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List of operating systems

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclusion is notability, as shown either through an existing Wikipedia article or citation to a reliable source.


Acorn Computers[edit]


Amiga Inc.[edit]



Apollo Computer, Hewlett-Packard[edit]


BAE Systems[edit]

Be Inc.[edit]

Bell Labs[edit]

Non-Unix Operating Systems:

Burroughs Corporation, Unisys[edit]

Commodore International[edit]

Control Data Corporation[edit]

Lower 3000 series[edit]

  • SCOPE (Supervisory Control Of Program Execution)[1]

Upper 3000 series[edit]

  • SCOPE (Supervisory Control Of Program Execution)[2]

6x00 and related Cyber[edit]


Convergent Technologies[edit]


Data General[edit]


  • CTOS Cassette Tape Operating System for the Datapoint 2200[11]
  • DOS Disk Operating System for the Datapoint 2200, 5500, and 1100[12]

DDC-I, Inc.[edit]

  • Deos – Time & Space Partitioned RTOS, Certified to DO-178B, Level A since 1998
  • HeartOS – POSIX-based Hard Real-Time Operating System

Digital Research, Inc.[edit]

Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett Packard Enterprise[edit]

ENEA AB[edit]

  • OSE – Flexible, small footprint, high-performance RTOS for control processors


GEC Computers Ltd[edit]

General Electric, Honeywell, Bull[edit]


Android OS on the Samsung Galaxy Z smartphones
  • ChromiumOS is an open source operating system development version of ChromeOS. Both operating systems are based on the Linux kernel.
    • ChromeOS is designed to work exclusively with web applications, though has been updated to run Android apps with full support for Google Play Store. Announced on July 7, 2009, ChromeOS is currently publicly available and was released summer 2011. The ChromeOS source code was released on November 19, 2009, under the BSD license as ChromiumOS.
    • Container-Optimized OS (COS) is an operating system that is optimized for running Docker containers, based on ChromiumOS.[13]
  • Android is an operating system for mobile devices. It consists of Android Runtime (userland) with Linux (kernel), with its Linux kernel modified to add drivers for mobile device hardware and to remove unused Vanilla Linux drivers.
  • gLinux, a Linux distribution that Google uses internally
  • Fuchsia is a capability-based real-time operating system (RTOS) scalable to universal devices, in early development, from the tiniest embedded hardware, wristwatches, tablets to the largest personal computers. Unlike ChromeOS and Android, it is not based on the Linux kernel, but instead began on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel".
  • Wear OS a version of Google's Android operating system designed for smartwatches and other wearables.

Green Hills Software[edit]

Harris Computer Systems[edit]

Heathkit, Zenith Data Systems[edit]

Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett Packard Enterprise[edit]

  • HP Multi-Programming Executive (MPE, MPE/XL, and MPE/iX) – runs on HP 3000 and HP e3000 mini-computers
  • HP-UX – runs on HP9000 and Itanium servers (from small to mainframe-class computers)



Intel Corporation[edit]

  • iRMX – real-time operating system originally created to support the Intel 8080 and 8086 processor families in embedded applications.
  • ISIS, ISIS-II – "Intel Systems Implementation Supervisor" was an environment for development of software within the Intel microprocessor family in the early 1980s on their Intellec Microcomputer Development System and clones. ISIS-II worked with 8 inch floppy disks and had an editor, cross-assemblers, a linker, an object locator, debugger, compilers for PL/M, a BASIC interpreter, etc. and allowed file management through a console.
  • iMAX 432 - operating system for systems based on Intel's iAPX 432 architecture.


On early mainframes: 1410, 7010, 704, 709, 7090, 7094, 7040, 7044, 7030[edit]

On S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes[edit]

  • OS/360 and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
    • OS/360 (first official OS targeted for the System/360 architecture)
      • PCP (Primary Control Program, a kernel and a ground breaking automatic space allocating file system)
      • MFT (original Multi-programming with a Fixed number of Tasks, replaced by MFT II)
      • MFT II (Multi-Programming with a Fixed number of Tasks, had up to 15 fixed size application partitions, plus partitions for system tasks, initially defined at boot time but redefinable by operator command)
      • MVT (Multi-Programming with a Variable number of Tasks, had up to 15 application regions defined dynamically, plus additional regions for system tasks)
      • M65MP (MVT with support for a multiprocessor 360/65)
    • OS/VS (port of OS/360 targeted for the System/370 virtual memory architecture (OS/370 is not the correct name for OS/VS1 and OS/VS2.) OS/VS has the following variations:
      • OS/VS1 (Operating System/Virtual Storage 1, Virtual-memory version of OS/360 MFT II)
        • OS/VS1 Basic Programming Extensions (BPE) adds device support and VM handshaking
      • OS/VS2 (Operating System/Virtual Storage 2, Virtual-memory version of OS/360 MVT)
        • OS/VS2 R1 (Called Single Virtual Storage (SVS), Virtual-memory version of OS/360 MVT but without multiprocessing support)
        • OS/VS2 R2 through R3.8 (called Multiple Virtual Storage, MVS, eliminated most need for VS1).
          • MVS/SE (MVS System Extensions)
    • MVS/SP (MVS System Product) V1
    • MVS/370 refers to OS/VS2 MVS, MVS/SE and MVS/SP Version 1
    • MVS/XA (MVS/SP V2, supports S/370 Extended Architecture, 31-bit addressing)
    • MVS/ESA (MVS supported Enterprise Systems Architecture, horizontal addressing extensions: data only address spaces called Dataspaces)
      • MVS/SP V3
      • MVS/ESA SP V4 (a Unix environment was available for MVS/ESA SP V4R3)
      • MVS/ESA SP V5 (the UNIX environment was bundled in this and all subsequent versions)
    • OS/390 replacement for MVS/ESA SP V5 with some products bundled
    • z/OS z/Architecture replacement for OS/390 with 64-bit virtual addressing
    • Phoenix/MVS (Developed at Cambridge University)
  • DOS/360 and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
    • BOS/360 (early interim version of DOS/360, briefly available at a few Alpha & Beta System/360 sites)
    • TOS/360 (similar to BOS above and more fleeting, able to boot and run from 2x00 series tape drives)
    • DOS/360 (Disk Operating System (DOS), multi-programming system with up to 3 partitions, first commonly available OS for System/360)
      • DOS/360/RJE (DOS/360 with a control program extension that provided for the monitoring of remote job entry hardware (card reader & printer) connected by dedicated phone lines)
    • DOS/VS (First DOS offered on System/370 systems, provided virtual storage)
    • DOS/VSE (also known as VSE, upgrade of DOS/VS, up to 14 fixed size processing partitions )
      • VSE/Advanced Functions (VSE/AF) - Additional functionality for DOS/VSE
    • VSE/SP (program product including DOS/VSE and VSE/AF)
    • VSE/ESA, replaces VSE/SP, supports ESA/370 and ESA/390 with 31-bit addresses
    • z/VSE (latest version of the four decades old DOS lineage, supports 64-bit addresses, multiprocessing, multiprogramming, SNA, TCP/IP, and some virtual machine features in support of Linux workloads)
  • CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
    • CP-40/CMS (for System/360 Model 40)
    • CP-67/CMS (for System/360 Model 67)
    • Virtual Machine Facility/370 (VM/370) - the CP virtual machine hypervisor, Conversational Monitor System (CMS) operating system and supporting facilities for System/370 (24-bit addresses)
      • VM/370 Basic System Extensions Program Product (VM/BSE, AKA BSEPP) is an enhancement to VM/370
      • VM/370 System Extensions Program Product (VM/SE, AKA SEPP) is an enhancement to VM/370 that includes the facilities of VM/BSE
    • Virtual Machine/System Product (VM/SP) replaces VM/370, VM/BSE and VM/SE.
    • Virtual Machine/Extended Architecture (VM/XA) refers to three versions of VM that support System/370 Extended Architecture (S/370-XA) with 31-bit virtual addresses
      • Virtual Machine/Extended architecture Migration Aid (VM/XA MA) - Intended for MVS/370 to MVS/XA migration
      • Virtual Machine/Extended Architecture Systems Facility (VM/XA SF) - new release of VM/XA MA with additional functionality
      • Virtual Machine/Extended Architecture System Product (VM/XA SP) - Replaces VM/SP, VM/SP HPO and VM/XA SF
    • Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture (VM/ESA), supports S/370, ESA/370 and ESA/390 (a Unix environment was available starting with[14] Version 2.)
    • z/VM (z/Architecture version of the VM OS with 64-bit addressing). Starting with Version 3,[15] the Unix environment was standard.

On PC and Intel x86 based architectures[edit]

    • PC DOS 1.x, 2.x, 3.x (developed jointly with Microsoft)
    • IBM DOS 4.x, 5.0 (developed jointly with Microsoft)
    • PC DOS 6.1, 6.3, 7, 2000, 7.10

On other hardware platforms[edit]

International Computers Limited[edit]

  • J and MultiJob – for the System 4 series mainframes
  • GEORGE 2/3/4 GEneral ORGanisational Environment – used by ICL 1900 series mainframes
  • Executive – used on the 1900 and 290x range of minicomputers. A modified version of Executive was also used as part of GEORGE 3 and 4.
  • TME – used on the ME29 minicomputer
  • ICL VME – including early variants VME/B and VME/2900, appearing on the ICL 2900 Series and Series 39 mainframes, implemented in S3
  • VME/K – on early smaller 2900s




Lynx Real-time Systems, LynuxWorks, Lynx Software Technologies[edit]


Microsoft Corporation[edit]




NCR Corporation[edit]

  • TMX – Transaction Management eXecutive
  • IMOS – Interactive Multiprogramming Operating System (circa 1978), for the NCR Century 8200 series minicomputers[citation needed]
  • VRX – Virtual Resource eXecutive




Open Mobile Platform[edit]

  • Aurora OS – the successor to Sailfish OS (not to be confused with a different Aurora OS)

Quadros Systems[edit]

  • RTXC Quadros RTOS – proprietary C-based RTOS used in embedded systems


  • Time Sharing Operating System (TSOS) – first OS supporting virtual addressing of the main storage and support for both timeshare and batch interface


  • DSPnano RTOS – 8/16 Bit Ultra Tiny Embedded Linux Compatible RTOS

Samsung Electronics[edit]

  • Bada
  • Tizen is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) while controlled by Samsung and backed by Intel. Tizen works on a wide range of Samsung devices including smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, PCs and wearable.
  • Orsay
  • One UI - Android skin

Scientific Data Systems (SDS)[edit]

SCO, SCO Group[17][edit]

  • Xenix, Unix System III based distribution for the Intel 8086/8088 architecture
    • Xenix 286, Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80286 architecture
    • Xenix 386, Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80386 architecture
  • SCO Unix, SCO UNIX System V/386 was the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T to use the UNIX System trademark (1989). Derived from AT&T System V Release 3.2 with an infusion of Xenix device drivers and utilities plus most of the SVR4 features
    • SCO Open Desktop, the first 32-bit graphical user interface for UNIX Systems running on Intel processor-based computers. Based on SCO Unix
  • SCO OpenServer 5, AT&T UNIX System V Release 3 based
  • SCO OpenServer 6, SVR5 (UnixWare 7) based kernel with SCO OpenServer 5 application and binary compatibility, system administration, and user environments
  • UnixWare
    • UnixWare 2.x, based on AT&T System V Release 4.2MP
    • UnixWare 7, UnixWare 2 kernel plus parts of 3.2v5 (UnixWare 2 + OpenServer 5 = UnixWare 7). Referred to by SCO as SVR5

Silicon Laboratories (formerly Micrium Inc.)[edit]

  • Micrium OS - customized μC/OS-III for Silicon Laboratories's SoC products

Sinclair Research[edit]

  • Sinclair BASIC was used in the 8-bit home computers from Sinclair Research and Timex Sinclair. It was included in the ROM, and the computers booted to the Basic interpreter. Various versions exist, with the latter ones supporting disk drive operations.



  • PikeOS – a certified real time operating system for safety and security critical embedded systems

Tandem Computers, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett Packard Enterprise[edit]

  • NonStop OS – runs on HPE's NonStop line of servers

Tandy Corporation[edit]

TCSC (later NCSC)[edit]

Texas Instruments[edit]

  • TI-RTOS Kernel – Real-time operating system for TI's embedded devices.

TRON Project[edit]

UNIVAC, Unisys[edit]

Wang Laboratories[edit]

  • WPS Wang Word Processing System. Micro-code based system.
  • OIS Wang Office Information System. Successor to the WPS. Combined the WPS and VP/MVP systems.

Weston Embedded Solutions[edit]

  • μC/OS-II – a small pre-emptive priority based multi-tasking kernel
  • μC/OS-III – a small pre-emptive priority based multi-tasking kernel, with unlimited number of tasks and priorities, and round-robin scheduling
  • Cesium RTOS - commercial continuation of Micrium's μC/OS-III forked from the open-sources release

Wind River Systems[edit]

  • VxWorks – Small footprint, scalable, high-performance RTOS for embedded microprocessor based systems.[19]




For Elektronika BK[edit]

Non-standard language-based[edit]

  • Pilot operating system – written in the Mesa language and used on Xerox Star workstations.
  • PERQ Operating System (POS) – written in PERQ Pascal.

Other proprietary non-Unix-like[edit]

Other proprietary Unix-like and POSIX-compliant[edit]


Unix or Unix-like[edit]



Unix or Unix-like[edit]


Disk operating systems (DOS)[edit]

  • 86-DOS (developed at Seattle Computer Products by Tim Paterson for the new Intel 808x CPUs; licensed to Microsoft, became PC DOS/MS-DOS. Also known by its working title QDOS.)
    • PC DOS (IBM's DOS variant, developed jointly with Microsoft, versions 1.0–7.0, 2000, 7.10)
    • MS-DOS (Microsoft's DOS variant for OEM, developed jointly with IBM, versions 1.x–6.22 Microsoft's now abandoned DOS variant)
  • Concurrent CP/M-86 3.1 (BDOS 3.1) with PC-MODE (Digital Research's successor of CP/M-86 and MP/M-86)
    • Concurrent DOS 3.1-4.1 (BDOS 3.1-4.1)
      • Concurrent PC DOS 3.2 (BDOS 3.2) (Concurrent DOS variant for IBM compatible PCs)
        • DOS Plus 1.1, 1.2 (BDOS 4.1), 2.1 (BDOS 5.0) (single-user, multi-tasking system derived from Concurrent DOS 4.1-5.0)
      • Concurrent DOS 8-16 (dual-processor variant of Concurrent DOS for 8086 and 8080 CPUs)
      • Concurrent DOS 286 1.x
      • Concurrent DOS 386 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0 (BDOS 5.0-6.2)
      • Concurrent DOS XM 5.0, 5.2, 6.0, 6.2 (BDOS 5.0-6.2) (real-mode variant of Concurrent DOS with EEMS support)
        • DR DOS 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 5.0, 6.0 (BDOS 6.0-7.1) single-user, single-tasking native DOS derived from Concurrent DOS 6.0)
          • Novell PalmDOS 1 (BDOS 7.0)
          • Novell DR DOS "StarTrek"
          • Novell DOS 7 (single-user, multi-tasking system derived from DR DOS, BDOS 7.2)
            • Novell DOS 7 updates 1-10 (BDOS 7.2)
              • Caldera OpenDOS 7.01 (BDOS 7.2)
                • Enhanced DR-DOS 7.01.0x (BDOS 7.2)
                  • Dell Real Mode Kernel (DRMK)
            • Novell DOS 7 updates 11–15.2 (BDOS 7.2)
              • Caldera DR-DOS 7.02-7.03 (BDOS 7.3)
                • DR-DOS "WinBolt"
                • OEM DR-DOS 7.04-7.05 (BDOS 7.3)
                • OEM DR-DOS 7.06 (PQDOS)
                • OEM DR-DOS 7.07 (BDOS 7.4/7.7)
  • FreeDOS (open source DOS variant)
  • ProDOS (operating system for the Apple II series computers)
  • PTS-DOS (DOS variant by Russian company Phystechsoft)
  • TurboDOS (Software 2000, Inc.) for Z80 and Intel 8086 processor-based systems
  • Multi-tasking user interfaces and environments for DOS

Network operating systems[edit]

Generic, commodity, and other[edit]



Mobile operating systems[edit]


Other embedded[edit]

LEGO Mindstorms[edit]


See also[edit]

Category links[edit]


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  2. ^ 3600 Computer System SCOPE/Reference Manual (PDF). Control Data Corporation. September 1964. 60053300.
  3. ^ 3600 3800 Computer Systems Drum SCOPE/MSIO Operating Guide (PDF). Control Data Corporation. July 1967. 60059200B.
  4. ^ 6000 Series Computer Systems Chippewa Operating System Reference Manual (PDF). Control Data Corporation. December 1965. 60134400.
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  34. ^ "Despite its name suggesting some similarity to Unix, Xinu is a different type of operating system, written with no knowledge of the Unix source code, or compatibility goals. It uses different abstractions, and system calls, some with names matching those of Unix, but different semantics." Garfinkel, Simson; Spafford, Gene; Schwartz, Alan (2003). Practical UNIX and Internet Security. O'Reilly. p. 19.
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External links[edit]