List of oldest continuously inhabited cities
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This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited. The age claims listed are generally disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuous habitation" and historical evidence is often disputed. Caveats (and sources) to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.
Northern and the Horn
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Luxor (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes)||Ancient Egypt||Egypt||c. 3200 BC||First established as capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period.|
|Annaba (as Hippo Regius)||Numidia||Algeria||12th century BC||Founded by the Phoenicians in the 12th century BC, it is the birthplace of St. Augustine of Hippo[better source needed]|
|Tripoli (as Oea)||Libya||c. 700 BC||Founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians.|
|Constantine (as Cirta)||Algeria||c. 600 BC||Founded in the 6th century BC, by the Phoenicians.[better source needed]|
|Benghazi (as Euesperides)||Cyrenaica||Libya||c. 525 BC||Founded in the 5th century BC, by the Greeks.|
|Tangier||Carthage||Morocco||c. 500 BC||Founded by the Carthageans, later chief city of the Roman Province of Mauretania Tingitana.|
|Axum||Kingdom of Axum||Ethiopia||c. 400 BC||Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum.|
|Berbera||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||c. 400 BC||The city was described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which was written by a Greek merchant in the 1st century AD.|
|Alexandria||Ancient Egypt||Egypt||332 BC||Founded by Alexander the Great.|
|Mogadishu||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||c. 200 BC||Successor of the ancient trading power of Sarapion.|
|Djenné-Jeno||Mali||c. 200 BC||One of the oldest known cities in sub-Saharan Africa.|
|Old Cairo||Egypt||Egypt||c. 100 AD||Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of Emperor Trajan, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo[unreliable source?].|
|Zeila/Avalite||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||1st century AD||Major trading city in the Horn of Africa.|
|Kismayo||Bilad al-Barbar, after the 13th century part of the Ajuran Empre||Somalia||4th century||The Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement and expanded to a major trading city on the Somali coast.|
|Fes (as Fes-al-Bali)||Morocco||789||Founded as the new capital of the Idrisid Dynasty.|
|Marrakesh (Murakuc)||Morocco||1070||Founded by the Almoravid Dynasty.[unreliable source?]|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Igodomigodo||Kingdom of Benin||Nigeria||c. 400 BC||City of Benin, the oldest cities in Nigeria.|
|Ife||Osun State||Nigeria||c. 350 BC||Earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.|
|Zanzibar||Swahili Coast||Tanzania||1st–3rd centuries AD||A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς), which is probably Unguja, an island suburb of the city.|
|Walata||Ghana Empire||Mauritania||7th-10th centuries||A Mande Soninke town founded during the apogee of the Ghana Empire. It would remain a relevant, even dominant, trade town until being supplanted Timbuktu in the 15th Century.|
|Sofala||Swahili Coast||Mozambique||c. 700||One of the oldest harbours documented in Southern Africa.|
|Pate||Swahili Coast||Kenya||8th century||According to the Pate Chronicle, the town of Pate was founded by refugees from Oman in the 8th century.|
|Mombasa||Swahili Coast||Kenya||900||The strategic location of this historical Swahili trading centre has seen it fall under the control of many countries.|
|Moroni||Swahili Coast||Comoros||10th century||Founded, possibly during the 10th century, as the capital of a sultanate connected commercially to Zanzibar in Tanzania.|
|Kano||Kano State||Nigeria||11th century||The foundation for the construction of Kano City Walls was laid by Sakri Gijimasu from 1095 – 1134, and was completed in the middle of the 14th century during the reign of Zamnagawa.|
|Timbuktu||Mali Empire||Mali||11th century||Settled by Tuareg traders as an outpost, its incorporation into the Mali Empire and Mande, Soninke, and Songhai settlement from the 13th century rapidly developed the town.|
|Malindi||Swahili Coast||Kenya||13th–14th centuries||Once rivaled only by Mombasa for dominance in this part of East Africa, it was first referenced in writing by Abu al-Fida (1273–1331), a Kurdish geographer and historian.|
|Quelimane||Swahili Coast||Mozambique||1400||One of the oldest towns in the region, one tradition says that Vasco da Gama, in 1498, enquired about the name of the place from workers in the fields outside the settlement.|
|Tanga||Swahili Coast||Tanzania||1500||The earliest documentation about Tanga roots from the Portuguese who established a trading post as part of their East African coastal territory and controlled the region for over 200 years between 1500 and 1700.|
|Lagos||Kingdom of Benin||Nigeria||16th century||Initially established as a war camp for soldiers from the Kingdom of Benin.|
|Ouidah||Kingdom of Whydah||Benin||16th century||The primary port of the Kingdom of Whydah, originally called Glehue by the Fon inhabitants. The town was conquered by the Kingdom of Dahomey in the 18th century and eventually exported more than 1 million slaves.|
|Cape Town||Dutch East India Company||South Africa||1652||Founded by Dutch settlers from Dutch East India Company and is the oldest city in South Africa.|
|Kumasi||Ashanti Empire||Ghana||c. 1680||Founded as Akan village and capital of the Kumaseman State, later becoming capital of Ashanti Empire.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Cholula||Old Cholula||Mexico||2nd century BC||Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabited city in the Americas.|
|Flores||Maya civilisation, then New Spain||Guatemala||1st millennium BC||Formerly Nojpetén, the capital of the Itza kingdom, it has been occupied continuously since prehispanic times. Earliest archaeological traces date back to 900–600 BC, with major expansion of the settlement occurring around 250–400 AD. Ethnohistoric documents claim the founding of Nojpetén in the mid-15th century AD.|
|Oraibi, Arizona||Puebloan peoples||US||c. 1100 AD|
|Acoma Pueblo||Puebloan peoples||US||c. 1200|
|Tucson||Hohokam||US||c. 1300||Hohokam village founded at the base of Sentinel Peak, later Tohono O'odam. Afterwards, became a Spanish presidio.|
|Mexico City||Mexica culture||Mexico||1325||Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Name changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.|
|Santo Domingo||New Spain||Dominican Republic||1496||Oldest European settlement in the New World.|
|San Juan||New Spain||Puerto Rico||1508||Oldest continuously inhabited city in a US territory.|
|Nombre de Dios, Colón||New Spain||Panama||1510||Oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in continental America.|
|Baracoa||New Spain||Cuba||1511||Oldest European settlement in Cuba.|
|Havana||New Spain||Cuba||1519||Oldest major city in Cuba, established 1515, granted city status in 1592 by Philip II of Spain as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies".|
|Veracruz||New Spain||Mexico||1519||Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in the North American continent.|
|Panama City||Cueva Civilisation. After European colonisation: New Spain||Panama||1519||Oldest European settlement on the Pacific.|
|St. Augustine, Florida||New Spain||US||1565||Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city of the current 50 U.S. states; oldest city in state of Florida.|
|Santa Fe, New Mexico||New Spain||US||1607||Oldest continuously inhabited state or territorial capital in the continental United States.|
|Quebec City||New France||Canada||1608||Oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas.|
|Hopewell, Virginia||Virginia Company||US||1613||Founded as Bermuda City in 1613 and later known as City Point, Virginia, this location has undergone several name changes but has remained continuously inhabited.|
|Albany, New York||New Netherlands||US||1614||Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and did not become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)|
|Plymouth, Massachusetts||Plymouth Colony||US||1620||Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States|
|St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||Newfoundland Colony||Canada||c. 1630||Some claims to being the oldest city in Canada. Incorporated in 1883; inhabited continuously since sometime after 1630.|
|Saint John||New France||Canada||1631||Oldest incorporated city in Canada.|
|Trois-Rivières||New France||Canada||1634||Fourth oldest city in Canada.|
|Montreal||New France||Canada||1642||Fifth oldest city in Canada.|
|Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan||New France||US||1668||Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest US city west of the Appalachian Mountains.|
|Philadelphia County||Pennsylvania Colony||US||1681|
|Detroit, Michigan||New France||US||1701||First European settlement above tidewater in North America.|
|Winnipeg||British America||Canada||1738||Founded as Fort Rouge. Oldest city in the Canadian Prairies.|
|San Diego||New Spain||US||1769||Birthplace of California and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States.|
|Victoria||British North America||Canada||1843||Oldest city on the West Coast of Canada.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Quito||Quitu culture||Ecuador||980||Quito's origins date back to 2000 BC,[dubious ] when the Quitu tribe occupied the area.|
|Cusco||Inca Empire||Peru||c. 1100[dubious ]||The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Incas in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, has demonstrated that the Killke culture constructed the fortress about 1100.|
|Cumaná||New Granada||Venezuela||1515||Oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continent.|
|Santa Marta||New Granada||Colombia||1525||Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia.|
|São Vicente, São Paulo||Governorate General of Brazil||Brazil||1532||First Portuguese settlement in South America.|
|Piura||Peru||Peru||1532||Oldest European-founded city in Peru.|
|Lima||Peru||Peru||1535||Second oldest continuously inhabited European-settled capital city in South America.|
|Cali||New Granada||Colombia||1536||On 25 July 1536 Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali, first established a few kilometres north of the present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío.|
|Santiago||Captaincy General of Chile||Chile||1541||Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Chile.|
|Santiago del Estero||Río de la Plata||Argentina||1553||Oldest continuously inhabited city in Argentina.|
Central and Southern
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Varanasi||Kashi||Uttar Pradesh, India||1800 BC||Recent excavations at Aktha and Ramnagar, two sites very near to Varanasi, show them to be from 1800 BC.|
|Allahabad (Prayag)||Vatsa||Uttar Pradesh, India||1750 BC||Archaeological sites in India, such as Kosambi and Jhusi near Allahabad in present-day Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period 1800–1200 BC.Kosambi or Kaushambi was an important city in ancient India, located on the Yamuna River about 56 kilometres (35 mi) southwest of its confluence with the Ganges at Prayag (modern Allahabad).|
|Balkh (as Bactra)||Bactria||Balkh Province, Afghanistan||1500 BC|
|Kabul||Gandhara||Kabul, Afghanistan||c. 1170 BC|
|Samarqand||Sogdiana||Uzbekistan||700 BC|
|Ujjain||Malwa||Madhya Pradesh, India||c. 600 BC.||Rose to prominence in c. 600 BC as capital of Avanti.|
|Rajagriha (Rajgir)||Magadha||Bihar, India||600 BC|
|Vaisali||Magadha||Bihar, India||500 BC[unreliable source?]|
|Patna||Magadha||Bihar, India||5th century BC||As Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru.|
|Anuradhapura||Kingdom of Rajarata||North Central Province, Sri Lanka||4th century BC|
|Madurai||Pandyan Kingdom||Tamil Nadu, India||3rd century BC||Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire.|
|Peshawar||Gandhara||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||2nd century BC||Ongoing excavations in the Gor Khuttree region have uncovered evidence of the earliest building in the city.|
|Bamyan||Bactria||Bamyan Province, Afghanistan||1st century AD|
|Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur||Nepal||Kathmandu valley, Nepal||2nd century AD||The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century.|
|Tiruvannamalai||Pallava dynasty or Hoysala Empire||Tamil Nadu, India||9th century||The recorded history of the town dates back to the ninth century, as seen from a Chola inscriptions in the temple.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Yanshi, Henan (Erlitou Site)||Xia dynasty (Erlitou culture)||Henan, China||c. 1900 BC|
|Luoyang (as Xibo, Luoyi, Zhongguo, Henan, Dongdu, Shendu)||Shang Dynasty||Henan, China||c. 1600 BC|
|Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Jingzhao, Daxing)||Zhou Dynasty||Shaanxi, China||c. 1100 BC|
|Handan||Jin||Hebei, China||c. 1080 BC|
|Beijing (as Ji, Youzhou, Fanyang, Yanjing, Zhongdu, Dadu)||Ji, Yan||Beijing, China||c. 1045 BC||Paleolithic homo sapiens lived in the caves from about 27,000 to 10,000 years ago.|
|Zibo (as Yingqiu, Linzi, Qiling, Zichuan, Boping)||Qi||Shandong, China||c. 1045 BC||The Lord of Qi, Jiang Ziya, set the capital of his manor at Yingqiu(营丘), which is today's Linzi District.|
|Jingzhou (as Jinan, Yingdu, Jiangling, Jingsha, Nanjun)||Chu||Hubei, China||c. 689 BC|
|Hefei (as Luyi, Ruyin, Luzhou, Hezhou, Lujiang)||Zhou Dynasty||Anhui, China||c. 650 BC||The Viscount of Lu was asked to set the capital of his manor at Luyi(庐邑), which is in the north of today's downtown Hefei.|
|Suzhou (as Gusu, Wu, Pingjiang)||Wu||Jiangsu, China||514 BC|
|Taiyuan (as Jinyang)||Jin||Shanxi, China||c. 497 BC|
|Nanjing (as Yecheng, Moling, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling, Yingtian, Jiangning)||Wu||Jiangsu, China||c. 495 BC||Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.|
|Chengdu||Shu||Sichuan, China||c. 400 BC||The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.|
|Changsha (as Linxiang, Xiangzhou, Tanzhou, Tianlin)||Chu||Hunan, China||c. 365 BC|
|Kaifeng (as Daliang, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing)||Wei||Henan, China||c. 364 BC||The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁）as its capital in this area.|
|Liaoyang (as Xiangping, Changping, Liaodong, Pingzhou, Liaozhou, Dongdu, Dongjing)||Yan||Liaoning, China||c. 279 BC|
|Guangzhou (as Panyu)||Qin Dynasty||Guangdong, China||214 BC|
|Hangzhou (as Lin'an, Yuhang, Qiantang)||Qin Dynasty||Zhejiang, China||c. 200 BC||The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.|
|Pyeongyang (as Wanggeom-seong)||Gojoseon||North Korea||194 BC||Built as the capital city of Gojoseon in 194 BC.|
|Gyeongju||Silla||South Korea||57 BC||Built as the capital city of Silla in 57 BC.|
|Seoul (as Wiryeseong)||Baekjae||South Korea||18 BC||Built as the capital city of Baekjae in 18 BC.|
|Osaka (as Naniwa)||Japan||Japan||c. 400 AD||It was inhabited as early at the 6th–5th centuries BC, and became a port city during the Kofun period. It temporarily served as the capital of Japan from 645 to 655.|
|Nara (as Heijō-kyō)||Japan||Japan||710||Built as a new capital city in 710.|
|Kyoto (as Heian-kyō, and sometimes known in the west as Miyako)||Japan||Japan||794||Shimogamo Shrine was built in the 6th century, but the city was officially founded as Heian-kyō when it became the capital in 794.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Jakarta||Tarumanagara||Indonesia||397 AD||Despite the popular believe that Jakarta (Jayakarta) was founded by Demak Sultanate in 1527 AD, Jakarta is the oldest and the biggest city in the South East Asia region. The area of North Jakarta around Tugu area was inhabited far earlier since early 5th century. Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentioned King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.|
|Hanoi||Jiaozhou||Vietnam||454||First mentioned as Tống Bình in 454 AD, the Đại La citadel was built in 767 during the reign of Emperor Daizong of Tang; Ly Cong Uan renamed it Thăng Long in 1010.|
|Palembang||Srivijaya||Indonesia||683||Believed to be the oldest city in the Malay realm, capital of the Srivijaya empire. According to Kedukan Bukit inscription Jayanasa established Srivijaya kingdom in Palembang area.|
|Luang Prabang||Muang Sua||Laos||698|
|Yogyakarta||Mataram Kingdom||Indonesia||732||The historic realm of Mataram of Southern Central Java region, which corresponds to today Yogyakarta city and its surrounding has its root in 8th century Mataram Kingdom. According to Canggal inscription dated 732, the area traditionally known as "Mataram" became the capital of the Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya. The city reestablished again as the capital of Mataram Sultanate in 1587, and Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1755.|
|Siem Reap||Khmer Empire||Cambodia||801||Capital of the Khmer Empire.|
|Magelang||Mataram||Indonesia||907||Magelang was established on 11 April 907. Magelang was then known as a village called Mantyasih, which is now known as Meteseh.|
|Bandar Seri Begawan||Po-ni and Bruneian Empire||Brunei||977||Oldest city in Borneo.|
|Butuan||Rajahnate of Butuan||Philippines||1001||Oldest continuously inhabited city in Mindanao.|
|Kediri||Kediri Kingdom||Indonesia||1042||Along with changes in name, it is essentially a union of the two capitals of Panjalu Kingdom and Janggala Kingdom. The settlements are always interspersed along both banks of Brantas River. Administratively, the Government of Indonesia divides Kediri into two political entities, Kediri Regency and the Town of Kediri which is located in the middle of the regency. Nevertheless, archaeological remains exist beyond administrative boundaries and settlements often spread disregarding administrative boundaries between both entities.|
|Yangon||Konbaung Dynasty||Myanmar||1043||Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century (circa 1028–1043) by the Mon but was renamed to "Yangon" after King Alaungpaya conquered Dagon.|
The port city of Janggala or Hujung Galuh was one of the two Javanese capital city that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons in 1045.:147 The Kingdom of Janggala comprised the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. The other Kingdom was Kediri. Derived its name from the words "suro" (shark) and "boyo" (crocodile), two creatures which are in a local myth.
|Singhapala||Rajahnate of Cebu||Philippines||1200||Ancient city founded by Sri Rajahmura Lumaya or Sri Lumay , a half Tamil Chola prince. now part of Barangay Mabolo in Northern district of Cebu City.|
|Banda Aceh||Aceh Sultanate||Indonesia||1205||
Originally named Kutaraja, which means "City of the King".
|Manila||Tondo and Rajahnate of Maynila||Philippines||1258||A settlement in the Manila area already existed by the year 1258. This settlement was ruled by Rajah Avirjirkaya whom described as a "Majapahit Suzerain". This settlement was attacked by a Bruneian commander named Rajah Ahmad, who defeated Avirjirkaya and established Manila as a "Muslim principality". By 1570, when the Spanish, led by Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one Lakan and several Rajahs.|
|Phnom Penh||Khmer Empire||Cambodia||1372|
|Hội An||Nguyễn dynasty||Vietnam||14th century|
|Teluk Intan||Perak Sultanate||Malaysia||1511|
|Cebu||Rajahnate of Cebu and New Spain||Philippines||1565||Regarded as the oldest established city in the Philippines. Founded after a peace treaty was signed between the Rajahnate of Cebu and the Spanish Empire.|
|Medan||Sultanate of Deli||Indonesia||1590|
|Oudong||Kingdom of Cambodia||Cambodia||1601|
|Makassar||Sultanate of Gowa||Indonesia||1607|
|Klang||Johor-Riau Sultanate||Malaysia||1643||Klang remained under Johor's control until 1742.|
|Bangkok||Ayutthaya Kingdom||Thailand||1688||Modern Bangkok was built after the Siege of Bangkok from French imperialists.|
|Alor Setar||Kedah Sultanate||Malaysia||1735||
Founded in 1735 by Kedah's 19th Ruler, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II and is the state's eighth administrative centre since the establishment of the Kedah Sultanate in 1136.
|Dili||Portuguese Timor||East Timor||1769||Dili was settled about 1520 by the Portuguese, who made it the capital of Portuguese Timor in 1769.|
|George Town||Straits Settlements||Malaysia||1786||Founded by Sir Captain Francis Light after the Penang was ceded from Kedah to British Colony.|
Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Damascus, Byblos, Aleppo, Jericho, Sidon and Beirut).
Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited as a "city" since||Notes|
|Damascus||Levant||Syria||Chalcolithic; 3rd millennium BC||Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. Excavations at Tell Ramad on the outskirts of the city have demonstrated that the general area was inhabited as early as 9000 BC. However, it is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Aramaeans.|
|Byblos (Jubayl)||Levant||Lebanon||Chalcolithic; 3000 BC||Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000), a city since the 3rd millennium BC. Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).|
|Gaziantep||Anatolia||Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey||c. 3650 BC||Although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact. Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC.|
|Jericho||Levant||Palestine||1st millennium BC||Traces of habitation from 9000 BC. Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.
|Rey||Media||Iran||3000 BC||A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism) as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.|
|Jerusalem (Old City)||Levant||Israel/Palestine||2800 BC|
|Jenin||Levant||Palestine||c. 2450 BC||Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the Canaanites. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city.|
|Aleppo||Levant||Syria||2nd millennium BC|
|Homs||Levant||Syria||possibly early 3rd century BC||May have been founded by Seleucus I Nicator|
|Erbil||Mesopotamia||Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq||2300 BC||The Citadel of Arbil is a fortified settlement in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. The city corresponds to ancient Arbela. Settlement at Erbil (kurdish: Hewlêr) can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, but not urban life until c. 2300.|
|Kirkuk (as Arrapha)||Mesopotamia||Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq||3000–2200 BC|
|Jaffa||Levant||Israel||c. 2000 BC||Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.|
|Sidon||Levant||Lebanon||2nd millennium BC||Sidon becomes a city-state during the 2nd millennium BC.|
|Hebron||Levant||Palestine||c. 1500 BC||"Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously inhabited for nearly 3500 years."|
|Gaza||Levant||Palestine||c. 1000 BC||While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.|
|Hamadan (as Ecbatana)||Media||Iran||c. 800 BC|
|Yerevan||Urartu||Armenia||782 BC||Founded as Erebuni. The Shengavit Settlement in the southwestern district of Yerevan was founded in the late 4th millennium BC, during the Calcolithic period.|
|Tabriz||Caucasus||Iran||3rd-7th century AD||The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century.|
|Yazd||Media||Iran||5th century AD||It has long been a haven for Zoroastrians.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Sydney||New South Wales||Australia||1788||Oldest city in Australia and oldest city in Oceania. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years, in the Upper Paleolithic period. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools found in Sydney's far western suburbs' gravel sediments were dated to be from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would mean that humans could have been in the region earlier than thought. The first people to occupy the Sydney region were an Indigenous Australian group called the Eora.|
|Hobart||Tasmania||Australia||1803||Second oldest city in Australia. Prior to British settlement, the area had been occupied for at least 8,000 years, but possibly for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.|
|George Town||Tasmania||Australia||1804||Third oldest city in Australia.|
|Newcastle||New South Wales||Australia||1804||Fourth oldest city in Australia.|
|Launceston||Tasmania||Australia||1806||Fifth oldest city in Australia.|
|Kerikeri||Northland||New Zealand||c. 1818||Oldest European-founded settlement in New Zealand.|
|Bluff||Southland||New Zealand||1824||Previously known as Campbelltown, the oldest European-founded settlement in the South Island.|
|Brisbane||Queensland||Australia||1825||Oldest city in Northern Australia, State Capital.|
|Albany||Western Australia||Australia||1827||Oldest city in the West Coast of Australia.|
|Perth||Western Australia||Australia||1829||The area had been inhabited by the Whadjuk Noongar people for over 40,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological findings on the Upper Swan River.|
|Melbourne||Victoria||Australia||1835||Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was occupied for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 20,000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.|
|Adelaide||South Australia||Australia||1836||State Capital.|
|Wellington||Wellington Region||New Zealand||1839||New Zealand's capital city from 1865 until the present day.|
|Auckland||Auckland Region||New Zealand||1840||New Zealand's capital city from 1841 - 1865.|
|Darwin||Northern Territory||Australia||1869||Territory Capital.|
|Canberra||Australian Capital Territory||Australia||1913||Capital city of Australia. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in Canberra dating at around 21,000 years ago.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Argos||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||Greece||6th–5th millennium BC||The city has been cycling between village and city status for 7,000 years. Recorded history begins in latter 1st millennium BC.|
|Athens||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||Attica, Greece||5th–4th millennium BC[page needed]||Recorded history begins in 1400 BC.|
|Plovdiv||Thrace||Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria||2nd-1st millennium BC||Thracian foundation, conquered by Phillip II of Macedon in 342 BC.|
|Chania||Crete||Crete, Greece||c. 1700–1500 BC[unreliable source?]||Minoan foundation as Kydonia.|
|Thebes||Mycenaean Greece||Boeotia, Greece||c. 1600–1250 BC||Mycenaean foundation.|
|Larnaca||Alashiya||Cyprus||c. 1400 BC||Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony.|
|Trikala||Mycenaean Greece||Thessaly, Greece||before 1200 BC||Founded as Trikke.|
|Chalcis||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||before 1200 BC||Mentioned by Homer.|
|Lisbon||Iron Age Iberia||Portugal||c. 1200 BC||A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).|
|Cádiz||Iron Age Iberia||Andalusia, Spain||1100 BC||founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city". It has archaeological remains dating to 3100 years.|
|Patras||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||c. 1100 BC||Founded by Patreus.|
|Chios||Chios||North Aegean, Greece||c. 1100 BC|
|Nicosia||Mycenaean Greece||Cyprus||c. 1050 BC||Mycenaean foundation as Ledra. Archeological evidence of continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC.|
|Zadar||Illyricum||Croatia||c. 1000 BC||Founded by Liburnians. Oldest continuously inhabited city in Croatia. Main Liburnian settlement.|
|Mtskheta||Caucasian Iberia||Georgia||c. 1000 BC||Remains of towns at this location have been dated to earlier than the year 1000 BC, and Mtskheta was capital of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia during the 3rd century BC – 5th century AD. It was the site of early Christian activity, and the location where Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia in 337.|
|Mytilene||Lesbos||North Aegean, Greece||10th century BC|
|Vani||Colchis||Imereti, Georgia||before 8th century BC|
|Seville||Iron Age Iberia||Andalusia, Spain||8th century BC||founded as Tartessian Spal.|
|Málaga||Iron Age Iberia||Andalusia, Spain||8th century BC||founded as Phoenician Malaka.[page needed]|
|Mdina||Antiquity Malta||Malta||8th century BC||founded as Phoenician Melite.|
|Cagliari||Sardinia||Sardinia, Italy||8th century BC||Founded by Phoenicians from Tyre as Krly, Caralis in Roman times, Callaris in Middle Ages.|
|Messina (as Zancle)||Sicily||Sicily, Italy||8th century BC|
|Rome||Latium||Lazio, Italy||753 BC||Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.|
|Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion)||Magna Graecia||Calabria, Italy||743 BC||Continuous habitation since approximately 1500 BC, as we have notice about the Ausonian-Italic pre-Greek settlement and about the sculptor Léarchos of Reggio (late 15th century BC) and King Iokastos (early 13th century BC).|
|Palermo (as זִיז, Ziz)||Phoenicia||Sicily, Italy||734 BC||Settlement presence since approximately 8000 BC, as we know through cave drawings in the area now known as Addaura, but continuous documented habitation since the Phoenician times (734 BC is traditionally considered as the founding year).|
|Syracuse||Sicily||Sicily, Italy||734 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.|
|Volterra||Tuscany||Tuscany, Italy||c. 725 BC||An Etruscan mining settlement.|
|Crotone (as Kroton)||Calabria||Magna Graecia, Italy||710 BC||Greek colony.|
|Taranto (as Taras)||Magna Graecia||Apulia, Italy||706 BC||Founded as the only Spartan colony by the Partheniae, children of unmarried Spartan women and perioikoi, free non-citizen residents of Sparta and her territories.|
|Corfu, Kerkyra||Corfu||Ionian Islands, Greece||700 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.|
|Kerch (as Panticapaeum)||pre-Roman Crimea||Region of Ukraine occupied by Russia||7th century BC||Greek colony.|
|Feodosiya (as Theodosia)||pre-Roman Crimea||Region of Ukraine occupied by Russia||7th century BC||Greek colony.|
|Istanbul/Byzantion||Thrace Anatolia||Turkey||685 BC Anatolia; 667 BC Thrace||Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC. Greek colony.|
|Naples||Magna Graecia||Italy||c. 680 BC||Actually the date at which an older settlement close by, called Parthenope, was founded by settlers from Cumae. This eventually merged with Neapolis proper, which was founded c. 470 BC.|
|Ibiza (as 'Ybsm)||Balearic Islands||Spain||654 BC||Founded by the Phoenicians, according to Diodorus Siculus, book 5, chap. 16. Date consistent with archaeological finds.|
|Durrës||Illyria||Albania||627–625 BC||Formerly Epidamnos.|
|Sozopol||Thrace||Burgas Province, Bulgaria||610 BC||Founded by Miletian colonists around 610 BCE, was named Apollonia Pontica in honour of the patron deity of Miletus - Apollo. The Ancient authors identify the philosopher named Anaximander as the founder of the city.|
|Edessa, Greece||Macedonia||Greece||before the 6th century BC||Greek city, capital of the kingdom of Macedon up to the 6th century BC.|
|Marseilles (as Massilia)||Gaul||France||600 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea.|
|Kavala||Macedonia||Greece||6th century BC||Greek colony. Founded as Neapolis.|
|Mangalia||Dacia||Romania||6th century BC||Founded as Callatis.|
|Constanţa||Dacia||Romania||6th century BC||Founded as Tomis.|
|Mantua||Po Valley||Lombardy, Italy||6th century BC||Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.|
|Milan||Po Valley, Cisalpine Gaul||Lombardy, Italy||6th century BC||Founded by the Insubres in the 6th century BC according to Titus Livy. Conquered by the Romans in 222 BC.|
|Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (as Tyras)||Pontic Greeks||Bessarabia, Ukraine||6th century BC|
|Kutaisi||Colchis||Imereti province, Georgia||6th to 4th century BC||Archaeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis in the sixth to fifth centuries BC.|
|Varna||Thrace||Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria||585-570 BC||Founded as Odessos by settlers from the Greek city of Miletus.|
|Sant Martí d'Empúries (as Emporion)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||c. 575 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea. Present Sant Martí is on the ancient Palaiopolis of Emporion, in an island next to the coast; in 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis: Palaiapolis remained as a small neighbourhood.|
|Lamia||Greece||before the 5th century BC||Greek city. First mentioned 424 BC|
|Serres||Macedonia||Greece||5th century BC||Greek city. First mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris.|
|Veria||Macedonia||Greece||c. 432 BC||Greek city. First mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC.|
|Rhodes||Rhodes, Aegean Sea||Dodecanese, Greece||c. 408 BC||Greek city.|
|Sofia||Moesia||Sofia Valley, Bulgaria||4th century BC||Celtic foundation as Serdica.|
|Metz||Gaul||France||4th century BC||Founded as the oppidum of Celtic Mediomatrici. However, Human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC.|
|Roses (as Rhode)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||4th century BC||The exactly origin of the city is unknown, but there are remains of a Greek colony from the 4th century BC, although some historians consider the foundation earlier, at the 8th century BC. However, permanent human presence has been established in the site since 3000 BC as evidenced by the different megalithic monuments surrounding the city.|
|Qabala (as Kabalaka)||Caucasian Albania||Azerbaijan||4th century BC||Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the Caucasian Albania as early as the 4th century BC.|
|Stara Zagora||Thrace||Bulgaria||342 BC||It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well. It also has the oldest copper mines in Europe (5th millennium BC)|
|Thessaloniki||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||Greece||315 BC||Greek city. Founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.|
|Berat||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||Albania||314 BC||Founded by Cassander as Antipatreia.|
|Vukovar||Illyria||Croatia||300 BC||Vučedol culture.|
|Barcelona (as Barcino)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||3rd century BC||Unknown origin. Several neolithics tombs (5000–4500 BC) and remains from the Iberian period have been found, as well as several drachma coins inscribed with the word "Barkeno". There is also a hypothesis about a small Greek settlement called Kallípolis to have existed in the area. However, the first archaeological remains of buildings are from the Roman period.|
|Belgrade||Illyria||Serbia||279 BC||The present day territory of Belgrade continuously inhabited for more than 7000 years. Proto-urban Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. The fortified city of Belgrade founded around 279 BC as Singidunum.|
|Niš||Illyria||Serbia||279 BC||Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000–2000 BC.|
|Cartagena (as Carthago Nova)||Iberia||Spain||228 BC||Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca.|
|Tarragona (as Tarraco)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||218 BC||Roman colony, founded by Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio.|
|Stobi/Gradsko||Macedonia||Republic of Macedonia||217 BC||Founded as Stobi by Philip V of Macedon.|
|Bratislava||Pannonia||Slovakia||2nd century BC||Founded by Celtic Boii tribe. The first written reference to a Slavic settlement dates to 907.|
|Valencia||Iberia||Valencia, Spain||138 BC||Roman colony founded as Valentia Edetanorum.|
|Sremska Mitrovica||Illyria||Serbia||1st century BC||Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.|
|Smederevo||Illyria||Serbia||1st century BC||Founded as Semendria.|
|Ptuj||Pannonia||Slovenia||1st century BC||Ptuj is the oldest city in Slovenia. There is evidence that the area was settled in the Stone Age. In the Late Iron Age it was settled by Celts. By the 1st century BC, the settlement was controlled by Ancient Rome.|
|Évora||Lusitania||Portugal||53 BC (Roman conquest)||Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation.|
|Paris||Lutetia||France||52 BC||Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine." While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 AD|
|Ljubljana||Italia||Slovenia||50 BC||Area first settled by people living in pile dwellings around 2000 BC. Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona.|
|Zürich (Lindenhof)||Gaul||Switzerland||c. 50 BC||Lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.|
|Cologne||Germania Inferior||Germany||38 BC||Founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe, as Oppidum Ubiorum. In 50 AD, the Romans adopted the location as Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium and the city became in 85 AD the capital of the Roman province "Germania Inferior".|
|Trier||Galia Belgica||Germany||30 BC||Oldest Roman city in Germany.|
|Nijmegen||Netherlands||c. 17 BC||Oldest city in the Netherlands.|
|Augsburg||Raetia, Roman Empire||Germany||15 BC||Third oldest city in Germany after Cologne and Trier. Located in the Swabian region of Bavaria. Founded by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum.|
|Chur||Raetia Prima||Grisons, Switzerland||15 BC||habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).|
|Worms||Germania Superior||Germany||14 BC||The name of the city derives from the Latin designation Borbetomagus which is of Celtic origin.|
|Skopje||Macedonia (Roman province)||Republic of Macedonia||13-11 BC||Founded in the time of Roman Emperor Octavian Augustus as Scupi.|
|Tongeren||Germania Inferior||Belgium||10 BC||Oldest city in Belgium.|
|Novi Sad||Illyria||Serbia||1st century AD||Founded as Cusum.|
|Baku||Absheron peninsula||Azerbaijan||1st century AD||The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 1st century AD.|
|Solothurn||Gaul||Switzerland||c. 20 AD||Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 and 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.|
|Bath (as Aquae Sulis)||Britannia||England||43 AD[dubious ]||The city was established as a spa town by the Romans in 43 AD.|
|Winchester (as Venta Belgarum)||Britannia||England||c. 70 AD||Winchester was built as a Roman town in c. 70 AD.|
|York (as Eboracum)||Britannia||England||c. 72 AD||The city was founded in or around AD 72 when the 9th Roman Legion set up camp there.|
|Vinkovci (as Cibalae)||Balkans||Croatia||2nd century AD||Became a municipium under Hadrian|
|Trenčín (as Laugaricio)||Slovakia||before 179 AD||First mentioned in 179 AD on a Roman inscription on Trenčín castle rock, when Roman army was stationed in settlement Laugaricio. Settlement was probably Germanic, and since the 7th century Slavic.|
|Vienna||Pannonia||Austria||c. 300||"It is uncertain when Vindobona became a municipium; this elevation seems to have taken place at the beginning of the 3d c. A.D."|
|Verdun||Lotharingia||France||4th century||Seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier.|
|Kiev||State of the Antes||Ukraine||482||Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources[clarification needed] suggest Kiev was founded in 640 BC.|
|Tbilisi||Caucasian Iberia||Kartli province, Georgia||c. 500||According to the widely accepted legend the city was founded by King Vakhtang I Gorgasali of Georgia. New archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium BC. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the 4th century, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign.|
|Prague||Bohemia||Czech Republic||6th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Inverness||Pictland||Scotland||6th century||A settlement was established by the 6th century when St Columba visited the Pictish King Brude at his fortress there.|
|Glasgow||Dál Riata or Alt Clut||Scotland||6th century||A settlement was founded in the 6th century by St Mungo, who is the city's patron Saint.|
|Ioannina||Byzantine Empire||Greece||527–565||Founded by emperor Justinian I.|
|Aberdeen||Pictland||Scotland||c. 580||A settlement was established by c. 580 when records show the city's first church was built then. However, there is archaeological evidence of settlements in the area dating back to 6000 BC.|
|Edinburgh as Din Eidyn||Gododdin||Scotland||c. 580||Edinburgh is mentioned as a settlement in the poem Y Gododdin, traditionally dated to around the late 6th and early 7th centuries. The Poem uses The Brythonic name Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) for Edinburgh and describes it as the capital of Gododdin. It is not until around 638 that the city starts being referred to as Edin-burh or Edinburgh, after the city was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia.|
|Kraków (Wawel Hill)||Lesser Poland||Poland||8th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Ribe||Jutland||Denmark||704–710||Oldest town in Denmark.|
|Kalisz||Greater Poland||Poland||9th century||Founded as a provincial capital castellany and a minor fort. Kalisz has long been considered the oldest city of Poland, having been mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, but the claim is now doubted by some (cf. Calisia).|
|Heraklion||Crete||Greece||824||Founded by the Saracens.|
|Nitra||Principality of Nitra||Slovakia||828||Slavic settlement since 5th century reached its peak when it became centre of Principality of Nitra. There was built first known Christian church in Central and Eastern Europe.|
|Dublin||Ireland||Ireland||841||Dublin was founded as a city by the Vikings in the 9th century, but there were two older Irish settlements which existed on the same spot several centuries before they arrived; Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles") and Duiblinn ("Black Pool").|
|Madrid||Castile||Spain||mid. 9th century||Developed around a fortress built by emir Muhammad I of Cordoba.|
|Veliky Novgorod||Russia||859|
|Xanthi||Thrace||Greece||before 879||First medieval reference as Xantheia.|
|Uzhhorod (as Ungvár)||Duchy of Laborec||Ukraine||before 895||First mentioned in Gesta Hungarorum.|
|Halych||Galicia||Ukraine||898||First mentioned in Gesta Hungarorum.|
|Gniezno||Greater Poland||Poland||before 940||Early Slavonic settlements are dated to the 8th century. An important Piast stronghold that gave birth to a medieval town is believed to be erected at least around 940 AD|
|Poznań||Greater Poland||Poland||before 968||Settled from at least the 9th century AD, Poznań is one of the suggested places of the AD 966 Baptism of Poland. Poznań Cathedral was raised to the status of a cathedral around 968.|
|Székesfehérvár||Hungary||972||Founded by Grand Prince Géza. The first catholic temple of the Kingdom of Hungary was built here after the foundation of the city.|
|Brussels||Belgium||979||Founded by Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine. A chapel on an island in the river Senne was built around 580.|
|Sigtuna||Sweden||980||Is reputed as the oldest town in Sweden, the name is derived from an old royal estate Fornsigtuna situated nearby.|
|Trondheim||Norway||Norway||997||Founded by king Olav Tryggvason. Archaeological findings of city settlement back to the 8th century.|
|Gdańsk||Pomerania||Poland||997||Gdańsk became capital of Duchy of Pomerania (approximate date).|
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