List of offshore wind farms in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Offshore wind power is in the early stages of development in the United States. The first commercial offshore wind farm – the 30 megawatt (MW) Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island – only began operation in 2016. However, many more projects are now underway as developers realise the potential of this abundant resource. As of today, about 30 projects totalling 24 gigawatts (GW) of potential installed capacity are being planned.[1] The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the country has a gross resource potential of 10,800GW of offshore wind capacity, with a "technical" resource potential of 2,058GW.[2]

Overview[edit]

Offshore wind projects are under development in wind-rich areas of the U.S. East Coast, Great Lakes, and Pacific coast. In January 2012, a "Smart for the Start" regulatory approach was introduced, designed to expedite the siting process while incorporating strong environmental protections. Specifically, the Department of Interior approved “wind energy areas” off the coast where projects can move through the regulatory approval process more quickly.[3] The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) has released a cadastre web tool to illustrate suitability of Eastern seaboard areas.[4]

To comply with the Jones Act of US ships for US projects, specially built vessels for $300 million could economically supply a schedule of 4 GW projects over 10 years.[5]

The state of New York has set of target of 2,400 megawatts (MW) of offshore wind to be built by 2030. The neighbouring state of New Jersey is aiming for 3,500MW by that same date.[6] In 2016, an update to Massachusetts energy law committed the state to purchasing 1,600MW of offshore wind by 2027,[7] of which the first half was later awarded to Vineyard Wind (see project list below).[8]

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management[edit]

The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is a federal agency responsible for determining offshore areas where wind farms may be built on the Outer Continental Shelf.[9] It sells leases to qualified bidders.[10]

Experimental[edit]

North America’s first floating wind turbine was the 20kW Volturn US, which was lowered into the Penobscot River in Maine in 2013.[11][12][13][14]

Operational[edit]

The 30MW Block Island Wind Farm in Rhode Island is the first commercial offshore wind farm in the United States and started operation in December 2016.

Proposed projects[edit]

Federally funded[edit]

In May 2014, the United States Department of Energy chose three offshore wind projects to receive up to $47 million apiece over a four-year period:[15]

Privately funded[edit]

  • Bay State Wind (Massachusetts) – A proposal for offshore wind turbines generating at least 400MW and possibly up to 800MW of power, supplying either 250,000 or 500,000 homes in Massachusetts (depending on which proposal is accepted).[23]
  • Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind Project (Virginia) – A small project consisting of two wind turbines off the coast of Virginia Beach, generating a combined total of 12MW, built by Dong Energy for Dominion Energy. Potential for expansion of up to 2,000MW.[24]
  • Deepwater Wind South Fork (New York)[25] – 15 offshore turbines, to be constructed from 2019, with 90MW of power supplying 50,000 homes on Long Island. First operations in 2022.
  • Empire Wind (New York) – Early planning/concept (as of August 2018) for offshore wind turbines generating at least 1,000MW[26] and possibly up to 1,800MW[27] of power, supplying a million homes in New York by 2025.[28]
  • Revolution Wind (Rhode Island)[29] – 50 offshore turbines, to be constructed from 2020, with 400MW of power supplying Rhode Island. First operations in 2023.
  • Skipjack Wind Farm (Maryland)[30] – 15 offshore turbines, to be constructed from 2021, with 120MW of power supplying 35,000 homes on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. First operations in 2022.
  • US Wind (Maryland) – A plan for offshore wind turbines generating at least 250MW[31] and possibly up to 600MW[32] of power supplying homes in Maryland. Planning approval expected in 2019.[33]
  • US Wind (New Jersey) – Early planning/concept (as of August 2018) for offshore wind turbines in the New York Bight generating at least 1,500MW[34] and possibly up to 2,230MW[35] of power supplying homes in New Jersey.
  • Vineyard Wind (Massachusetts)[36] – 100 offshore turbines, to be constructed from 2019, with 800MW of power supplying up to 450,000 homes. First operations in 2021.

Abandoned, postponed or decommissioned[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "4 Emerging Trends in U.S. Offshore Wind Technologies". U.S. Department of Energy. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Computing America's Offshore Wind Energy Potential". U.S. Department of Energy. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  3. ^ Kit Kennedy (2 February 2012). "Offshore Wind One Step Closer to Reality in the Mid-Atlantic". Renewable Energy World.
  4. ^ Offshore Wind Development - Site Suitability Prototype National Ocean Service. Accessed: 4 February 2011. Archived June 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "U.S. Jones Act Compliant Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel Study" October 2017
  6. ^ "Two big wind farms to rise off coast of Martha's Vineyard". Boston Globe. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Offshore wind finally gets blowing in the US". Vox. 14 June 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  8. ^ "After a decade of dithering, the US east coast went all in on offshore wind power this week". Quartz. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  9. ^ "State Activities". boem.gov. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  10. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/30/business/energy-environment/offshore-wind-farm-leases-draw-few-bids-from-wary-industry.html?_r=0
  11. ^ "VolturnUS 1:8 Launched: Maine Brings U.S. Offshore Wind Dream to Reality". Offshore Wind. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  12. ^ Danko, Pete. "First US Floating Wind Turbine Launches In Maine". EarthTechling. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
  13. ^ "Renewable energy: Wind power tests the waters". Nature News & Comment. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  14. ^ "America's First Floating Wind Turbine". climate.org. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  15. ^ "Seattle firm wins $47 million grant for Oregon offshore wind farm". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Atlantic City Windfarm - Fishermen's Energy - The Future of Energy in New Jersey". fishermensenergy.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  17. ^ a b "Wind power or hot air? Foes question Christie's shift on clean energy". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  18. ^ a b Veselina Petrova. "Fishermen's Energy breaks ground on 25-MW offshore wind farm - SeeNews Renewables". seenews.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  19. ^ Elizabeth Harball, ClimateWire. "Floating Wind Turbines Coming to Oregon Coast". scientificamerican.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Principle Power - News and Press - Press Releases". principlepowerinc.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  21. ^ Damian Carrington. "Drifting off the coast of Portugal, the frontrunner in the global race for floating windfarms". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Dominion Awarded $47 Million by DOE for Offshore Wind Turbine Demonstration Project". mediaroom.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Project Benefits". Bay State Wind. 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  24. ^ Geuss, Megan (13 July 2017). "Virginia utility agrees to install two offshore wind turbines for study". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  25. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-07-14/largest-u-s-offshore-wind-farm-to-be-built-off-long-island
  26. ^ "Equinor's Empire Wind". Equinor. 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Empire Wind Offshore Wind Farm". US Wind. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  28. ^ "After an Uncertain Start, U.S. Offshore Wind Is Powering Up". Yale. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  29. ^ "After a decade of dithering, the US east coast went all in on offshore wind power this week". Quartz. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  30. ^ "Skipjack Offshore Wind Farm". 4C Offshore. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  31. ^ "Our Projects". US Wind. 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  32. ^ "Maryland - US Wind Inc Offshore Wind Farm". 4C Offshore. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  33. ^ "Company to explore ocean floor off Maryland's coast for offshore wind farm". The Washington Post. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  34. ^ "Our Projects". US Wind. 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  35. ^ "New Jersey - US Wind Inc Offshore Wind Farm". 4C Offshore. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  36. ^ "Two big wind farms to rise off coast of Martha's Vineyard". Boston Globe. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  37. ^ "After a decade of dithering, the US east coast went all in on offshore wind power this week". Quartz. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  38. ^ "Agreement Reached On Del. Wind Farm," Washington Post. June 24, 2008; retrieved 13 Dec 2010.
  39. ^ a b Nathans, Aaron. "Two years after Bluewater, offshore wind takes baby steps" Delaware Online, November 30, 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  40. ^ Nathans, Aaron. "Maryland takes step closer to offshore wind turbines" Delaware Online, August 20, 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  41. ^ "New Jersey wind power project begins construction". elp.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  42. ^ Lowe, Claire (30 June 2017). "Without funding, offshore wind project for AC hangs in limbo". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  43. ^ "UMaine's Offshore Wind Energy Pilot Project Wins Initial Ok," Bangor Daily News. Jan 14, 2014; retrieved 23 May 2014.
  44. ^ "Offshore wind turbine launched in Castine - Photo - Penobscot Bay Press". Castine Patriot. Retrieved 20 May 2015.

External links[edit]