List of palaces

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Contents

Afghanistan[edit]

Albania[edit]

  • Presidenca – official residential palace of the President of the Republic.

Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

In Azerbaijani Turkic language have different means of the word "house" and "palace". Usually, church-houses were custom during 2nd century BC – 7th century AD. Mulk is a foreign word which came from Arabia during Caliphate Era. The word "Saray" is a castle, or government building which was considered to have particular administrative importance in various parts of the former Safavid Empire. Imarat or Igamatgah are big house which belong to rich people, khans, shahs. Same type buildings were popular in Midia, Afshar Empire, Karabakh Khanate, Baku Khanate, Shaddadids etc. Now, the term "Villa" is very popular and modern in Azerbaijan since the 1990s for a capitalist system.

Baku[edit]

The ruins of Shahbulag Castle Palace (built 2100 years ago)
Palace of De Boure built in 1891-1895

Old Era (BC 100-799):

Shirvanshahs Era (799-1539):

  • Bika Khanum Saray
  • Tamar Malayka Palace - consist of two saray: Alchichak and Naslijahan Khanum

Khanates of the Caucasus:

  • Baku Khans' Palace - is a complex of several houses belonged to members of ruling family of Baku Khanate.
  • Muhammadkhuba Khan Palace - former royal residence of Baku khans'

19th-21st centuries:

Icheri Sheher[edit]

Karabakh[edit]

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic[edit]

Ganja[edit]

Goygol[edit]

  • Teodor Palace
  • Göy Saray (Blue) Presidential Autunm Palace - Goygol - the country's most famous presidential palace.

Shamakhi[edit]

  • Vahdat Presidential Summer Palace
  • "Mazyad" Administrator's Palace

Shaki[edit]

Shamkir[edit]

Quba[edit]

  • Khanate Building
  • Jovhar Palace - is a residential palace of Mer

Elsewhere[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Belarus[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Benin[edit]

Bhutan[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Brunei[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Burundi[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Canada[edit]

Residences of provincial Lieutenant-Governors:

Chile[edit]

China[edit]

The English word "palace" is used to translated the Chinese word 宮 (pronounced "gōng" in Mandarin). This character represents two rooms connected (呂), under a roof (宀). Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but starting with the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BC) it was used only for the residence of the emperor and members of the imperial family. Chinese palaces are different from post-Renaissance European palaces in the sense that they are not made up of one building only (however big and convoluted the building may be), but are in fact huge spaces surrounded by a wall and containing large separated halls (殿 diàn) for ceremonies and official business, as well as smaller buildings, galleries, courtyards, gardens, and outbuildings, more like the Roman or Carolingian palatium.

List of Chinese imperial palaces, in chronological order[edit]

Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing
Xinhua Gate, formal entrance to the Zhongnanhai compound.
  • Forbidden City (紫禁城), now known in China as Beijing's Old Palace (北京故宫), in Jingshi (京師), now called Beijing (北京): imperial palace of the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty from 1421 until 1924. Area: 720,000 m² (178 acres).

Apart from the main imperial palace, Chinese dynasties also had several other imperial palaces in the capital city where the empress, crown prince, or other members of the imperial family dwelled. There also existed palaces outside of the capital city called "away palaces" (離宮) where the emperors resided when traveling. The habit also developed of building garden estates in the countryside surrounding the capital city, where the emperors retired at times to get away from the rigid etiquette of the imperial palace, or simply to escape from the summer heat inside their capital. This practice reached a zenith with the Qing Dynasty, whose emperors built the fabulous Imperial Gardens (御園), now known in China as the Gardens of Perfect Brightness (圓明園), and better known in English as the Old Summer Palace. The emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and worked in the Imperial Gardens, 8 km/5 miles outside of the walls of Beijing, the Forbidden City inside Beijing being used only for formal ceremonies.

These gardens were made up of three gardens: the Garden of Perfect Brightness proper, the Garden of Eternal Spring (長春園), and the Elegant Spring Garden (綺春園); they covered a huge area of 3.5 km² (865 acres), almost 5 times the size of the Forbidden City, and 8 times the size of the Vatican City. comprising hundreds of halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, gardens, lakes, etc. Several famous landscapes of southern China had been reproduced in the Imperial Gardens, hundreds of invaluable Chinese art masterpieces and antiquities were stored in the halls, making the Imperial Gardens one of the largest museum in the world. Some unique copies of literary work and compilations were also stored inside the Imperial Gardens. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, the British and French expeditionary forces looted the Old Summer Palace. Then on October 18, 1860, in order to "punish" the imperial court, which had refused to allow Western embassies inside Beijing, the British general Lord Elgin – with protestations from the French – purposely ordered to set fire to the huge complex which burned to the ground. It took 3500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze and took three whole days to burn. The burning of the Gardens of Perfect Brightness is still a very sensitive issue in China today.

Following this cultural catastrophe, the imperial court was forced to relocate to the old and austere Forbidden City where it stayed until 1924, when the Last Emperor was expelled by a republican army. Empress dowager Cixi (慈禧太后) built the Summer Palace (頤和園 – "The Garden of Nurtured Harmony") near the Old Summer Palace, but on a much smaller scale than the Old Summer Palace. There are currently some projects in China to rebuild the Imperial Gardens, but this appears as a colossal undertaking, and no rebuilding has started yet.

More Palaces[edit]

Some other palaces include:

Colombia[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Prague[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Pharaonic[edit]

Ptolemaic[edit]

Roman[edit]

Arabic[edit]

Modern Egypt[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

  • Jubilee Palace (National Palace) – seat of the President, former imperial palace

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Paris[edit]

Versailles[edit]

Île-de-France[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Dadiani Palace Zugdidi, Georgia

Germany[edit]

German has two contrasting words, parallel to French usage: Schloss which connotes a seat that is enclosed by walls, a fastness or keep, and Palast, a more conscious borrowing, with the usual connotations of splendour. In practice, the Schloss is more likely to be a royal or ducal palace or a noble manor house. Where the Schloss was built on the site of a former castle (Burg) it may still be translated as "castle". The former Holy Roman Empire, a congeries of independent territories, is filled with residences that were seats of government and had every right to be called "palaces". Even the Socialist government of the former East Germany met in the Palast der Republik (built in 1976).

Baden-Württemberg[edit]

Bavaria[edit]

Berlin[edit]

Brandenburg[edit]

Hesse[edit]

Wiesbaden City Palace

Lower Saxony[edit]

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[edit]

North Rhine-Westphalia[edit]

Rhineland-Palatinate[edit]

Saxony[edit]

Thuringia[edit]

Ghana[edit]

  • The Manhyia Palace (Asantehene's Palace) – seat of the Asantehene of Ashanti, Kumasi
  • The Flagstaff House (Presidential Palace) – seat of government until the late 1970s, Accra
  • The Christianborg (Osu Castle) – former seat of the government till December 2008, Accra
  • The Golden Jubilee Palace (Presidential Palace) formerly known as the "Flagstaff House" – seat of Government since December 2008, Accra

Greece[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Hungary[edit]

India[edit]

Khas Mahal, Agra Fort, Agra
Hazarduari Palace was the residence of the Nawabs of Bengal and is now a museum.

Indonesia[edit]

Istana Merdeka, the President Official Residence in Jakarta.
Istana Bogor, the Presidential Palace in Bogor.
Istana Maimun or Maimun Palace, seat of Sultanate of Deli in Medan.
Istano Basa Pagaruyung or Pagaruyung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Pagaruyung, Tanah Datar Regency.
Puri Agung Klungkung or Klungkung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Klungkung in Klungkung Regency, Bali.
Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat or Yogyakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sultanate of Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta.
Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat or Surakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sunanate of Surakarta in Surakarta.

Presidential palaces[edit]

Royal palaces[edit]

Iran[edit]

Palaces and pavilions[edit]

The ruins of Apadana palace in Persepolis (built 2500 years ago during the reign of the Achaemenid Empire)
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis (exclusive palace of Darius the Great, one of the interior palaces in Persepolis)

Castles and citadels[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Italy[edit]

View of the gardens of Caserta
Ca' Rezzonico, Venice

Rome[edit]

Florence[edit]

Venice[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Japan[edit]

View on Seimon Ishibashi and moat of Imperial Palace, Tokyo

Jordan[edit]

Raghadan Palace, Amman. Royal Residence of the Hussein Family

Korea[edit]

Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul
Gyeongbok Palace and the Blue House, Seoul
Deoksu Palace, Seoul

Kuwait[edit]

  • Sief Palace – official residence of the head of state

Laos[edit]

Haw Kham palace (August 2009).jpg
2013 Presidential palace Vientiane.jpg
Champasak Palace.jpg

Latvia[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

The Grand Serail in Beirut in the late 1800s

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Front facade of the new Istana Negara. Official Residence of Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong (Supreme Ruler) of Malaysia
Istana Melawati, Putrajaya

KUALA LUMPUR

Istana Hinggap can be divided into two types. First, they are the city-palaces located in Kuala Lumpur. They function as the royal residence when the Sultan, Raja or Yang Dipertuan Besar come to Kuala Lumpur. There are nine Istana Hinggap built respectively for the nine Kings of Malaysia. Second, they are the temporary/leisure palace when each Sultan, Raja or Yang Dipertuan Besar goes to visit their territory inside/outside their own state. Some of them even have Istana Hinggap outside the country.

ISTANA HINGGAP IN KUALA LUMPUR

  • Istana Hinggap Perlis - Raja of Perlis palace at Jalan Eaton
  • Istana Hinggap Kedah - Sultan of Kedah palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
  • Istana Hinggap Perak - Sultan of Perak palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
  • Istana Hinggap Selangor - Sultan of Selangor palace at Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
  • Istana Hinggap Negeri Sembilan - Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan palace at Cangkat Persekutuan
  • Istana Hinggap Johor - Sultan of Johor palace at Cangkat Kia Peng
  • Istana Hinggap Pahang - Sultan of Pahang palace at Bukit Kewangan
  • Istana Hinggap Terengganu - Sultan of Terengganu palace at Jalan Tun Razak
  • Istana Hinggap Kelantan

PERLIS

  • Istana Arau – Official palace for the Sultan of Perlis. This palace was built in 1905 during the reign of Tuanku Raja Syed Alwi Jamalullail.
  • Istana Fauzana - The Raja of Perlis' residential palace in Kangar
  • Istana Kenangan Indah - located in Repoh. Previously official residence of the late Tuanku Raja Syed Putra Jamalullail and his consort. After Tuanku Raja Syed Putra Jamalullail passed away and Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Ibni Al-marhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail take the throne, this palace has become the official palace for YMM Raja Perempuan Besar Perlis.

KEDAH

  • Istana Anak Bukit – Official palace for the Sultan of Kedah
  • Balai Besar - Located in Alor Setar facing Masjid Zahir (Zahir Mosque). This palace was built in 1735 was almost destroyed twice in 1770 (aatacekd by Siamese army) and 1821 (attacked by Bugis army). The palace is supported by 42 main pillars now serves as Kedah Royal Museum.
Istana Pelamin

PULAU PINANG

Istana Kenangan

PERAK

Striking golden dome at Istana Alam Shah

SELANGOR

Istana Darul Ehsan facing Putrajaya lake
  • Istana Darul Ehsan - Royal palace in Putrajaya
  • Istana Mestika – The official residence of the crown prince of Selangor, also in Shah Alam
  • Istana Mahkota Puri - Built in 1899 in Klang. This palace has been demolished to make way for the building of the new Istana Alam Shah.
  • Istana Pantai Bahagia - Resting palace of Sultan Selangor in Morib
  • The entrance to Istana Jemaah (now Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah)
    Istana Jemaah - Currently serves as school (Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah) located in Klang not far from Istana Alam Shah. This palace is named after the Queen of Selangor who was also the second Raja Permaisuri Agong (Supreme Queen) of Malaysia, Tengku Ampuan Jemaah.
Istana Besar Seri Menanti
Istana Seri Menanti (royal museum)

NEGERI SEMBILAN

  • Istana Ampang Tinggi - Was commissioned by the 5th Yamtuan of Negri Sembilan, Yamtuan Ulin Ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Hitam. The palace was built between 1865 and 1870 at Ampang Tinggi ("High Dam") in Kuala Pilah
  • Istana Sri Menanti – Istana Seri Menanti was the official residence of the Negeri Sembilan royal family until 1931 and was turned into a Royal Museum in 1992
  • Istana Besar Seri Menanti - Official Palace for Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan.
  • Istana Hinggap Seremban - Residential palace of Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan in Seremban
  • Istana Baroh - Located in Seri Menanti
  • Istana Salatin - Currently the residential palace for Tuanku Tunku Ampuan Najihah binti Almarhum Tunku Besar Burhanuddin

MELAKA

  • Istana Melaka - the official residence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, the Governor of Melaka in Bukit Beruang
  • Seri Melaka - built in the 17th century. Currently functioning as Muzium Tuan Yang Terutama since 1996 Muzium Tuan Yang Terutama
  • Istana Kesultanan Melaka - Malacca royal museum. The current palace is smaller replica of the original palace.
Istana Besar Johor Bahru

JOHOR

  • Istana Besar – A royal palace of the Sultan of Johor which is located in Johor Bahru. The palace is opened to public as Royal Museum of Johor but will be closed for public during royal events.
  • Istana Bukit Serene – The Sultan of Johor's palace in Bukit Serene, Johor built in 1933 and completed in 1939. The palace has a tower of 35 meter high facing Danga Bay.
  • Istana Pasir Pelangi – The royal palace of the Tengku Mahkota (crown prince) of Johor
  • Istana Tanjong - Resting palace of the Sultan of Johor which is located in Muar
  • Shooting Box – Resting palace of the Sultan of Johor which is located in Segamat
  • Sri Lambak - Resting palace of the Sultan of Johor which is located in Kluang

PAHANG

  • Istana Abu Bakar – The Sultan of Pahang's official Palace in Pekan
  • Istana Abdul Aziz - Official palace for Crown Prince of Pahang, KDYTM Tengku Mahkota Pahang Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah dan KDYTM Tengku Puan Pahang. the name of the palace is derived from combination of Tengku Abdullah (crown prince of Pahang) and Tunku Azizah (crown princess of Pahang)
  • Istana Mahkota - Located at Jalan Telok Cempedak, Kuantan
  • Istana Mangga Tunggal - Built in 1920 during the reign of Sultan Abdullah Al-Mu’tassim Billah. the palace is named after a single mango tree that grow in the palace compound.
  • Istana Sri Angkasa -Royal palace in Cameron Highlands
  • Istana Sri Udara - Royal palace in “Bandar Ikan Patin” Temerloh
  • Istana Leban Tunggal - Completed in 1937, this palace is owned by Almarhum YAM Tengku Besar Pahang II, Tengku Sulaiman ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Al-Mu’azzam Shah. currently the public library at Pekan
  • Istana Kota Beram - Currently royal museum of Pahang
  • Istana Hinggap Kuala Lipis - Previously the residence for British officer since 1926. In 1948 it is converted into official residence for Menteri Besar of Pahang. In 1955 the residence is converted into a palace.
  • Istana Melati - Built in 1966 in Kampung Mengkasar, Pekan for YH Dato’ Maria Menado who at that time the wife of Al-Marhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mu’adzam Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mu’tasim Billah. The palace was built to replace Balai Gambang
Istana Maziah in Kuala Terengganu
View at the garden of Istana Syarqiyyah at dusk

TERENGGANU

  • Istana Badariah - Royal palace built in 1940 by Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah. This palace also functioned as the Renca-Consol during Japanese occupation in Malaya.
  • Istana Maziah - It is believed to have been constructed during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin Ill in Terengganu. It was built in 1897 to replace the lstana Hijau. This palace is located at Bukit Puteri
  • Istana Nur Nadhirah - Palace for the Crown Prince of Terengganu Istana Nur Nadhirah This palace was built in 1920 after the signing of Terengganu-Inggeris Treaty. During the Japanese occupation in Malaya, this palace served as the official residence of Shuchiji Kakha ( Shu Chokan Kakha ). After World War II until December 1956 this palace served as the official residence of British Governor.
  • Istana Syarqiyyah - Royal palace in Chendering,Terengganu. This is the newest palace for Sultan of Terengganu
  • Istana Al-Muktafibillah Shah
Front facade of Istana Jahar

KELANTAN

SABAH

Astana Negeri Sarawak viewed from Kuching waterfront

SARAWAK

Mexico[edit]

National Palace of Mexico
Mexico City's Palace of Fine Arts

Monaco[edit]

The Princely Palace of Monaco

Mongolia[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Nepal[edit]

Narayanhiti Palace

The Netherlands[edit]

Soestdijk Palace

New Zealand[edit]

Mahinarangi meeting house

Apart from the large complex at Turangawaewae Marae located in the town of Ngaruawahia, the previous Māori Monarch Te Atairangikaahu had a home at Waahi Marae in Huntly where she lived for most of her 40-year reign with her consort Whatumoana Paki. The Māori King or Queen are required to attend 33 Poukai annually conducted at Marae loyal to the Kingitangi movement. Many of these Marae maintain residences for the Māori King or Queen for them to use during such visits.

Nigeria[edit]

Norway[edit]

Oman[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Paraguay[edit]

Lopez Presidential Palace in Asunción, Paraguay

Peru[edit]

Philippines[edit]

  • Torogan – Classical period residences for Hari, Raja's Datu's and Sultan's.
  • Coconut Palace
  • Malacañang Palace – the official residence of the President of the Philippines, Manila
  • Malacañang sa Sugbo – the Presidential residence in Cebu City
  • The Mansion, Baguio – the Presidential residence in Baguio
  • Palacio del Gobernador – historical official residence of former Governor Generals, now used as a government building
  • Ayuntamiento de Manila - former official residence and office of the Mayor of Manila, now houses the Bureau of Treasury.
  • Archbishop's Palace – historical residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Intramuros
  • Archbishop's Palace – current residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Villa San Miguel, Mandaluyong City.
  • Archbishop's Palace – temporary residence of the Archbishop of Manila in the past, located in San Fernando, Pampanga
  • The Astana Putih or The Sultan's Palace – original residence of the Sultan of Sulu located in Maimbung, Sulu.

Poland[edit]

Royal Palace, Warsaw
Krasinski Palace, Warsaw

Warsaw[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Alentejo[edit]

Beira[edit]

Douro Litoral[edit]

Minho[edit]

Estremadura[edit]

Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro[edit]

Azores and Madeira Archipelagos[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Qatar[edit]

  • Al Rayyan Palace
  • Al Wukair Palace
  • Markhiya Palace
  • Barzaan Palace
  • Doha Palace
  • Diwan Emiri Palace
  • al Bidda Palace
  • Umm Salal Palace
  • Al Wajba Palace
  • Al Gharafa Palace
  • Al Jassasiya Palace
  • Al Mirgab Palace
  • Al Waab Palace

Romania[edit]

Bucharest[edit]

Russia[edit]

Peterhof Palace
Catherine Palace
Gatchina Palace
Massandra Palace

Gatchina[edit]

Moscow[edit]

Oranienbaum[edit]

Pavlovsk[edit]

Pella[edit]

Peterhof[edit]

Pushkin[edit]

Saint Petersburg[edit]

Taganrog[edit]

Tver[edit]

Yalta[edit]

Rwanda[edit]

Royal Palace of the Obrenović dynasty of Serbia, presently housing the City Assembly of Belgrade

Serbia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Scania[edit]

The province of Scania in southernmost Sweden is well known for its many castles.

Spain[edit]

Palacio Real, Madrid
Olite palace
Palau Reial Major
Palacio de San Telmo
La Granja Palace

Slovakia[edit]

Syria[edit]

Facade of the Azm Palace of Damascus

Taiwan[edit]

Presidential Office Building, Taipei
Taipei Guest House, Taipei
Shilin Official Residence

Thailand[edit]

Sanamchan Palace, Nakhon Pathom
Bang Pa-In Royal Palace, Ayutthaya Province

* Ancient Grand Palace – Ayutthaya Palace, Ayutthaya

Tonga[edit]

  • Royal Palace, Tonga-Royal Palace of the Kingdom of Tonga is located in the northwest of the capital, Nukuʻalofa, close to the Pacific Ocean.

Tunisia[edit]

Turkey[edit]

In Turkish, a palace is a Saray.

Turkmenistan[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

Scotland[edit]

United States of America[edit]

Colorado[edit]

District of Columbia[edit]

Florida[edit]

Government House, 2011

Hawai'i[edit]

ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu

New Jersey[edit]

  • Proprietary House – Home of both the Proprietary Governors of New Jersey from 1766 to 1773 and the Royal Governor of New Jersey, William Franklin from 1774 to 1776.

New Mexico[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

  • Pennsbury Manor – Home of William Penn as Proprietor of Pennsylvania from 1683 to 1701.

Puerto Rico[edit]

Texas[edit]

Bishop's Palace circa 1970
Inside of Spanish Governor's Palace in San Antonio, Texas

Virginia[edit]

Vatican City[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

List of non-residential palaces[edit]

Some large impressive buildings which were not meant to be residences, but are nonetheless called palaces, include:

Note, too, the French use of the word palais in such constructions as palais des congrès (convention centre) and palais de justice (courthouse).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  29. ^ Amir Taz Palace Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Prince Tashtamur palace Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ Al Ghouri palace Archived 2008-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.
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  37. ^ Harawi residence
  38. ^ Historic houses in Cairo
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  40. ^ Musafirkhana Palace or Qasr el-Shook
  41. ^ Description of the Palace
  42. ^ Destruction of Musafirkhana Palace
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  55. ^ archnet.org – Gezirah palace Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  56. ^ egy.com – Sakakaini palace Archived 2008-02-25 at the Wayback Machine.
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  59. ^ Egypt State Information Service Archived 2008-05-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  60. ^ et – Full Story
  61. ^ egy.com – Koubbeh palace Archived 2008-07-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  62. ^ egy.com – Tahra palace Archived 2009-10-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ Cultural Cairo
  64. ^ egy.com – The Belgians of Egypt Archived 2006-07-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  65. ^ egy.com – Heliopolis Palace Hotel Archived 2008-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  66. ^ Egypt State Information Service – Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil Museum Archived 2008-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  67. ^ egyptsites.co.uk
  68. ^ Desert research center
  69. ^ patrimonionacional.es Archived 2006-12-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  70. ^ Spanish Governor's Palace at the City of San Antonio Parks and Recreation