List of oldest surviving ships

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of the oldest ships in the world which have survived to this day without significantly losing their original form. It includes warships, yachts, tall ships, and vessels recovered during archaeological excavations. It does not include reconstructions or replicas, partially complete wreckage, or ships which have been located but remain underwater. For example, the Mary Rose, whose remains consist only of a partial hull, is not included here. Vessels listed are sorted by date of launching as most accurately known.

Oldest ships[edit]

Names Image Year of construction Type Country/area of origin Current location LOA Displacement (tons) Notes
Pesse canoe Boomstamkano van Pesse, Drents Museum, 1955-VIII-2.jpg 8040 BC[1] Canoe Netherlands, Europe Assen, Netherlands 9.75 ft (2.97 m) Believed to be the oldest boat in existence
Dufuna canoe 8kyocanoe8tj.gif 8500 BP (6550 BC)[2] Canoe Nigeria, Africa Yobe State, Nigeria 28 ft (8.5 m) Oldest boat discovered in Africa, second oldest boat worldwide
Khufu ship Solar boat2(js).jpg 2500 BC Ritual barge Egypt Giza, Egypt 142 ft (43 m) Oldest known intact ship[3]
Dover Bronze Age boat Bronze age boat (3752754931).jpg 1500 BC Seagoing boat United Kingdom Dover, United Kingdom 31 ft (9.4 m) Oldest known seagoing vessel[4]
Ma'agan Michael ship Hecht 090710 Maagan Michael Boat 2.jpg 400-500 BC Trade ship Israel Ma'agan Michael 37 ft (11 m) 25
Kyrenia ship
Kyrenia ship.jpg
400-300 BC Trade ship Cyprus Kyrenia 47 ft (14 m)
Hjortspring boat Hjortspring.jpg 400-300 BC[5] Denmark National Museum of Denmark 18 m Oldest known clinker built vessel
Nydam Boat Nydam.jpg 320-310 BC Denmark Gottorf Castle, Germany 23 m
Sea of Galilee Boat JesusBoat.jpg 50 BC - 70 AD Fishing boat Israel Sea of Galilee 27 ft (8.2 m)
Arles Rhône 3 Musée de l'Arles antique, Arles, France (16194233455).jpg 1st century River trading vessel Ancient Rome Arles, France 31 m (102 ft)
Salme ships 700-750 Viking ship Estonia Tallinn, Estonia Legendarily tied to King Ingvar of Sweden.
Oseberg ship DSC00450, Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.jpg 820[6] Viking ship Vestfold Oslo, Norway 71 ft (22 m)
Gokstad ship Gokstad Ship Side View.JPG 900[7] Viking ship Vestfold Oslo, Norway 76 ft (23 m) Uncovered by digging in 1880
Skuldelev 2 Skuldelev II.jpg 1042 Viking ship Dublin Roskilde, Denmark 98 ft (30 m) Second largest Viking ship discovered.
Bremen cog Hansekogge Bremerhaven uf.jpg 1380[8] Trading cog Germany Bremerhaven, Germany 79 ft (24 m) 130
Vasa Vasa exterior 1.jpg 1627[9] Sailing warship Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 226 ft (69 m) 1330 Sank 1628; salvaged 1961
La Belle Belle hull.jpg 1684 Colony Ship France Austin, Texas, USA Sank 1686; salvaged 1997
HMS Victory Victory 2 (5694520616).jpg May 7, 1765[10] 1st Rate ship-of-the-line United Kingdom Portsmouth, England 228 ft (69 m) 3500 Oldest commissioned naval vessel
USS Philadelphia GunboatPhiladelphia.jpg 1776[11] Sailing warship United States Washington, D.C. 53 ft (16 m) 32 Sank 1776; salvaged 1935
Peggy Peggy of Castletown.jpg 1789[12] Private yacht Isle of Man Castletown, Isle of Man 27 ft (8.2 m) Oldest surviving Manx ship; also the oldest surviving schooner
USS Constitution Defense.gov photo essay 120819-N-MJ265-210.jpg 1797[13] Sailing warship United States Boston, Massachusetts 203.3 ft (62.0 m) 2200 Oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat
Tilikum Tilikum.jpg after 1800[14] Dugout canoe Canada Victoria, British Columbia 38 ft (12 m)
HMS Trincomalee H.M.S. Trincomalee, Hartlepool Maritime Experience - geograph.org.uk - 1605076.jpg 1817[15] Sailing frigate India Hartlepool, England 150.45 ft (45.86 m)
HMS Unicorn HMS Unicorn.jpg 1824[16] Sailing frigate United Kingdom Dundee, Scotland 151.9 ft (46.3 m)
Charles W. Morgan CharlesWMorganMysticSeaport.jpg 1841[17] Whaler United States Mystic, Connecticut 113 ft (34 m) Oldest surviving merchant ship; also the only surviving wooden whaling ship
Dom Fernando II e Glória 20121026 0433 Almada & Cacilhas 05.jpg 1843[18] Frigate Portuguese India Almada, Portugal 284 ft (87 m) 1800 Last sailing frigate of the Portuguese Navy
SS Great Britain SS Great Britain.jpg 1843[19] Ocean liner United Kingdom Bristol, England 322 ft (98 m) 3700 First iron-hulled steamship to cross the Atlantic
Brandtaucher Brandtaucher Dresden.jpg 1850[20] Submarine Germany Dresden, Germany 27 ft (8.2 m) Location of first recorded submarine escape
Edwin Fox Inside EdwinFox.JPG 1853[21] Merchant Ship India Picton, New Zealand 157 ft (48 m) 830 Only remaining Australian convict ship
USS Constellation Uss constellation baltimore no border.jpg 1854[22] Sailing warship United States Baltimore, Maryland 199 ft (61 m) 1570 Reconstructed in 1854 using materials from USS Constellation (1797)
Skibladner Skibladner Hamar 2015.jpg 1856[23] paddle steamer Norway Gjøvik, Norway 164 ft (50 m)
Jylland Fregatten-jylland-2005.jpg 1860[24] Frigate Denmark Ebeltoft, Denmark 233 ft (71 m)
HMS Warrior HMS warriorjune20092.jpg 1860[25] Ironclad United Kingdom Portsmouth, England 420 ft (130 m) 10,100 First armour-plated, iron-hulled warship
BAP Puno Puno (ex-Yapari) (5690588618).jpg 1861 Hospital ship United Kingdom Lake Titicaca, Perú 100 ft (30 m) Laid down as river gunboat Yapura, converted into hospital ship late 1970s.
CSS H. L. Hunley Hunley-2.jpg 1863[26] Submarine Confederate States of America Charleston, South Carolina 40 ft (12 m) 8 First submarine to sink an enemy warship
Star of India Starofindia.jpg 1863[27] Windjammer Isle of Man San Diego, California 278 ft (85 m) Oldest ship in regular use
City of Adelaide SV City Adelaide Dutton Lithograph.jpg 1864[28] Clipper United Kingdom Adelaide, South Australia 244 ft (74 m) 800 Oldest surviving clipper ship
Al Mahroussa 1865[29] Motor Yacht United Kingdom Alexandria, Egypt 478 ft (146 m) 3762 Royal Yacht built for Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt. Renamed El Horriya for some time, it was renamed back to Al Mahroussa in September 2000 by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak
Huascar RH monitor Huascar.JPG 1865[30] Monitor United Kingdom Talcahuano, Chile 219 ft (67 m) 1300 Oldest vessel of the Chilean Navy
HNLMS Buffel Rotterdam - Museumschip Zr Ms Buffel bij nacht.jpg 1868[30] Ironclad United Kingdom Rotterdam, Netherlands 196 ft (60 m) 2600
HNLMS Schorpioen Den helder schorpioen.JPG 1868[30] Ironclad France Den Helder, Netherlands 196 ft (60 m) 2400
SS Enköping Enköping July 2017 01.jpg 1868[31] Steam ship Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 99 ft (30 m) Built as a steam passenger ferry. Now motorised, but still in passenger service.
Cutty Sark The Cutty Sark 2005-01-24.jpg 1869[32] Clipper United Kingdom Greenwich, England 280 ft (85 m) 2100 Extensively restored 2007–2012
Lewis R. French Lewis R. French NHL.jpg 1871[33] Schooner United States Camden, Maine 101 ft

(31 m)

Active freight carrier until 1971 at which time was refit for passenger use. Active member of Camden, Maine Schooner fleet. She is the last schooner remaining of thousands built in Maine during the 19th century.
Stephen Taber
Schooner Stephen Taber, Built 1871, National Historic Landmark
1871[34] Schooner United States Rockland, Maine 68 ft

(20.7 m)

Launched in 1871, the Stephen Taber epitomizes the classic coasting schooner. Built in an era when highly skilled shipwrights built fine vessels to be aesthetically beautiful as well as functional. She is today the oldest documented sailing vessel in continuous service in the United States, and is a National Historic Landmark.
SMS Leitha SMS Leitha 1872.jpg 1871[35] River monitor Austria-Hungary Budapest, Hungary 166 ft (51 m) Only surviving ship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Gjøa Gjoea.jpg 1872[36] Sloop Norway Oslo, Norway 70 ft (21 m) First vessel to transit the Northwest Passage.
Meiji Maru 満船飾の明治丸.JPG 1873[37] Lighthouse tender Japan Tokyo, Japan 249.3 ft (76.0 m)
HNoMS Rap Torpedoboat rap 1873.png 1873[38] Torpedo boat United Kingdom Horten, Norway 60 ft (18 m) 8
ARA Uruguay Corbeta Uruguay (A.R.A.).jpg 1874[39] Corvette United Kingdom Buenos Aires, Argentina 150 ft (46 m) 600
James Craig James Craig Sydney 3.JPG 1874 Tall Ship Scotland Sydney, Australia 70m 646 net Iron-hulled merchant ship restored by Sydney Heritage fleet, has a motor in but still sails under own power multiple times a month
HSwMS Sölve The Sölve monitor.jpg 1875[40] Monitor Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden 131 ft (40 m) 500
Elissa Elissa-ship.jpg 1877[41] Barque United Kingdom Galveston, Texas 141 ft (43 m) 600
Governor Stone FWB Governor Stone01.jpg 1877 Schooner United States Panama City, Florida 39 ft (12 m)
SY Lady of the Lake MV Lady of the Lake (7341216188).jpg 1877[42] Steam yacht United Kingdom Ullswater, England 97 ft (30 m) Built for passenger service on Ullswater, in the English Lake District. Now motorised, but still in service.
Falls of Clyde Hull of wood, heart of steel (2620978622).jpg 1878[43] Windjammer United Kingdom Honolulu, Hawaii 280 ft (85 m) 1800 Only surviving sail-driven oil tanker
HMS Gannet HMS Gannet, Chatham Dockyard, Kent - geograph.org.uk - 1354527.jpg 1878[44] Sloop-of-war United Kingdom Chatham, England 170 ft (52 m) 1100
Lady Elizabeth Lady Elizabeth shipwreck IMG 6593.jpg 1879[45] Barque United Kingdom Stanley, Falkland Islands 223 ft (68 m) 1200 Beached since 1936
Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad 2008.jpg 1882 Sailing ship Denmark Mystic, Connecticut 118 ft (36 m)
BAE Abdon Calderon 1884[46] Gunboat United Kingdom Guayaquil, Ecuador 131 ft (40 m) 300
Coronet Stebbins-Coronet-1893-08-07.jpg 1885[47] Schooner Yacht United States Newport, Rhode Island 190 ft (58 m) 230 a wooden-hull schooner yacht built in 1885 in Brooklyn, New York for racing, is one of the oldest and largest schooner yachts in the world
Partridge 825RIParAjaccio.jpg 1885[48] Gaff Cutter United Kingdom La Ciotat, France 71.78 ft (21.88 m) 28 Partridge is the oldest, fully functioning classic racing yacht in the world and was built by John Beavor-Webb. She is based at Classic Works in La Ciotat, France.[49]
Polly Woodside Polly woodside-1w.jpg 1885[50] Barque Belfast Melbourne, Australia 192 ft (59 m) 1100 Polly Woodside is typical of thousands of smaller iron barques built in the last days of sail, intended for deep water trade around the world and designed to be operated as economically as possible.
Balclutha Balclutha ship.jpg 1886[51] Full-rigged ship United Kingdom San Francisco, California 301 ft (92 m) 4100
Sigyn Sigyn förifrån 2008.jpg 1887 Barque Gothenburg, Sweden Turku, Finland 189 ft (57.5 m) Last remaining wooden barque used for trade across the oceans.
af Chapman Af Chapman-DSC 0210w.jpg 1888[52] Full-rigged ship United Kingdom Stockholm, Sweden 290 ft (88 m)
Arthur Foss Tugboat Arthur Foss 04.jpg 1889[53] Tugboat United States Seattle, Washington 129 ft (39 m) Likely oldest wooden tugboat afloat
MY Raven MV Raven (7341230058).jpg 1889[54] Steam yacht United Kingdom Ullswater, England 112 ft (34 m) Built for passenger service on Ullswater, in the English Lake District. Now motorised, but still in service.
Fram Fram02.JPG 1892[55] Schooner Norway Oslo, Norway 128 ft (39 m) 402 Sailed farther north and south than any other wooden vessel
USS Olympia USS Olympia 2.jpg 1892[56] Protected cruiser United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 344 ft (105 m) 6300 Only surviving ship from the Spanish–American War
Turbinia Turbinia At Speed.jpg 1894[57] Experimental steamship United Kingdom Newcastle upon Tyne, England 102 ft (31 m) 45 First turbine-powered ship
Vridni Vridni (tugboat, 1894); Split, 2013-04-10.jpg 1894[58] Tugboat Austria-Hungary Split, Croatia 42 ft (13 m) 10
C.A. Thayer CA Thayer HAER 041940.jpg 1895[59] Schooner United States San Francisco, California 219 ft (67 m) 500
Belem Bayonne Belem.jpg 1896[60] Barque France Nantes, France 190 ft (58 m) 500
Glenlee S.S. Glenlee (6731091951).jpg 1896[61] Barque United Kingdom Glasgow, Scotland 246 ft (75 m) 3000
ARA Presidente Sarmiento Fragata Presidente Sarmiento 01.jpg 1897[62] Training ship United Kingdom Buenos Aires, Argentina 267 ft (81 m) 3000
William B. Tennison Tennison Side Dec 08.JPG 1899 Bugeye United States Solomons Island, Maryland 60.5 ft. Built as a sailing bugeye at Crab Island MD in 1899 converted to engine power in 1912. Still operating as a US Coast Guard Licensed Passenger Vessel. The Tennison is a National Historic Landmark operated by The Calvert Marine Museum.
Mikasa Yokosuka-mikasa-08-2010.png 1900 Pre-dreadnought battleship United Kingdom Yokosuka, Japan 432 ft (132 m) 15140 The last remaining example of a pre-dreadnought battleship.
Victory Chimes
Victory Chimes, Built in 1900, National Historic Landmark
1900[63] Schooner United States Rockland, Maine 135 ft

(41.1 m)

Victory Chimes is a regal, true piece of history. She's designated as a historical landmark and plies Maine's bays with stately grace and a cheery presence. Victory Chimes is the largest passenger sailing vessel under the USA flag, yet she accommodates just 40 guests.
MV Chauncy Maples Chauncy Maples1.jpg 1901 Motor ship United Kingdom Malawi 126 ft (38 m) 250 Africa's oldest motor ship[64]
Gazela Gazela-lowlova.JPG 1901 Barquentine Portugal Philadelphia 177 ft (54 m) 652 Museum ship
Aurora Aurora 1903.jpg 1903 Protected Cruiser Russia Saint Petersburg 416 ft (127 m) 6731 Museum Ship
Hercules Hercules (steam tug, San Francisco).JPG 1907 Tugboat United States San Francisco 151 ft (46 m) 409 Museum Ship
SS Nyanza SS Nyanza.jpg 1907 cargo ship United Kingdom Kenya 812 Although delerict, she still retains her original engines and boilers
SS Keewatin
1907 Passenger Ferry Scotland Canada 336.5 ft

(102.6 m)

3856 Museum Ship
Dar Pomorza 22 square rigger Pde of sail 4 July 76.jpg 1910 Frigate Germany Poland 267 ft

(81,5 m)

2500 Museum ship in Gdynia (Poland)
Georgios Averof Averof Today2.jpg 1910 Armored Cruiser Greece Palaio Faliro, Athens, Greece 459.7 ft (140.1 m) 10200 Museum Ship open for tours
SS Nomadic Nomadic.jpg 1911 Tender Belfast Belfast 220 ft (67 m) 1273 The last remaining White Star Line ship.
MV Cartela MV Cartela about 1995.jpg 1912 Ferry Australia Hobart, Tasmania 123 ft (37 m) 260 Continuous operation, now under restoration returning to steam. W.W.1. R.A.N.
Chacon MV Chacon.jpg 1912 Fishing Boat United States Chugiak, Alaska 72 ft (22 m) 100 Memorial
May Queen 1912 Barge Australia Hobart, Tasmania 69 ft (21 m) 90 Restored afloat display of the Tasmanian Maritime Museum Constitution Dock, Hobart.
CSS Acadia CSS Acadia 1.jpg 1913 Hydrographic Surveying Ship Canada Halifax, Canada 182 ft (55 m) 1700 Also a former Canadian Navy Patrol Vessel
Kommuna Kommuna rescue ship 2008 G2.jpg 1913 Salvage Vessel Russia Sevastopol, Russia 315 ft (96 m)
SS Rusinga 1913 cargo ship United Kingdom Kenya 220 ft (67 m) 1300 Still operational as of 2005[65]
Statsraad Lehmkuhl Statsraad Lehmkuhl royal yard.jpg 1914 School sailing ship Bergen, Norway
HMS Caroline HMS Caroline.jpg 1914 Light Cruiser United Kingdom Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK 420 ft (128.0 m) 3750 Only remaining ship from the Battle of Jutland. Was second oldest ship in the Royal Navy when decommissioned in 2011. Currently undergoing major restoration
USS Texas USS Texas (BB-35).jpg 1914 Dreadnought Era World War I Battleship United States San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site, Texas 573 ft (175 m) 27,000 The last remaining World War I era dreadnought battleship. Also one of six remaining ships that served in World War I and World War II
MV Liemba Liemba1.jpg 1915 cargo ship German Empire Tanzania 234.25 ft (71.40 m) 1575 Scuttled during the Battle for Lake Tanganyika during the First World War, she was later raised by the British and is still an active ferry to this day
HMS M33 M33 monitor Pmoth 17Feb07.png 1915 Monitor United Kingdom Portsmouth, England 177 ft (54 m) 580 Museum Ship
Kommuna Kommuna rescue ship 2008 G2.jpg 1915 Salvage Ship Russian Empire St. Petersburg, Russia 315 ft

(96 m)

3100 World's oldest naval vessel in commission that is still used for its designed role
Carlisle II
M.V. Carlisle II.jpg
1917 freight and passengers United States Port Orchard, Washington 65 ft

(20 m)

95 Museum ship in operation between Bremerton and Port Orchard.
SS Klondike SS Klondike 03.jpg 1921 Sternwheeler Canada Whitehorse, Yukon 210 ft (64 m) 1226.25 Museum Ship open for tours
STS Sedov Amsterdam Sail 2010 0819 Sedov 01.jpg 1921 Barque Germany Russia 117.5 ft (35.8 m) 7400 Sail Training Vessel
PS Sudan PS Sudan, on the Nile.JPG 1921[66] paddle steamer Scotland River Nile 228 ft (69 m) 600 Currently used for River cruises along the Nile River[67]
SS Delphine 2011-11-14 Yacht SS Delphine.jpg 1921 Steam Ship United States Monaco 257.8 ft (78.6 m( 1961
Ladona
Schooner Ladona, Built in 1922
1922[68] Schooner United States Rockland, Maine 82 ft

(25 m)

Schooner Ladona has been known for her beauty, swiftness, and strength since the day she was christened in 1922. Elegantly designed by William Hand, she was commissioned by Homer Loring as a private yacht and launched out of Hodgdon Yachts in East Boothbay Harbor, Maine.
American Eagle
Schooner American Eagle, Built in 1930
1930[69] Schooner United States Rockland, Maine 92 ft

(28 m)

Today the American Eagle looks and feels like a new boat. Her fair lines, solid timber and tarred rigging are as they were three generations ago when she first went to work in the waters off New England. She was recently designated a National Historic Landmark, and is one of very few sailing vessels licensed for international voyages.

See also[edit]

1907 S.S. Keewatin built in Govan Scotland for Canadian Pacific Railways as a passenger and freight ship traversing the Great Lakes until 1965. Sold to RJ Peterson of Peterson Marine in 1967 as a museum ship. Sold to Canadian interests in Port McNicoll Ontario in 2012. Operating as a museum ship currently.

1905 Steamboat Minnehaha, Lake Minnetonka Minnesota - 70 feet long launch style torpedo stern passenger ferry "streetcar boat" with triple expansion steam engine. Built by the Royal C. Moore boatworks (Wayzata, MN) for the Twin Cities Rapid Transit Company for continuation of trolley line passenger service to multiple destinations on Lake Minnetonka. Scuttled in 1926, raised in 1980, restoration completed in 1995. Currently operates as a non-profit museum ship offering public excursions and special cruises.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wierenga, Jan (12 April 2001). "Kano Van Pesse Kon Echt Varen". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  2. ^ Gumnior, Maren; Thiemeyer, Heinrich (2003). "Holocene fluvial dynamics in the NE Nigerian Savanna". Quaternary International. 111: 54. doi:10.1016/s1040-6182(03)00014-4.
  3. ^ Jenkins, Nancy (January–February 1980). "The Smell of Time". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  4. ^ "Bronze Age Boat". Dover Museum. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
  5. ^ Pauline., Asingh, (2009). Grauballemanden - portræt af et moselig. Moesgård Museum ([1. oplag] ed.). [Højbjerg]: Moesgård Museum. ISBN 9788702056884. OCLC 759086759.
  6. ^ UiO Museum of Cultural History (December 10, 2012). "The Oseberg finds". University of Oslo. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  7. ^ UiO Museum of Cultural History (December 10, 2012). "The Gokstad finds". University of Oslo. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  8. ^ Scholl, Lars (October 2, 2006). "The Bremen Cog of 1380" (PDF). German Maritime Museum. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  9. ^ The Vasa Museum (December 26, 2013). "Important dates". Vasamuseet.se. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  10. ^ Royal Navy (2013). "HMS Victory". RoyalNavy.mod.uk. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  11. ^ Paine, Lincoln (2000). Warships of the World to 1900. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  12. ^ Nixon, W.M. (August 23, 2013). "Is This the Oldest Yacht in the World?". Afloat. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  13. ^ City of Boston (2013). "USS Constitution and Charlestown Navy Yard". CityofBoston.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  14. ^ Dill, J. Gregory (2006). Myth, Fact, and Navigators' Secrets: Incredible Tales of the Sea and Sailors. Globe Pequot. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  15. ^ BBC News (September 22, 2010). "Crew diaries reunited with HMS Trincomalee on Teesside". BBC. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  16. ^ Urquhart, Frank (March 1, 2013). "HMS Unicorn drops to dock floor". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  17. ^ Wojtas, Joe (October 18, 2013). "Whaling ship Charles W. Morgan restores mast with silver half dollar under base for luck". TheDay.com. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  18. ^ Paine, Lincoln (2000). Warships of the World to 1900. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  19. ^ Cardiff School of History, Archaeology, and Religion (2012). "Conservation of Brunel's steamship SS Great Britain". Cardiff University. Retrieved 2013-12-26.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Owen, David (2007). Anti-Submarine Warfare: An Illustrated History. Naval Institute Press. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  21. ^ Castell, Marcus (May 25, 2005). "Edwin Fox". New Zealand Maritime Record. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  22. ^ Stiehm, Jamie (July 30, 1997). "USS Constellation's hull reveals its true ancestry and year of birth". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  23. ^ PS Skibladner, paddlesteamers.info, retrieved 13 February 2018.
  24. ^ Kure, Bernt (2013). "The frigate Jylland: building and restoration history". Traditional Shipbuilding Partnership. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  25. ^ "The launch on Saturday". Liverpool Daily Press. December 31, 1860. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  26. ^ Rokicki, Rich (August 20, 2000). "Civil War Sub: See how the Hunley submarine works". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  27. ^ Warth, Gary (November 9, 2013). "Star of India still spry at 150 years old". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  28. ^ BBC News (October 18, 2013). "City of Adelaide clipper: Protest targets Greenwich ceremony". BBC. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  29. ^ "S.S. Mahroussa - Who were Oliver Lang and son?". sites.google.com. 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  30. ^ a b c Frankignoul, Daniel (April 9, 2007). "The Huascar, Schorpioen and Buffel, three surviving ram ships of the Civil War era" (PDF). Confederate Historical Association of Belgium. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  31. ^ "Enköping" (in Swedish). skargardsbatar.se. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  32. ^ Mackie, Vivienne (December 22, 2013). "Greenwich: What time is it, and where are you?". Champaign/Urbana News-Gazette. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  33. ^ "Sail the Maine Coast on a Historic Maine Windjammer". schoonerfrench.com. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
  34. ^ "Sail the Maine Coast on a Historic Maine Windjammer". stephentaber.com. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  35. ^ Lloyd's Register Book (1892). Particulars of the War Ships of the World: Extracted from Lloyd's Register Book, 1892–93. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  36. ^ Gjøa – norsk polarskute (Store norske leksikon)
  37. ^ Sailing Ships - Meiji Maru Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 12 November 2015
  38. ^ Worth, Richard (2001). Fleets of World War II. Da Capo Press. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  39. ^ Lloyd's Register Book (1892). Particulars of the War Ships of the World: Extracted from Lloyd's Register Book, 1892–93. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. p. 15. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  40. ^ Lloyd's Register Book (1892). Particulars of the War Ships of the World: Extracted from Lloyd's Register Book, 1892–93. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. p. 51. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  41. ^ Voss, Kurt (2009). Galveston's the Elissa: The Tall Ship of Texas. Arcadia Publishing. p. 12. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  42. ^ "Lady of the Lake". National Historic Ships UK. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  43. ^ Delgado, James (1988). "Falls of Clyde National Historic Landmark Study". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  44. ^ Preston, Anthony (2007). Send a Gunboat: The Victorian Navy and Supremacy at Sea, 1854–1904. Naval Institute Press. p. 197. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  45. ^ Brodie Collection (1946). "Lady Elizabeth". State Library of Victoria. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  46. ^ Sidoli, Osvaldo (2012). "Museum ship BAE Abdon Calderon". Maritime History and Archaeology Foundation. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  47. ^ "Coronet". Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1997. p. 123. ISBN 0-395-71556-3.
  48. ^ "Partridge: From Rags to Riches". Paulafarquharson.ulitzer.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  49. ^ "Alex Laird of Classic Works in La Ciotat, Captain of the Partridge". Classicworks.fr. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  50. ^ "Polly Woodside". National Trust of Australia. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  51. ^ Nolte, Carl (February 10, 2009). "Working on a classic – sailing ship Balclutha". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  52. ^ Ohlsen, Becky (2004). Lonely Planet Stockholm. Lonely Planet. p. 160. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  53. ^ Broom, Jack (December 28, 2012). "Vintage Vessels Share MOHAI Spotlight". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  54. ^ "Raven". National Historic Ships UK. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  55. ^ "The Polar Ship Fram". The Fram Museum. Archived from the original on 2011-10-10. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  56. ^ Moody, Erin (November 28, 2012). "Local group makes finals to bring USS Olympia to Port Royal". Beaufort Gazette. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  57. ^ VanDulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century: 100 Inventions that Shaped the Victorian Age from Aspirin to the Zeppelin. NYU Press. p. 184. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  58. ^ Stjepan Lozo, Gordana Tudor: Počeci splitskog brodostrojarstva/Rossi—prvi hrvatski motori, Hrvatski pomorski muzej, Split, 2006, ISBN 953-97658-5-4 (Croatian)
  59. ^ National Park Service (December 12, 2013). "CA Thayer History". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  60. ^ Braynard, Frank (1993). The Tall Ships of Today in Photographs. Courier Dover Publications. p. 4. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  61. ^ Schauffelen, Otmar (2005). Chapman Great Sailing Ships of the World. Hearst Books. p. 141. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  62. ^ Histarmar (2012). "Museum ship frigate Presidente Sarmiento". Maritime History and Archaeology Foundation. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  63. ^ "Sail the Maine Coast on a Historic Maine Windjammer". victorychimes.com. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  64. ^ "What's the future for Africa's oldest motor ship?". Anglicannews.org. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  65. ^ "Chap.17.htm". kersi.50webs.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  66. ^ "History «  Steam Ship sudan". Steam-ship-sudan.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  67. ^ "The Dynastic «  Steam Ship sudan". Steam-ship-sudan.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  68. ^ "Sail the Maine Coast on a Historic Maine Windjammer". schoonerladona.com. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  69. ^ "Sail the Maine Coast on a Historic Maine Windjammer". schooneramericaneagle.com. Retrieved 2019-01-30.