Uzbek:

V[edit]

Venda:

Vietnamese:

W[edit]

Waama:

Waci-Gbe:

Wamey:

Welsh:

Wolof:

X[edit]

Xhosa:

Xwela-Gbe:

Y[edit]

Yobe:

Yom:

Yoruba:

Z[edit]

Zimbabwean sign language:

Zulu:

Number of countries with the same official language[edit]

This is a ranking of languages by number of sovereign countries in which they are de jure or de facto official (or with a national language status).

Language World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Countries
English 59 24 16 4 3 12 India, United States, Pakistan, United Kingdom. See the full list
French 29 21 2 - 5 1 France, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Canada, Madagascar. See the full list
Arabic 27 14 - 13 - - Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Morocco. See the full list
Spanish 20 1 18 - 1 - Spain, Mexico, Equatorial Guinea, Easter Island in (Oceania). See the full list
Portuguese 10 6 1 2 1 - Brazil, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola. See full list
Russian 8 - - 3 5 - Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Abkhazia*, South Ossetia*, Transnistria*. See also the full list
German 7 1 - - 6 - Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Namibia
Fula 7 7 - - - - Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal
Italian 4 - - - 4 - Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City
Malay 4 - - 4 - - Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei
Manding 4 4 - - - - Burkina Faso (Dioula), Guinea (Malinke), Mali (Bambara), Senegal (Maninka)
Northern Sami 4 - - - 4 - Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia
Swahili 4 4 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Danish 3 - 1 - 2 - Denmark, Faroe Island*, Greenland*
Dutch 3 - 1 - 2 - Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname
Gbe 3 3 - - - - Benin, Ghana, Togo
Mandarin Chinese 3 - - 3 - - China, Singapore, Taiwan
Tamil 3 - - 3 - - India, Singapore, Sri Lanka
Persian 3 - - 3 - - Iran, Afghanistan (known as Dari), Tajikistan (known as Tajik)
Romanian 3 - - - 3 - Romania, Moldova, Transnistria*
Serbian 3 - - - 3 - Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*
Somali 3 3 - - - - Djibouti, Somalia, Somaliland*
Soninke 3 3 - - - - Mali, Mauritania, Senegal
Tswana 3 3 - - - - Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe
Bengali 3 1 - 2 - - Bangladesh, India, Sierra Leone*
Armenian 2 - - - 2 - Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh*
Aymara & Quechua 2 - 2 - - - Bolivia and Peru
Berber 2 2 - - - - Algeria and Morocco
Catalan 2 - - - 2 - Andorra and Spain
Chichewa 2 2 - - - - Malawi and Zimbabwe
Croatian 2 - - - 2 - Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Greek 2 - - - 2 - Greece and Cyprus
Hausa 2 2 - - - - Niger and Nigeria
Hindi 2 - - 1 - 1 India and Fiji
Korean 2 - - 2 - - North Korea and South Korea
Lingala 2 2 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo
Nepali 2 - - 2 - - India and Nepal
Samoan 2 - - - - 2 American Samoa and Samoa
Slovak 2 - - - 2 - Slovakia and Czech Republic
Songhay-Zarma 2 2 - - - - Mali, Niger
Sotho 2 2 - - - - Lesotho and South Africa
Swati 2 2 - - - - Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa
Swedish 2 - - - 2 - Sweden and Finland
Tamasheq 2 2 - - - - Mali and Niger
Tigrinya 2 2 - - - - Eritrea and Ethiopia
Turkish 2 - - - 2 - Turkey and Cyprus
Ukrainian 2 - - - 2 - Ukraine and Transnistria*
Venda 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Wolof 2 2 - - - - Mauritania and Senegal
Xhosa 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Guarani 2 - 2 - - - Paraguay and Bolivia
Finnish 1 - - - 1 - Finland
Norwegian 1 - - - 1 - Norway
Icelandic 1 - - - 1 - Iceland
Note
Asterisk shows the countries which independence is disputed

Official regional and minority languages[edit]

Abaza:

Adyghe:

Aghul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Aklanon:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[67]

Albanian:

Altay:

Arabic:

Aranese see Occitan

Armenian:

Assamese:

Avar:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Azeri:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Balkar:

Bashkir:

Basque:

Bengali:

Bikol:

  • Luzon and Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[67]

Bosnian:

Buryat:

Cantonese Chinese:

  • China:


Catalan:

Cebuano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[67]

Chavacano:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[67]

Chechen:

Cherkess:

Cherokee:

Chipewyan:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Chukchi:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Chukchi population)[75]

Chuvash

Cree:

  • Northwest Territories (with Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Crimean Tatar

  • Crimea (with Russian and Ukrainian)

Croatian:

Dargwa:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Dolgan:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Dolgan population)[75]

Dutch:

English:

  • parts of Canada:
  • The United Kingdom:

Erzya:

Even:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Even population)[75]

Evenki:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Evenki population)[75]

Faroese:

Finnish:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Karelian and Veps)[78]

French:

  • parts of Canada

Frisian (West):

Friulian:

  • The Friuli region of northeastern Italy

Gagauz:

Galician:

  • part of Spain

German:

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

Gwich'in:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Hawaiian:

Hiligaynon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[67]

Hindi:

Hungarian:

Ibanag:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[67]

Ilocano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan.)[67]

Ingush:

Inuinnaqtun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))
  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuktitut)

Inuktitut:

  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuinnaqtun)
  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Inuvialuktun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Irish:

Italian:

Ivatan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[67]

Japanese:

Kabardian

Kalaallisut:

Kalmyk:

Kannada:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Kapampangan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ibanag, Ivatan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[67]

Karachay:

Karelian:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Veps)[78]

Kashmiri:

Kazakh:

Khakas:

Khanty:

Kinaray-a:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[67]

Komi:

Komi-Permyak:

Korean:

Kumyk:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Kyrgyz:

Lak:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Lezgian

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Macedonian:*part of Albania

Maguindanao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[67]

Malayalam:

Mansi:

Maranao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[67]

Marathi:

Mari (Hill and Meadow):

Mayan:

Moksha:

Mongolian:

Náhuatl:

  • Mexico (*only recognized)
  • El Salvador (*only recognized)

Nenets:

Nepali:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Nogai:

Occitan:

Odia:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Ossetic (Digor and Iron dialects):

Pangasinan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[67]

Portuguese:*part of the People's Republic of China

Punjabi:

Romanian:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Ruthenian)

Russian. Russian is fixed as a state language in the Constitutions of the republics of the Russian Federation:

Rusyn:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak)
  • Ukraine
    • Zakarapts'ka region (with Ukrainian, Hungarian)

Rutul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Sakha:

Sambal:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Tagalog)[67]

Sami:

  • Finland (in four municipalities)
  • Norway (in six municipalities in two provinces)
  • Sweden (in four municipalities and surrounding municipalities)

Sanskrit:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Saraiki

Sarikoli:

Scottish Gaelic:

  • Scotland (United Kingdom) (with English and Scots)

Scots:

Selkup:

Serbian:

Sindhi:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)
  • Pakistan (Official language in the Province of Sindh along with Urdu and English)

North and South Slavey:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Slovak:

  • part of Serbia
  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Romanian and Ruthenian)

Slovene:

Spanish:

Surigaonon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[67]

Tabasaran:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Tagalog:

  • Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[67]

Tahitian:

Tamil:

Tat:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Tatar:

Tausug:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Maranao, and Yakan)[67]

Telugu:

Tibetan:

Tłįchǫ:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey)

Tsakhur:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[66]

Tswana:

Turkish:

Tuvan:

Udmurt:

Urdu:

Uyghur:

Veps:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Karelian)[78]

Vietnamese:

Waray:

Welsh:

  • Wales (United Kingdom) (with English)

Yakan:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Tausug)[67]

Yiddish:

Yukaghir:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Yukaghir population)[75]

Zhuang:

Official languages of supra-national institutions[edit]

Different organisations sometimes refer to their principal languages of administration and communication as "working languages", whilst others refer to these as being "official".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Section 6. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Article 14. Albanian Constitution". Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  3. ^ Article 5. Kosovo Constitution Archived 21 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ https://europeanwesternbalkans.com/2019/01/15/albanian-becomes-second-official-language-macedonia/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ Article 5. Ethiopian Constitution
  6. ^ a b Article 4. Constitution of Iraq Archived 13 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b Article 5. Constitution du Maroc Archived 18 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Loi n° 2001-037 du 31 décembre 2001 fixant les modalités de promotion et de développement des langues nationales
  9. ^ "Armenian Constitution (article 20, English Translation)".
  10. ^ Article 15. Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  11. ^ a b c d Artículo 5. Constitución Política del Estado
  12. ^ a b c Artículo 48. Constitución Política del Perú
  13. ^ Article 21. Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
  14. ^ a b Article 17. Constitution of the Republic of Belarus Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ 3. The state language. Constitution of Bangladesh Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "How Bengali became an official language in Sierra Leone". The Indian Express. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  17. ^ "Why Bangla is an official language in Sierra Leone". Dhaka Tribune. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  18. ^ Loi no02-03 du 27 Moharram 1423 correspondant au 10 avril 2002 portant révision constitutionnelle.
  19. ^ a b c Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Vanuatu
  20. ^ a b c Hilary Footitt; Michael Kelly (2012). Languages at War: Policies and Practices of Language Contacts in Conflict. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-230-36877-4.
  21. ^ Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria
  22. ^ Article 450. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  23. ^ Article 2. La Constitució del Principat d’Andorra
  24. ^ a b c d Articles 44, 53, 123. Constitution of the Republic of Singapore
  25. ^ a b c Formosan: "President lauds efforts in transitional justice for indigenous people". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 19 July 2017.. Hakka: "Hakka made an official language". Taipei Times. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Constitution of Zimbabwe 2013 Archived 5 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Africatime.com, 22 March 2013
  27. ^ Article 12. Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
  28. ^ a b c Article 16. Constitution of Afghanistan
  29. ^ Article 11. Constitution of the Republic of Maldives
  30. ^ Article 1. Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ a b c Section 4. Fiji Constitution
  32. ^ a b "Article 8. Constitution of Ireland 1937" (PDF). p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2012.
  33. ^ Article 152 - National Language and Other Languages, Constitution of Malaysia
  34. ^ a b Article 49. Constitution of Mauritius Archived 2 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Namibia - Constitution, servat.unibe.ch/icl (International Constitutional Law collection), 1990, retrieved 2 May 2008 (Article 3)
  36. ^ a b Article 18. Constitution de la République Centrafricaine
  37. ^ a b Article 5. La Constitution de la République d’Haïti
  38. ^ a b c d "CC 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 18 April 1999, Art. 4 National languages" (official site). Berne, Switzerland: The federal Council. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  39. ^ a b Article 8. Constitution of Georgia
  40. ^ a b c (in Russian) Статья 4. Конституция Республики Южная Осетия Archived 11 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ a b App. D., Part 1, Art. 3. Constitution of Cyprus
  42. ^ a b Artículo 140. Constituciones de la ública del Paraguay
  43. ^ a b c Article 55. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  44. ^ "Axis Translations". Axis Translations. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  45. ^ "Part XVII. Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  46. ^ Article H. Fundamental Law of Hungary
  47. ^ a b Article 36. Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Archived 28 June 2012 at WebCite
  48. ^ a b Article 7. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan Archived 20 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Article 5. Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia
  50. ^ a b Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-61069-018-8.
  51. ^ a b (in Russian) Статья 10. Конституция Кыргызской Республики
  52. ^ Article 13. Constitution of the Republic of Moldova
  53. ^ a b c Article 12. Constitution of the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica
  54. ^ a b c Article 2. Constitution of Tajikistan
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