List of optometry schools

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following list of optometry schools covers many countries, although the list is not exhaustive. Internationally, optometry as a profession includes different levels of education.[1] The institutions listed below provide academic and professional education and clinical training that ranges from Doctor of Optometry degree level to other professional degrees in optometry and also non-degree level education leading to a diploma or other qualifications in optometry.

In many countries the role of optometry is statutorily defined, practice is regulated and there is uniformity in professional education and clinical training and the scope of practice is consistent with the definition of optometry as a profession. In such countries the nomenclature of terminal qualification may be reviewed as and when necessary. In Australia, for example, Doctor of Optometry (OD) is now established at University of Melbourne (first intake 2011) and OD is described as "an internationally recognised qualification and the gold standard for optometry education."[2]

Australia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

  • 4 Years Bachelor of Science in Optometry (B. Optom) course in Institute of Community Ophthalmology, Chittagong Medical University since 2010 www.icoedu.org

Brazil[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

Colombia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

France[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Greece[edit]

Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Optics and Optometry[30]

Hong Kong[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Semmelweis University, Faculty of Health Sciences - Optometry within Medical Diagnostic Analysis Bsc [32] –

India[edit]

At present there are more than fifty schools of optometry in India. In 1958, two schools of optometry were established, one at Gandhi Eye Hospital, Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh and the other at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, under the second five-year plan by Director General of Health Services of Government of India. These schools offered diplomas in optometry courses of two years duration validated by state medical faculties. Subsequently, four more schools were opened across India at Sitapur Eye Hospital, Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh, Chennai (formerly Madras) in Tamil Nadu, Bengalooru (formerly Bangalore) in Karnataka and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum) in Kerala.

The Elite School of Optometry (ESO) was established in 1985 at Chennai and was the first to offer a four-year degree course. This was followed by All India institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum), the first government colleges to offer a bachelor's degree in optometry.

The following list includes educational institutions offering four year degree courses, two or three year diploma courses and also non-degree courses. Post-graduate education in optometry is also offered in India leading to M.Optom, M.Phil., M.Sc. and Ph.D. by several universities.


  • Al Salama College of Optometry - [33] Perinthalmanna, Calicut and Kannur, Kerala
  • All India Institute of Optometrical Sciences (Academic Wing of Indian Optical Institute and Refraction Hospital Trust), Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Amity University Gurgaon, Haryana
  • Bareilly Institute of ParaMedical Sciences & S.S. Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh
  • Bausch & Lomb School of Optometry, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
  • Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Medical College, School of Optometry, Pune, Maharashtra.
  • Bharatimaiya College of Optometry, Surat, Gujrat
  • Dr. Anand College of Optometry and Vision Science, Salem, Tamil Nadu
  • Dr. DY Patil Institute of Optometry & Visual Science (Deemed) University Maharashtra
  • Dr. N.T.R. University Of Health Sciences Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh
  • Elite School of Optometry, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • FAHS (Faculties of Allied Health Sciences Pondicherry), Vinayaka Missions University Tamil Nadu
  • George college of management and science
  • The Global Open University, Kohima, Nagaland
  • Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh
  • IGNOU (Central University), Delhi
  • ITM Institute of Health Science, (Deemed) University, Mumbai, Maharastra
  • Jadhavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Jamia Hamdard (Deemed) University, Delhi
  • Jankalyan Eye Hospital Educational and research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  • J.R.N. Rajasthan vidyapeeth (Deemed) University, Rajasthan
  • Kalyani University, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Laxmi College of Optometry, Mumbai, Maharastra
  • Lotus College of Optometry, Mumbai, Maharastra
  • Madurai Kamraj University, Tamil Nadu
  • Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka
  • Martin Luther King University, Shillog, Meghalaya
  • Municipal Eye Hospital, School of Optometry, Mumbai, Maharastra
  • Nagar school of Optometry, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujrat
  • Netaji Subhash Institute of Optometry, Mumbai
  • Netrajyothi college of Health Science (Optometry), Bangalore, Karnataka
  • NIMS University, Rajasthan
  • NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Rabindra Bharti University, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  • RGUHS, Karnataka
  • Sankara College of Optometry, Bangalore, Karnataka
  • Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
  • Shri Ganpati Netralaya College of Optometry, Jalna, Maharastra
  • Shri Prakash Institute of Optometry(A Unit of Dr.Agarwals Eye Hospital), Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • Shri Rajaram Memorial Eye Hospital, Optometry research & Training Institute, Banda, Uttar Pradesh
  • Shri Vaishnav Poloticnic College Indore, Madhya Pradesh
  • Sri NFL Educational Institute of Optometry, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
  • Sri Ramchandra University, Porur, Tamil Nadu
  • Srimanta Sankaradeva University of Health Science, Assam
  • SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • Susruta School of Optometry & Visual Sciences, Cochin, Kerala
  • The Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • Tripura University, Agartala, Tripura
  • University of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
  • University of Mumbai, Maharashtra
  • Uttrakhand University, Uttrakhand
  • Vasan Institute of Ophthalmology and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
  • Veer Narmad South Gujrat University, Surat, Gujrat
  • Vidyasagar College of Optometry and Vision Science, Kolkata, West Bengal[34]
  • West Bengal University of technology, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University (YCMOU), Nasik, Maharashtra

Iran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

Currently there are seven state universities (in Milano, Padova, Salento, Roma, Firenze, Napoli, and Torino) offering three-year university degrees in optics and optometry (Ottica e Optometria), formally a kind of a physics degree.

Latvia[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Nepal[edit]

  • Tribhuwan University, B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Maharajgunj Medical Campus - four-year bachelor's degree program only, with no post-graduate programs available

The Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

There are seven schools offering the O.D. (Doctor of Optometry) degree.

Norway[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • College of Ophthalmology and Allied Vision science, KEMU, Lahore
  • Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore
  • Isra School of Optometry, Isra University, Karachi
  • Isra University, Islamabad
  • Munawar Memorial Hospital & College of Optometry, Chakwal
  • Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmology, Peshawar
  • Pakistan Institute of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi
  • Pakistan Institute of Rehabilitation Science PIRS Islamabad
  • Pef University College, Peshawar
  • Rashid Latif Medical College
  • Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi
  • University of Faisalabad
  • University of Lahore, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences (DOVS), Lahore

Philippines[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Russia[edit]

  • The Helmholtz Research Institute for Eye Diseases[64]
  • Saint Petersburg Medical Technical College[25]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

  • King Saud University, Riyadh - Doctor of Optometry (OD) and master's degree in Vision Science
  • Qassim University, Buraidah, Al-Qassim - Doctor of optometry (OD)

Singapore[edit]

In 2009 University of Manchester (UK) and Singapore Polytechnic set up a degree course in optometry within the premises of Singapore Polytechnic. The degree is not recognised by the General Optical Council (GOC) in the United Kingdom.[66] This course has since been stopped[67] due to staffing issues.[68]

  • Singapore Polytechnic

South Africa[edit]

4 Year Bachelors degrees including clinical optometry

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • School of Ophthalmic Technology, established in 1983 by the ministry of health at National Eye Hospital Colombo with the initiation of Dr. C E Parker III., honours the diploma in ophthalmic technology. However, a degree programme does not exist. These ophthalmic technologists are trained for the purpose of government hospitals.

The course is also undergone by other SAARC countries: Nepal, Maldives and Pakistan.

Part-time courses are conducted by private institutes to provide diploma for the private sector, such as the Eye Care Institute and Sri Lanka Optometrist Association.

The government of Sri Lanka does not recognize optometry as a profession and has no regulations to date.

Sudan[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

  • University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland - Institute of Optometry [26]
  • Swiss American International Academy - Geneva, Switzerland

Taiwan[edit]

There are currently seven universities offering a bachelor's degree in optometry and four educational institutions offering an associate degree in optometry:

Thailand[edit]

Trinidad & Tobago[edit]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[edit]

There are 12 educational institutions in the United Kingdom offering degrees in optometry. Nine are located in England with one optometry school in each of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland. Additionally, in England, the Institute of Optometry offers a post-graduate professional doctorate (Doctor of Optometry degree)[86][87] in partnership with London South Bank University.

England[edit]

Wales[edit]

Scotland[edit]

Northern Ireland[edit]

United States of America[edit]

23 American educational institutions offer the Doctor of Optometry degree. Many new schools are currently preparing new programs.[96]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agarwal, R. (2000), Optometry as an international profession, British Journal of Optometry and Dispensing, 8(4),120.
  2. ^ "Doctor of Optometry : Department of Optometry & Vision Sciences : The University of Melbourne". Optometry.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  3. ^ Bill Atasever (2011-07-27). "Deakin Optometry". Deakin.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  4. ^ "Bachelor of Medical Science (Vision Science), Master of Optometry - Flinders University". Flinders.edu.au. 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  5. ^ "QUT - Faculty of Health - Optometry". 5 November 2006. Archived from the original on 5 November 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  6. ^ "Course - University of Canberra". www.canberra.edu.au. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "School of Optometry and Vision Science". www.optom.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  9. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090302100131/http://www.cni.unc.br/unc_novo/cursos/opto/opto.php. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ "Optometry / Faculty of Physics / Bachelor's Degree Programmes / Degree Programmes / Faculty of Physics / Faculties / The University / Home - Sofia University St. Kl. Ohridski". Uni-sofia.bg. 2011-03-29. Retrieved 2013-08-17.
  11. ^ "Ecole d'optometrie - Universite de Montreal". www.opto.umontreal.ca. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Home - Optometry & Vision Science". uwaterloo.ca. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  13. ^ "Wayback Machine". 12 May 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina, Colombia". www.areandina.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  15. ^ "UNIVERSIDAD SAN MARTIN - FUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA SAN MARTIN". FUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA SAN MARTIN. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  16. ^ "Inicio". www.uan.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  17. ^ webmaster@lasalle.edu.co. "UNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLE - Bogotá Colombia". www.unisalle.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Universidad El Bosque - Universidad El Bosque". www.uelbosque.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Universidad Metropolitana – Ciencias de la Salud, Educación e Innovación". www.unimetro.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  20. ^ Bucaramanga, Universidas Santo Tomas Seccional. "UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMáS SECCIONAL BUCARAMANGA". www.ustabuca.edu.co. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Home - Veřejný web - České vysoké učení technické v Praze". www.cvut.cz. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  22. ^ univerzita, Masarykova. "Studujte na Muni". Masarykova univerzita. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  23. ^ www.artprodesign.com. "Optometrie UP". www.optometry.cz. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  24. ^ "UNIVERSIDADES AUTOFINANCIADAS PARTICIPAN EN CONFERENCIA CON LA COMISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN SOBRE LA LOES". Universidad Metropolitana del Ecuador - UMET. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ "BTS opticien lunetier et formations opticien à l'ISO". ISO. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  27. ^ Agency, Université Paris-Sud / Zee. "Optique professionnelle - Université Paris-Sud". www.u-psud.fr. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ "Department of Optometry - Home - School of Physical Sciences". 1 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  30. ^ "Department of Optics and Optometry". optics.teiath.gr. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  31. ^ "School of Optometry". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Semmelweis University, Faculty of Health Sciences - Optometry" (PDF). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  33. ^ "Al Salama College of Optometry - Al Salama College of Optometry". alsalamaschools.in. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Home". www.vcovs.org. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  35. ^ [4]
  36. ^ "دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی شهید بهشتی". Sbmu.ac.ir. Archived from the original on 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  37. ^ "Zahedan University of Medical Sciences(zdmu)". 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  38. ^ "DIT Optometry : Programme". Optometry.dit.ie. 2010-04-26. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  39. ^ "Ottica_Home". .mater.unimib.it. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  40. ^ "Dipartimento di Fisica: Corso di Laurea in Ottica e Optometria". Fisica.unipd.it. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  41. ^ "Facolta di Scienze MM.FF.NN. :: Corso di Laurea in Ottica ed Optometria - Università del Salento". www.scienzemfn.unisalento.it. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  42. ^ "University of Latvia". Lu.lv. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  43. ^ [5]
  44. ^ [6]
  45. ^ [7]
  46. ^ "Home- Modern University for Business & Science Document". www.mubs.edu.lb. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  47. ^ "International Islamic University Malaysia". 7 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  48. ^ "twintech.edu.my". www.twintech.edu.my. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  49. ^ [8]
  50. ^ [9]
  51. ^ Nacional, Sitio del Instituto Politécnico. "Inicio - Instituto Politécnico Nacional". www.cics-sto.ipn.mx. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  52. ^ "Planes de Estudio - Optometría". Dgae.unam.mx. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  53. ^ [10] Archived December 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ "Páginas - UACJ". Uacj.mx. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  55. ^ "School of Optometry and Vision Science - The University of Auckland". www.optometry.auckland.ac.nz. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  56. ^ uniben. "The University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria". www.uniben.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  57. ^ "WAeUP.Kofa - Student Management System". uniben.waeup.org. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  58. ^ "Optometry Studies". Buskerud University College. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  59. ^ pw. "Portal UAM - Strona główna Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu". amu.edu.pl. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  60. ^ [11]
  61. ^ [12]
  62. ^ (GRP+SI), Universidade da Beira Interior. "Universidade da Beira Interior". UBI - Universidade da Beira Interior. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  63. ^ "Departamento de Física - Universidade do Minho". www.fisica.uminho.pt. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  64. ^ "Главные события - http://www.igb.ru - Сайт Московского НИИ глазных болезней им.Гельмгольца". Helmholtzeyeinstitute.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-15. External link in |title= (help)
  65. ^ "Diploma in Optometry (N83)". Np.edu.sg. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  66. ^ "General Optical Council UK".
  67. ^ "Asiaone - End in sight for optometry degree course".
  68. ^ "CLOSURE OF OPTOMETRY DEGREE COURSE – DUE TO 'POLITICS'?". Archived from the original on 2014-01-27.
  69. ^ "University of the Free State". ufs.ac.za. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  70. ^ "University of Johannesburg". Uj.ac.za. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  71. ^ "Home". Spso.ukzn.ac.za. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  72. ^ "University of Limpopo". Ul.ac.za. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  73. ^ "Řźř§Ů…Řšřš اŮ"نٚů"Ůšů† - اŮ"Ů…ŮˆŮ‚Řš اŮ"Řąřłů…Ůš". Neelain.edu.sd. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  74. ^ Jenny Enberg (2008-03-17). "Study Programme in Optometry 2008/2009 - Study Programmes - Karolinska Institutet". Ki.se. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  75. ^ "Program & kurser - Program och kurser - Karolinska Institutet". Ki.se. 2010-04-15. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  76. ^ "Optometry Programme - Linnaeus University, Sweden - Lnu.se". Utb.lnu.se. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  77. ^ "Department of Optometry - Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan".
  78. ^ [13] Archived December 8, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ http://www.jente.edu.tw/教學單位/視光學科網頁/English/English_index.htm
  80. ^ "cover_office.-01psd". 28 July 2003. Archived from the original on 28 July 2003. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  81. ^ [14]
  82. ^ "Thai". 8 November 2006. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  83. ^ [15]
  84. ^ "The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago". sta.uwi.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  85. ^ "B.Sc Optometry - University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Page 81" (PDF). sta.uwi.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-10.
  86. ^ Agarwal, R. (2008), Integrating theory with practice, Optician, volume 236, number 6167, page 12.
  87. ^ Agarwal, R. (2014), Developing the doctorate, Optician, volume 247, number 6439, page 26.
  88. ^ Anglia Ruskin University, Information Services Team (2012-08-24). "University Eye Clinic - Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences - Anglia Ruskin University". Anglia.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  89. ^ "Healthcare Degree Courses in London - School of Health Sciences | City University London". City.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  90. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2006-11-04.
  91. ^ [16]
  92. ^ [17] Archived November 13, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  93. ^ "Cardiff University". cardiff.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  94. ^ "GCU Virtual Advisor - Programme Details". Hp1.gcal.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  95. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080405022343/http://prospectus.ulster.ac.uk/modules/courses/F160UC.html. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  96. ^ "FAQs | ASCO: Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry". www.opted.org. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
  97. ^ "UAB - Welcome". Uab.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  98. ^ "Southern California College of Optometry". 7 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  99. ^ "Berkeley Optometry Home Page". 5 November 2006. Archived from the original on 5 November 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  100. ^ "Curriculum-Curriculum, Western University of Health Sciences". Westernu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  101. ^ University, Nova Southeastern. "Private Florida Research University - Nova Southeastern University NSU". www.nova.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  102. ^ Optometry, Illinois College of. "Illinois College of Optometry". www.ico.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  103. ^ "Optometry in Downers Grove, IL - Midwestern University". www.midwestern.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  104. ^ "Midwestern University - Educating Tomorrow's Healthcare Team | Midwestern University". www.midwestern.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
  105. ^ [18]
  106. ^ "KYCO - University of Pikeville". www.upike.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
  107. ^ [19]
  108. ^ "New England College of Optometry". New England College of Optometry (NECO). Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  109. ^ "Michigan College Of Optometry - Ferris State University". www.ferris.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  110. ^ "College of Optometry". Umsl.edu. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  111. ^ "SUNY College of Optometry". www.sunyopt.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  112. ^ "College of Optometry". College of Optometry. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  113. ^ "College of Optometry > NSUOCO Home - Northeastern State University". optometry.nsuok.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  114. ^ [20]
  115. ^ "Doctor of Optometry Programs". Salus.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  116. ^ [21] Archived 2012-03-11 at WebCite
  117. ^ "Optometry School: Southern College of Optometry (SCO)". www.sco.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  118. ^ "Home - University of Houston College of Optometry Website". www.opt.uh.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  119. ^ "The Rosenberg School of Optometry - University of the Incarnate Word". www.uiw.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.