List of the oldest people by country

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This is a list of the oldest people by country and in selected territories. It includes the individual(s) for each given country or territory who are not reported to have had the longest lifespan. Such records can only be determined to the extent that the given country's records are reliable. Comprehensive birth registration is largely a 20th-century phenomenon, so records establishing human longevity are necessarily fragmentary. The earliest comprehensive recordkeeping systems arose in Western Europe. For example, the United Kingdom organized a central recordkeeping system for England and Wales in 1837, making it compulsory by 1874.[1]

The list of oldest people is heavily skewed toward Western countries; this is not necessarily simply due to better chances of survival. Additionally, the proportion of the world population from current developed nations was far higher over a century ago than today; the table of nations below represents less than 20% of the current global population,[2 billion people (December 2016)">dubious ] and the European-descended population alone constituted some 36% of the world population in 1900.[2] Similarly, Japan continues to drop in world population rankings.

Oldest ever[edit]

This list comprises longest-lived individuals who were born and are living or died in each country. Where known, records for both males and females are noted, as are those born in one country who emigrated to another. Multiple entries for a given country and sex indicate that the oldest person is disputed. Entries for living people are rendered by   Living.

Country Name Sex Birth date Death date Age
Albania Zenepe Pirani[a][3][4] (born in Montenegro)
F
10 May 1910 June/July 2021 111 years, c.35-75 days
Argentina Casilda Benegas-Gallego[5] (born in Paraguay)
F
8 Apr 1907 Living 115 years, 79 days
Evangelista Luisa Lopez de Contarino[5]
F
21 Jun 1907 28 Aug 2021 114 years, 68 days
Armenia Lucy Mirigian[b] (died in the U.S.)
F
15 Aug 1906 12 Feb 2021 114 years, 181 days[6]
Australia Christina Cock[c]
F
25 Dec 1887 22 May 2002 114 years, 148 days[6]
Dexter Kruger
M
13 Jan 1910 20 Jul 2021 111 years, 188 days[7]
Austria Ilse Weiszfeld (died in France)
F
16 Oct 1904 22 Apr 2017 112 years, 188 days[5]
Maria Mika[d] (born in the Czech Republic)
F
23 May 1882 17 Nov 1994 112 years, 178 days[6]
Hermine Nistler
F
24 Dec 1900 13 Feb 2012 111 years, 51 days[6]
Leopold Vietoris
M
4 Jun 1891 9 Apr 2002 110 years, 309 days[6]
Barbados James Sisnett[e]
M
22 Feb 1900 23 May 2013 113 years, 90 days[6]
Belarus Mollye Marcus[f] (died in the U.S.)
F
18 Oct 1899 18 Feb 2011 111 years, 123 days[6]
Belgium Joanna Turcksin-Deroover
F
3 Jun 1890 6 Dec 2002 112 years, 186 days[6]
Jan Machiel Reyskens[g] (died in the Netherlands)
M
11 May 1878 7 Jan 1990 111 years, 241 days[6]
Jan Goossenaerts
M
30 Oct 1900 21 Mar 2012 111 years, 143 days[6]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Jovan Jovanović[h] (born in Montenegro)
M
16 Sept 1906[8] 1 Oct 2016[9] 110 years, 15 days[10]
Brazil Francisca Celsa dos Santos
F
21 Oct 1904 5 Oct 2021 116 years, 349 days[6]
Canada Marie-Louise Meilleur
F
29 Aug 1880 16 Apr 1998 117 years, 230 days[6]
James McCoubrey (died in the U.S.)
M
13 Sep 1901 5 Jul 2013 111 years, 295 days[6]
Ja Hyung Lee[i] (born in Korea)
M
27 Aug 1910[11][12] 12 Feb 2022 111 years, 169 days
Cape Verde Adelina Domingues[j] (died in the U.S.)
F
19 Feb 1888 21 Aug 2002 114 years, 183 days[6]
Colombia Sofia Rojas
F
13 Aug 1907 Living 114 years, 317 days[5]
Daniel Guzmán-García
M
6 Feb 1897 21 May 2008 111 years, 105 days[6]
Croatia Jelisaveta Veljkovic[k][13] (died in Serbia)
F
18 Jul 1904 20 Oct 2016 112 years, 94 days[14]
Josip Kršul[l]
M
10 Dec 1911 5 Mar 2021 109 years, 85 days[15]
Cuba Faustina Sarmiento-Pupo
F
15 Feb 1905 16 Sep 2019 114 years, 213 days[5]
Czech Republic Maria Mika[d] (died in Austria)
F
23 May 1882 17 Nov 1994 112 years, 178 days[6]
Marie Bernátková[m]
F
22 Oct 1857 4 May 1969 111 years, 194 days[6]
Denmark Christian Mortensen (died in the U.S.)
M
16 Aug 1882 25 Apr 1998 115 years, 252 days[6]
Karla Lindholm Jensen
F
7 May 1908 10 Dec 2020 112 years, 217 days[16]
Georg Ingwersen Jensen
M
14 Jun 1906 15 May 2016 109 years, 336 days[6]
Dominica Anastasie Charles[n]
F
26 Apr 1914 Living 108 years, 61 days[17]
Ecuador María Capovilla
F
14 Sep 1889 27 Aug 2006 116 years, 347 days[6]
Estonia Marta Kallas[o][18][19] (died in Australia)
F
26 Dec 1904 31 May 2014 109 years, 156 days
Elle Malberg[o][20]
F
10 Apr 1907 16 Dec 2015 108 years, 250 days
Arved Tamm[o][20]
M
31 Jan 1910 14 Nov 2017 107 years, 287 days[6]
Finland Maria Rothovius[p][21]
F
2 Oct 1887 17 Jun 2000 112 years, 259 days
Aarne Arvonen[p]
M
4 Aug 1897 1 Jan 2009 111 years, 150 days[6]
France Jeanne Calment
F
21 Feb 1875[q] 4 Aug 1997 122 years, 164 days[6][q]
Lucile Randon,[5][23][24] aka Sister André
F
11 Feb 1904 Living 118 years, 135 days
Marcel Meys
M
12 Jul 1909 15 Dec 2021[25] 112 years, 156 days[26][27]
Germany Augusta Holtz[r] (died in the U.S.)
F
3 Aug 1871 21 Oct 1986 115 years, 79 days[6]
Gustav Gerneth[s]
M
15 Oct 1905 21 Oct 2019[28] 114 years, 6 days[29]
Mathilde Mange[30]
F
10 Aug 1906 28 Oct 2019 113 years, 79 days[31]
Greece Katerina Karnarou[t]
F
25 Jul 1905 29 Oct 2020 115 years, 96 days[32][33][34][35]
Gregory Pandazes[u] (died in the U.S.)
M
15 Jan 1873 22 Dec 1983 110 years, 341 days[6]
Hungary Veronika Zsilinszki[v][36][37] F 4 Feb 1908 20 Apr 2021[38] 113 years, 75 days
Elizabeth Stefan[w] (died in the U.S.)
F
13 May 1895 9 Apr 2008 112 years, 332 days[39]
Zoltan Sarosy[w] (died in Canada)
M
23 Aug 1906 19 Jun 2017 110 years, 300 days
Rezső Gallai[w][40]
M
29 Jan 1904 25 Sep 2014 110 years, 239 days[40]
Iceland Guðrún Björnsdóttir[x] (died in Canada)[41]
F
20 Oct 1888 26 Aug 1998 109 years, 310 days
Sólveig Pálsdóttir[x][41]
F
20 Aug 1897 28 Oct 2006 109 years, 69 days
Georg Ólafsson[x][41][42][43][44]
M
26 Mar 1909 22 Feb 2017 107 years, 333 days
India Lucy d'Abreu[y] (died in the U.K.)
F
24 May 1892 7 Dec 2005 113 years, 197 days[6]
Ireland Kathleen Snavely[z] (died in the U.S.)[45]
F
16 Feb 1902 6 Jul 2015 113 years, 140 days
Katherine Plunket[z]
F
22 Nov 1820 14 Oct 1932 111 years, 327 days[6]
Israel Yisrael Kristal[aa] (born in Poland)[5]
M
15 Sep 1903 11 Aug 2017 113 years, 330 days
Maria Pogonowska[aa] (born in Poland)
F
30 Oct 1897 15 Jul 2009 111 years, 258 days[6]
Italy Emma Morano-Martinuzzi[5]
F
29 Nov 1899 15 Apr 2017 117 years, 137 days
Antonio Todde
M
22 Jan 1889 3 Jan 2002 112 years, 346 days[6]
Jamaica Violet Brown[ab][5]
F
10 Mar 1900 15 Sep 2017 117 years, 189 days
Japan Kane Tanaka[5]
F
2 Jan 1903 19 Apr 2022 119 years, 107 days
Jiroemon Kimura[5]
M
19 Apr 1897 12 Jun 2013 116 years, 54 days
Latvia Ksenija Mitušova[ac][46]
F
10 Feb 1899 6 Jan 2012 112 years, 330 days
Lebanon Adma Tura[ad] (died in France)
F
25 Dec 1906 3 Sep 2018 111 years, 252 days[47][48]
Lithuania Emilija Kristopaitiene[ae]
F
15 Oct 1902 14 Mar 2014 111 years, 150 days[49][50]
Luxembourg Germaine Litwinski-Kauffmann
F
4 Mar 1908[51] 17 Jan 2019[52] 110 years, 319 days
Jean Ley
M
10 Feb 1903 20 Feb 2013 110 years, 10 days[5]
Malta Maria Farrugia[af]
F
7 Mar 1912 Living 110 years, 111 days[53]
Mexico Dominga Velasco (died in the U.S.)[5]
F
12 May 1901 11 Oct 2015 114 years, 152 days
Antonia Valderrama Ocampo
F
11 Apr 1907 9 Jun 2020 113 years, 59 days
Jorge Duran Coral
M
23 Apr 1909 21 Jul 2021 112 years, 89 days[54]
Moldova Goldie Steinberg[ag] (died in the U.S.)[5]
F
30 Oct 1900 16 Aug 2015 114 years, 290 days
Montenegro Jovan Jovanović[h] (died in Bosnia and Herzegovina)
M
16 Sept 1906[8] 1 Oct 2016[9] 110 years, 15 days[10]
Netherlands Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper
F
29 Jun 1890 30 Aug 2005 115 years, 62 days[6]
Jan Machiel Reyskens[g] (born in Belgium)
M
11 May 1878 7 Jan 1990 111 years, 241 days[6]
Jan Pieter Bos
M
12 Jul 1891 15 Dec 2002 111 years, 156 days[21]
New Zealand Florence Finch (born in the U.K.)
F
22 Dec 1893 10 Apr 2007 113 years, 109 days[6]
Madeline Anderson[ah]
F
4 May 1907 19 Jun 2018 111 years, 46 days[55]
Norway Maren Bolette Torp [no][ai]
F
21 Dec 1876 20 Feb 1989 112 years, 61 days[6]
Herman Smith-Johannsen[ai] (died in Canada)
M
15 Jun 1875 5 Jan 1987 111 years, 204 days[6]
Panama Clara Cedeño Tello[5]
F
12 Aug 1906 11 Jan 2020 113 years, 152 days
Paraguay Casilda Benegas-Gallego[5] (living in Argentina)
F
8 Apr 1907 Living 115 years, 79 days
Peru Carlos Valenzuela Castro[56][57] (died in the U.S.)
M
24 Sep 1905 30 Mar 2016 110 years, 188 days
Julia Dougherty (died in the U.S.)
F
20 Aug 1893 4 Dec 2003 110 years, 106 days[6]
Poland Tekla Juniewicz[aj][5]
F
10 Jun 1906 Living 116 years, 16 days
Yisrael Kristal[ak] (died in Israel)[5]
M
15 Sep 1903 11 Aug 2017 113 years, 330 days
Portugal Maria de Jesus
F
10 Sep 1893 2 Jan 2009 115 years, 114 days[5]
Augusto Moreira de Oliveira
M
6 Oct 1896 13 Feb 2009 112 years, 130 days[5]
Romania Dumitru Comănescu[58]
M
8 Nov 1908 27 Jun 2020[59] 111 years, 232 days
Maria Corba[al] (died in Germany)
F
15 Aug 1878 8 Mar 1989 110 years, 205 days[6]
Russia Lillian Joelson[am] (died in the U.S.)
F
20 Aug 1896 30 Dec 2007 111 years, 132 days[6]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Maria Luisa Benjamin[an] (died in Aruba)
F
23 July 1910 1 Nov 2021 111 years, 101 days[60][61][62]
Seychelles Nancy Marie[ao]
F
26 Jan 1909 11 May 2021[63] 112 years, 105 days
Serbia Jelisaveta Veljkovic[k][13] (born in Croatia)
F
18 Jul 1904 20 Oct 2016 112 years, 94 days[14]
Slovakia Maria Brandes[ap] (died in Germany)
F
11 Aug 1902 6 Feb 2013 110 years, 179 days[64]
Mária Čeremugová[ap]
F
11 Sep 1909[65] 5 Dec 2018[66] 109 years, 85 days
Slovenia Katarina Marinič[aq]
F
30 Oct 1899 2 Sep 2010 110 years, 307 days[6]
Niko Dragoš[aq][67][68][69]
M
27 Aug 1907 31 Mar 2018[70] 110 years, 216 days
South Africa Johanna Booysen
F
17 Jan 1857 16 Jun 1968 111 years, 151 days[6]
Spain Ana María Vela Rubio[5]
F
29 Oct 1901 15 Dec 2017 116 years, 47 days
Joan Riudavets
M
15 Dec 1889 5 Mar 2004 114 years, 81 days[6]
Sweden Astrid Zachrison
F
15 May 1895 15 May 2008 113 years, 0 days[6]
Carl Mattsson
M
7 Mar 1908 24 Jul 2019 111 years, 139 days[71]
Switzerland Rosa Rein[ar] (born in Germany)
F
24 Mar 1897 14 Feb 2010 112 years, 327 days[6]
Alice Schaufelberger[72]
F
11 Jan 1908 16 Nov 2020 112 years, 310 days
Rodolphe Buxcel[as][73] (born in Ukraine,
died in the U.S.)
M
5 Sep 1908 26 Feb 2019[74] 110 years, 174 days
Pierre Gremion
M
5 Mar 1902 13 Feb 2012 109 years, 345 days[6]
Ukraine Goldie Michelson[at] (died in the U.S.)
F
8 Aug 1902 8 Jul 2016 113 years, 335 days[6]
United Kingdom Charlotte Hughes
F
1 Aug 1877 17 Mar 1993 115 years, 228 days[6]
Henry Allingham
M
6 Jun 1896 18 Jul 2009 113 years, 42 days[5]
United States Sarah Knauss
F
24 Sep 1880 30 Dec 1999 119 years, 97 days[6]
Christian Mortensen (born in Denmark)
M
16 Aug 1882 25 Apr 1998 115 years, 252 days[6]
Mathew Beard
M
9 Jul 1870 16 Feb 1985 114 years, 222 days[6]
Uruguay Manolita Piña (born in Spain)
F
24 Feb 1883 11 Jun 1994 111 years, 107 days[6]

Territorial and overseas regions recordholders[edit]

Below is a list of oldest people in the territories of selected countries. Entries for living people are rendered by   Living.

Country Territory Name Sex Birth date Death date Age[†]
Denmark Faroe Islands Theodor Thomassen[75]
M
28 Oct 1908 9 Mar 2016 107 years, 133 days
Kala Jensen
F
3 Sep 1915[76] 1 Feb 2022[77] 106 years, 151 days
Greenland Agnethe Fencker[78]
F
24 Oct 1910 7 April 2013 102 years, 165 days
Anton Geisler[79][80]
M
21 Feb 1919 28 Feb 2021 102 years, 7 days
Finland Åland Anna Hagman[p]
F
27 Dec 1895 18 Apr 2006 110 years, 112 days[6]
France French Guiana Eudoxie Baboul
F
1 Oct 1901 1 Jul 2016 114 years, 274 days[5]
Guadeloupe Luce Maced (died in Martinique)
F
2 May 1886 25 Feb 2000 113 years, 299 days[6]
Marthe Esther Roch
F
19 Aug 1907 21 Sep 2020[81] 113 years, 33 days[6]
Julien Emile Arsene
M
18 May 1911 12 June 2021 110 years, 25 days[82][83][84]
Martinique Luce Maced (born in Guadeloupe)
F
2 May 1886 25 Feb 2000 113 years, 299 days[6]
Julie Montabord
F
17 Apr 1906 18 Jul 2019 113 years, 92 days[5]
Jules Théobald
M
17 Apr 1909 5 Oct 2021 112 years, 171 days[85]
New Caledonia Marie-Louise Lhuillier
F
26 Jun 1895 28 Dec 2007 112 years, 185 days[6]
Réunion Marie-Isabelle Diaz (born in Algeria)
F
22 Feb 1898 29 Oct 2011 113 years, 249 days[6]
Julia Sinédia-Cazour
F
12 Jul 1892 6 Oct 2005 113 years, 86 days[6]
Jean-Clementis Amano
M
7 Oct 1908 15 Jun 2019 110 years, 251 days[86]
Saint Barthélemy Eugénie Blanchard
F
16 Feb 1896 4 Nov 2010 114 years, 261 days[6]
Netherlands Aruba Maria Luisa Benjamin[an] (born in Saint Kitts and Nevis)
F
23 July 1910 1 Nov 2021 111 years, 101 days[62]
Bonaire Mona Pourier
F
15 Mar 1913 24 Apr 2019 106 years, 40 days[87]
Ricardo Bernardo Statie (died in Aruba)
M
3 Apr 1914 30 May 2019 105 years, 57 days[88][89]
Curaçao Maria Samson-Leer (born in Aruba)[90][91]
F
1 Feb 1906 22 Dec 2015 109 years, 324 days
Luna Kleinmoedig
F
19 Oct 1907 7 Mar 2017 109 years, 139 days[92]
Orsilio Pablo Pinedo
M
7 Jul 1913 12 Jan 2020 106 years, 189 days[93]
Portugal Azores Alice Sanders (died in the U.S.)
F
12 May 1897 7 Nov 2007 110 years, 179 days[6]
United Kingdom Anguilla Elma Mealy Gumbs (died in the U.S. Virgin Islands)
F
29 Jun 1905 18 Nov 2012 107 years, 142 days[94]
Jersey Beryl Ada Le Gros
F
30 Aug 1910 31 Jan 2019 108 years, 154 days[95][96]
Guernsey Margaret Ann Neve
F
18 May 1792 4 Apr 1903 110 years, 321 days[6]
United States Puerto Rico Emiliano Mercado del Toro[au][21]
M
21 Aug 1891 24 Jan 2007 115 years, 156 days
Antonia Gerena Rivera (died in the U.S.)[5]
F
19 May 1900 2 Jun 2015 115 years, 14 days
Ramona Trinidad Iglesias-Jordan[au][21]
F
31 Aug 1889 29 May 2004 114 years, 272 days
US Virgin Islands Ursula Krigger[av][97]
F
22 Apr 1902 10 Sep 2015 113 years, 141 days

Oldest living by country[edit]

This is a list of the oldest living people by country and lists the oldest people confirmed to be alive in the past year, sorted by country. Those born in one country, but who later moved to another are specifically noted.

Independent states[edit]

Country Name Sex Birth date Age as of 26 June 2022
Argentina Casilda Benegas-Gallego (born in Paraguay)
F
8 Apr 1907 115 years, 79 days[5]
Belgium Marcelle Lévaz
F
18 Mar 1911 111 years, 100 days[98]
Jaak Broekx
M
6 Aug 1914 107 years, 324 days[99]
Canada Shige Mineshiba (born in Japan)
F
18 May 1909 113 years, 39 days[100]
Reuben Sinclair
M
5 Dec 1911 110 years, 203 days[101]
Colombia Sofia Rojas
F
13 Aug 1907 114 years, 317 days[5]
Dominica Anastasie Charles
F
26 April 1914 108 years, 61 days[17]
France Lucile Randon, aka Sister André
F
11 Feb 1904 118 years, 135 days[5][23][24]
André Boite
M
6 Dec 1910 111 years, 202 days[102]
Italy Domenica Ercolani
F
3 July 1910 111 years, 358 days[103]
Japan Fusa Tatsumi
F
25 Apr 1907 115 years, 62 days[5]
Mikizo Ueda
M
11 May 1910 112 years, 46 days[104]
Malta Maria Farrugia[af]
F
7 Mar 1912 110 years, 111 days[53]
Netherlands Ebeltje Boekema-Hut
F
31 Aug 1911 110 years, 299 days[105][106]
Poland Tekla Juniewicz[aj]
F
10 Jun 1906 116 years, 16 days[5]
Marian Wojewódzki
M
16 Sep 1912 109 years, 283 days[107]
Portugal Maria da Encarnacao Sousa
F
20 Mar 1909 113 years, 98 days[108]
Serbia Tamara Krutikov[aw] (born in Ukraine)
F
27 Mar 1912 110 years, 91 days[109][110]
Seychelles Marguerite Woodfield Pouponeau
F
15 Aug 1912 109 years, 315 days[111][63][112]
Spain María Brañas Morera (born in the U.S.)
F
4 Mar 1907 115 years, 114 days[113][114]
Switzerland Marie Guerne
F
26 Mar 1912 110 years, 92 days[115]
United Kingdom Ethel Caterham
F
21 Aug 1909 112 years, 309 days[116][117]
John Tinniswood
M
26 Aug 1912 109 years, 304 days[118]
United States Bessie Hendricks
F
7 Nov 1907 114 years, 231 days[5]
Venezuela Juan Vicente Pérez Mora
M
27 May 1909 113 years, 30 days[119]

Dependent territories[edit]

Country Territory Name Sex Birth date Age as of 26 June 2022
Netherlands Aruba James Williams (born in Suriname)
M
22 Dec 1915 106 years, 186 days[120]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pirani was born in Podgorica, then a part of the Principality of Montenegro; it is now the capital of Montenegro.
  2. ^ Mirigian was born in Armenia, then a part of the Ottoman Empire.
  3. ^ Cock was born in the former British colony of Victoria, which is now part of Australia.
  4. ^ a b Mika was a native of Bohemia, which was then a part of Austria-Hungary; it is now located in the Czech Republic.
  5. ^ Sisnett was born in Barbados, which was at the time of his birth part of the colony of the British Leeward Islands; it is now an independent country.
  6. ^ Marcus was a native of Lechovitz, which was then a part of the Russian Empire; it is now located in Belarus.
  7. ^ a b Reyskens lived (from 1897) and died in the Netherlands, but kept his Belgian citizenship.
  8. ^ a b Jovanović was born in the Principality of Montenegro, it is now Montenegro.
  9. ^ Lee was born in Busan, five days after Imperial Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910.
  10. ^ Domingues was born in Cape Verde, which was at the time of her birth a Portuguese colony; now it is an independent country.
  11. ^ a b Veljkovic was born in Ravna Gora, which was then a part of Austria-Hungary; it is now located in Croatia.
  12. ^ Kršul was a native of Selce, which was then a part of Austria-Hungary; it is now located in Croatia.
  13. ^ Bernátková was a native of Prague, which was then a part of Austria-Hungary; it is now located in the Czech Republic.
  14. ^ Charles was born in Dominica, which was at the time of her birth part of the colony of the British Leeward Islands; it is now an independent country.
  15. ^ a b c Estonia was at the time of their birth a part of the Russian Empire, now it is an independent country.
  16. ^ a b c Finland and its islands were then an autonomous part of the Russian Empire.
  17. ^ a b Disputed: a November 2018 study advanced the hypothesis that Calment's daughter Yvonne usurped her identity in 1934. Yvonne was born on 19 Jan 1898, which would have made her 99 years, 197 days old upon her death on 4 Aug 1997.[22]
  18. ^ Holtz was born in Czarnikau, which was then part of the German Empire; it is now Czarnków and located in Poland.
  19. ^ Gerneth was born in Stettin, which was then part of the German Empire. It is now part of Poland.
  20. ^ Karnarou was born in Gryllo, near Krestena, in the Kingdom of Greece, which is now Greece.
  21. ^ Pandazes was born in Midilli (Lesbos) in the Ottoman Empire, which is now part of Greece.
  22. ^ Zsilinszki was born in Kevevára, then in Austria-Hungary, now Kovin in Serbia.
  23. ^ a b c Hungary was at that time part of Austria-Hungary.
  24. ^ a b c Björnsdóttir, Pálsdóttir and Ólafsson were born in Iceland, which was at the time of their birth a part of Denmark; now it is an independent country.
  25. ^ d'Abreu was a native of Dharwar, which was then a part of the British Raj; it is now located in India.
  26. ^ a b Snavely and Plunket were born in Ireland, which was part of the United Kingdom before the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921.
  27. ^ a b Kristal and Pogonowska were born in Congress Poland, part of the Russian Empire, which is today Poland.
  28. ^ Brown was born in Jamaica, then a British colony.
  29. ^ Mitušova was born in Latvia, which was then a part of the Russian Empire.
  30. ^ Tura was born in Lebanon, then a part of the Ottoman Empire.
  31. ^ Kristopaitiene was a native of Geldauschinken, which was then a part of the Russian Empire; it is now located in Lithuania.
  32. ^ a b Farrugia was born in Malta, then a British colony.
  33. ^ Steinberg was born in Kishinev, which was then a city in the Russian Empire; it is now Chișinău, the capital of Moldova.
  34. ^ Anderson was born in New Zealand, which was at the time of her birth a British colony; now it is an independent country.
  35. ^ a b Torp and Smith-Johannsen were born in Norway, then a part of Sweden–Norway; it is now an independent country.
  36. ^ a b Juniewicz was born in Krupsko, which was then part of Austria-Hungary; it is now located in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
  37. ^ Kristal was born in Congress Poland, part of the Russian Empire; which is today Poland.
  38. ^ Corba was born in Izgar, which was then in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary. It is now in Romania.
  39. ^ Joelson was born in a part of the Russian Empire which is now in Russia.
  40. ^ a b Benjamin was a native of Saint Kitts and Nevis, which was at the time of her birth part of the colony of the British Leeward Islands; it is now an independent country.
  41. ^ Marie and Poupon(n)eau were born in Seychelles, which was at that time a British colony; now it is an independent country.
  42. ^ a b Brandes and Čeremugová were born in Slovakia, which was then a part of Austria-Hungary.
  43. ^ a b Marinič and Dragoš were born in Slovenia, then a part of Austria-Hungary.
  44. ^ Rein was born in Dzietzkowitz, near Myslowitz, which was then part of the German Empire. It is now in Poland.
  45. ^ Buxcel was born near Odessa, which was then in the Russian Empire; it is now part of Ukraine. As a colonist in a Swiss settlement at the time of his birth, he was given Swiss citizenship.
  46. ^ Michelson was born in Elizabethgrad, which was then a part of the Russian Empire. It is now part of Ukraine.
  47. ^ a b Puerto Rico was at that time a part of the Spanish Empire. It is now in the United States.
  48. ^ The US Virgin Islands were at that time the Danish West Indies, a Danish colony. They are now in the United States.
  49. ^ Krutikov was born in Katerynoslav, which was then a city in the Russian Empire. It is now the city of Dnipro in Ukraine.

References[edit]

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