List of papal bulls

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is an incomplete list of papal bulls, listed by the year in which each was issued.

The decrees of some papal bulls were often tied to the circumstances of time and place, and may have been adjusted, attenuated, or abrogated by subsequent popes as situations changed.[1]


Year Bull Issuer Description
1059 In nomine Domini
("In the name of the Lord")
Nicholas II Establishing cardinal-bishops as the sole electors of the pope.[2]
1079 Libertas ecclesiae
("The liberty of the Church")
Gregory VII About Church's independence from imperial authority and interference.
1079 Antiqua sanctorum patrum
("The old (traces of the) holy fathers")
Gregory VII Granted the church of Lyon primacy over the churches of Gaul.
1095 (March 16) Cum universis sancte Urban II The king or queen of Aragon could not be excommunicated without an express order from the pope.[3]
1113 (February 15) Pie Postulatio Voluntatis
("The most pious request")
Paschal II Confirming the establishment and independence of the Knights Hospitaller, and placing the Order under Papal protection.
c. 1120 Sicut Judaeis
("Thus to the Jews")
Callixtus II Provides protection for the Jews who suffered from the hands of the participants in the First Crusade.[4]
1136 (July 7) Ex commisso nobis Innocent II Split Archbishop of Magdeburg from the rest of the Polish church.
1139 (March 29)[5] Omne Datum Optimum Innocent II Endorses the Knights Templar.[6]
1144 Milites Templi
("Soldiers of the Temple")
Celestine II Provides clergy protection to the Knights Templar and encourages contributions to their cause.[7]
1145 Militia Dei
("Soldiers of God")
Eugene III Allows the Knights Templar to take tithes and burial fees and to bury their dead in their own cemeteries.[8]
1145 (December 1) Quantum praedecessores
("How much did our predecessors")
Eugene III Calls for the Second Crusade.[9]
1146 (October 5) Divina dispensatione
Eugene III Calls for the Italian clergy to support the Second Crusade.[10]
1147 (April 11) Divina dispensatione
Eugene III Calls for the Wendish Crusade.[10]
1155 Laudabiliter
Adrian IV Gives the English King Henry II lordship over Ireland.[11]
1171 or 1172 (September 11) Non parum animus noster
Alexander III Calls for the Northern Crusades against the Estonians and Finns.[12]
1179 (May 23) Manifestis Probatum
("It is clearly demonstrated")
Alexander III Recognition of the kingdom of Portugal and Afonso Henriques as the first king.[13]
1184 (November 4)[14] Ad Abolendam Lucius III Condemns heresy, and lists some punishments (though stops short of death).[15]
1187 (October 29) Audita tremendi
("Hearing what terrible...")
Gregory VIII Calls for the Third Crusade.[16]
1191 Clement III Confirms "Sicut Judaeis"
1192 Cum universi Celestine III Defined the Scottish Church as immediately subject to the Holy See.[17]
1198 Post Miserabile Innocent III Calls for the Fourth Crusade.[18]
1199 (March 25) Vergentis in senium Innocent III This bull, addressed to the city of Viterbo, announced that heresy would be considered, in terms of punishment, the same as treason.[19]
1199 (September 15) Innocent III Confirms "Sicut Judæis
1205 Esti Judaeos Innocent III Jews were allowed their own houses of worship and would not be forced to convert. Jews were forbidden to eat with Christians or own Christian slaves.[20]
1207 Innocent III requiring Jews of Spain to pay tithes on possessions obtained from Christians
1213 (April) Quia maior Innocent III Calls for the Fifth Crusade.[21]
1214 (April 21) Innocent III Ended papal sanctions against King John in England and the Lordship of Ireland in exchange for that realm's pledge of fealty to the papacy.[22][23] This bull confirmed John's royal charter of 3 October 1213 bearing a golden seal, sometimes called the Bulla Aurea.[24] Payment of the annual tribute of 1,000 marks was finally vetoed by parliament in 1365 under Edward III.[25]
1215 (August 24) Pro rege Johanne Innocent III Declares Magna Carta "null, and void of all validity for ever" in favor of King John against the barons[26][27]
1216 (November 6) Honorius III In favor of German Jews, confirming the "Sicut Judæis" of Clement III.
1216 (December) Religiosam vitam
("The religious life")
Honorius III Established the Dominican Order[28]
1218 In generali concilio Honorius III Demanded the enforcement of the 4th Lateran Council that Jews wear clothing to distinguish themselves and that Jews be made to pay the tithe to local churches.[29]
1219 Honorius III Permitting the King of Castile to suspend the wearing of the badge by Jews
1219 Super speculam Honorius III Closed law schools in Paris and forbade the study of civil law.[30]
1223 (November 29) Solet annuere Honorius III Approves the Rule of St. Francis.[31]
1225 (June) Vineae Domini custodes Honorius III Grants two Dominican friars, Dominic of Segovia and Martin, authorisation for a mission to Morocco.[32]
1228 (October 21) Gregory IX Remitting interest on Crusaders' debts to Jews and granting a "moratorium" for repayment
1228 Mira Circa Nos Gregory IX canonizing St. Francis of Assisi[33]
1230 Quo elongati Gregory IX Resolved issues concerning the testament of Francis of Assisi.[34]
1231 (April 13) Parens scientiarum
("The Mother of Sciences")
Gregory IX Guarantees the independence of the University of Paris.
1232 (February 8) Ille humani generis Gregory IX Instructed the Dominican prior of Regensburg to form an Inquisitional tribunal.[35]
1233 (April 6) Etsi Judaeorum
("Even if the Jews")
Gregory IX Demands that Jews in Christian countries be treated with the same humanity with which Christians wish to be treated in heathen lands.[36]
1233 (June) Vox in Rama Gregory IX Calls for action against Luciferians, a supposed sect of Devil worshippers
1233 Licet ad capiendos Gregory IX Marks the start of the Inquisition by the Church.
1233 (March 5) Sufficere debuerat Gregory IX Forbids Christians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews[37]
1234 Pietati proximum Gregory IX Confirms Germanic Orders rule of Kulmerland.[38]
1234 Rex pacificus Gregory IX Announcement of the Liber Extra, the collection of papal decretals.
1234 (June 5) Gregory IX To Thibaut of Navarre, enforcing the badge
1234 (July 3) Fons Sapientiae Gregory IX canonizes Saint Dominic
1234 (November 17) Rachel suum videns Gregory IX Calls for a crusade to the Holy Land and orders Dominicans and Franciscans to preach in favour of it.[39]
1235 Gregory IX Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1235 Cum hora undecima
("Since the eleventh hour")
Gregory IX First bull authorizing friars to preach to pagan nations.[40]
1239 (June 20) Si vera sunt
("If they are true")
Gregory IX Orders the seizure and examination of Jewish writings, especially the Talmud, suspected of blasphemies against Christ and the Church.[41]
1240 Gregory IX Ordering all Jewish books in Castile to be seized on first Saturday in Lent while Jews were in synagogue
1243 Qui iustis causis Innocent IV Orders a crusade to the Baltic lands. Repeated 1256 and 1257.[42]
1244 Impia judeorum perfidia Innocent IV Stated that Jews could not hire Christian nurses.[43]
1244 (March 9) Impia gens Innocent IV Ordering Talmud to be burned
1245 (January 23) Terra Sancta Christi Innocent IV Calls for a crusade to the Holy Land.[44]
1245 (March 5) Dei patris immensa
("God the Father's immense...")
Innocent IV Exposition of the Christian faith, and urged Mongols to accept baptism.[45]
1245 (March 13) Cum non solum
("With not only...")
Innocent IV Appeal to the Mongols to desist from attacking Christians and other nations, and an enquiry as to their future intentions.[45] Innocent expresses desire for peace (possibly unaware that in the Mongol vocabulary, "peace" is a synonym for "subjection").[46]
1245 (March 20) Inter alia desiderabilia Innocent IV Charges against Sancho II of Portugal.
1245 (late March) Cum simus super Innocent IV Letter addressed to multiple prelates and 'Christians of the East' which affirmed the primacy of the Roman Church and urged ecclesiastical unity.[47]
1245 (July 17) Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem Innocent IV Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem was an apostolic letter issued against Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV (1243–54), during the Council of Lyon, 17 July 1245, the third year of his pontificate.
1245 (July 24) Grandi non immerito
("With good reason")
Innocent IV Removes Sancho II of Portugal from the throne, to be replaced by his brother Afonso, Count of Boulogne.
1246 Innocent IV Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1247 (May 8) Divina justitia nequaquam Innocent IV against blood libel against Jews
1247 (July 5) Lachrymabilem Judaeorum Innocent IV Urged the end of persecution of the Jews based on the blood libel.[41]
1247 (October 1) Quae honorem conditoris omnium Innocent IV On the rules of the Carmelite Order[48]
1248 (November 22) Viam agnoscere veritatis Innocent IV Letter addressed to Baiju, king of the Mongols, in response to his embassy.[49]
1249 De indulgencia xi dierum Innocent IV An indulgence to all the faithful who visit the Shrine of St. Margaret in Scotland
1250 (April 15) Innocent IV Refusing permission to Jews of Cordova to build a new synagogue
1252 (May 15) Ad exstirpanda
("For the elimination")
Innocent IV Authorizes the use of torture for eliciting confessions from heretics during the Inquisition and executing relapsed heretics by burning them alive.[50]
1253 (July 23) Innocent IV Expelling Jews from Vienne
1253 (September 25) Innocent IV Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1254 (October 6) Querentes in agro Innocent IV Recognised the University of Oxford and "confirmed its liberties, ancient customs and approved statutes".[51]
1255 Clara claris praeclara
("Clare outstandingly clear")
Alexander IV On the canonization of St. Clare of Assisi[52]
1255 (April 6) Inter ea quae placita
("Among those pleasing")
Alexander IV Confirms the establishment of the University of Salamanca[53]
1255 (September 22) Dignum arbitramur
("We consider suitable")
Alexander IV Grants that degrees conferred by the University of Salamanca be valid everywhere[54]
1263/1264 Exultavit cor nostrum
("Our heart has rejoiced")
Urban IV Letter from Urban to Hulagu, discussing the arrival of Hulagu's (uncredentialed) envoy John the Hungarian, cautiously welcoming, and announcing that William II of Agen, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, would be investigating further.[55]
1264 ? Urban IV Discussion of the Egyptian threat (no mention of Mongols).[55]
1260s (undated) Audi filia et
("Hear, O daughter, and")
Urban IV or Clement IV Caution to Queen Plaisance of Cyprus to cease her unchaste ways, and marry[56]
1260s (undated) De sinu patris
("The bosom of the Father")
Urban IV or Clement IV Admonishment to an unnamed nobleman to cease his adultery and return to his wife[56]
1265 Licet Ecclesiarum Clement IV Stated that appointments to all benefices were a papal prerogative.[57]
1267 (July 26) Turbato corde Clement IV Legally barred Christians from converting to Judaism.[58]
1272 Gregory X Confirms the "Sicut Judæis"
1272 (July 7) "Letter on Jews" Gregory X Against the Blood Libel [59]
1273 (April 20) Prae cunctis mentis Gregory X Sets the procedure for the Inquisition in France headed by the Dominicans.[60]
1274 Ubi Periculum
("Where there is danger")
Gregory X Established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope, imposing progressively stricter restrictions on cardinals the longer a conclave lasted to encourage a quick selection.
1274 Gregory X confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1278 (August 4) Vineam Sorec Nicholas III Ordering conversion sermons to Jews
1279 Exiit qui seminat Nicholas III Confirming the rules of the Friar Minor[61]
1281 Ad fructus uberes Pope Martin IV Gave Franciscan priests the right to preach and hear confession.[62]
1283 Exultantes Pope Martin IV Relaxed the restrictions on poverty for Franciscans.[62]
1286 (November 30) Honorius IV To Archbishop of York and of Canterbury, against Talmud
1288 Habet carissima filia Pope Nicholas IV Letter sent to Christian women at the court of the Mongol Ilkhan[63]
1289 Supra Motem Pope Nicholas IV On the Rule of the Third Order of St. Francis[64]
1291 (January 30) Orat mater ecclesia Pope Nicholas IV To protect the Roman Jews from oppression
1291 (March) Prae cunctis Pope Nicholas IV Authorized the Franciscans to start the inquisition in Bosnia.[65]
1291 Gaudemus in Domino Pope Nicholas IV Letter sent to Arghun's third wife, Uruk Khatun, the mother of Nicholas (Oljeitu), Arghun's successor.[63]
1291 Pastoralis officii Pope Nicholas IV Letter sent to two young Mongol princes, Saron and Cassian, urging their conversion to Christianity.[63]
1296 (January 20) Redemptor mundi
("Redeemer of the world")
Boniface VIII Named James II of Aragon as standardbearer, captain-general, and admiral of the Roman Church.
1296 (February 25) Clericis Laicos
("Lay clerics")
Boniface VIII Excommunicates all members of the clergy who, without authorization from the Holy See, pay to laymen any part of their income or the revenue of the Church, and all rulers who receive such payments.[66]
1297 Super rege et regina
("About king and queen")
Boniface VIII Bestowed on James II of Aragon the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica.
1297 Excelso throno Boniface VIII Jacopo Colonna and Pietro Colonna, both cardinals, were excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII for refusing to surrender their relative Stefano Colonna (who had seized and robbed the pope's nephew) and refusing to give the pope Palestrina along with two fortresses, which threatened the pope. This excommunication was extended in the same year to Jacopo's nephews and their heirs, after the two Colonna cardinals denounced the pope's election as invalid and appealed to a general council.[67]
1299 (June 13) Exhibita nobis Boniface VIII Declares Jews be included among persons who might be denounced to the Inquisition without the name of the accuser revealed[37]
1299 (June 27) Scimus, Fili
("We know, my son")
Boniface VIII Challenged Edward I's claim to Scotland, stating the Scottish kingdom belonged to the apostolic see.[68]
1299 De Sepulturis Boniface VIII Prohibited Crusaders from dismembering and boiling of the bodies so that the bones, separated from the flesh, may be carried for burial in their own countries.[69]
1299 Fuit olim Boniface VIII Denounces those who supply arms, ammunition, and provisions to the Saracens[70]
1300 (22 February) Antiquorum habet fida relatio Boniface VIII Reinstates the Jubilee Years, granting indulgence during those years for those who fulfill various conditions.[71]
1302 (November 18) Unam Sanctam
("The One Holy")
Boniface VIII Declares that there is no salvation outside the Church (Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus), and that the Church must remain united.
1303 Excomminicamus et anathematazimus Boniface VIII Directed against those who molest persons travelling to and from Rome[70]
1307 (November 22) Pastoralis Praeeminentiae Clement V Orders the arrest of the Knights Templar and the confiscation of their possessions.
1307 (July 23) Rex regnum Clement V Nominates seven Franciscans to act as papal suffragans in China.[72]
1308 Faciens misericordiam
("Granting forgiveness")
Clement V Sets out the procedure to prosecute the Knights Templar.
1308 (August 12) Regnans in caelis
("Reigning in heaven")
Clement V Convenes the Council of Vienne to discuss the Knights Templar.
1310 (April 4) Alma mater
("A nurturing mother")
Clement V Postpones the opening of the Council of Vienne until 1 October 1311, on account of the investigation of the Templars that was not yet finished.
1312 (March 22) Vox in excelso
("A voice from on high")
Clement V Disbands the Knights Templar.[73]
1312 (May 2) Ad providam Clement V Grants the bulk of Templar property on to the Knights Hospitallers.[74]
1312 (May 6) Considerantes dudum Clement V Outlined the disposition for members of the Knights Templar.[75]
1312 (May 6) Exivi de paradiso Clement V Stated the conditions of Franciscan rule.[76]
1312 (May 16) Nuper in concilio Clement V Grants further Templar property to the Knights Hospitallers[77]
1312 (December 18) Licet dudum Clement V Suspends privileges and confirms the disposition of property of the Knights Templar.
1312 (December 31) Dudum in generali concilio Clement V Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.
1313 (January 13) Licet pridem Clement V Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.
1313 Pastoralis Cura Pope Clement V The first legal expression of territorial sovereignty. ... Ruled that an emperor could not judge a king ... that public power was territorially confined. [78]
1317 Sane Considerante John XXII Elevated the Diocese of Toulouse to Archbishop and created six new bishoprics.
1317 John XXII orders Jews to wear badge on breast, and issues bull against ex-Jews
1317 Sancta Romana John XXII Addressed the claim that the Franciscan Tuscan Spirituals had been authorized by Celestine V.[79]
1317 (March 31) Si Fratrum John XXII Negates any imperial-bestowed titles that are not confirmed by the Pope.[80][81]
1317 (October) Quorundam exigit John XXII Reiterated Clement V's bull, Exivi de paradiso, while stating that friars that disagreed with their superiors would not accuse them of violating Franciscan rule.[82][83]
1318 (January 23) Gloriosam ecclesiam John XXII The Franciscan "Spirituals" of Tuscany are declared heretics and excommunicated.
1318 (April 1) Redemptor noster
("Our redeemer")
John XXII Withdrew the Mongol Ilkhan's dominions and 'India' from the archdiocese of Khanbaligh, transferring to a Dominican province
1319 (March 14) Ad ea ex quibus John XXII Created Portuguese Order of Christ.[84]
1320 (June 28) John XXII Orders that converts from Judaism shall retain their property
1320 (September 4) John XXII to French bishops bull against Talmud
1322 Quia nonnunquam John XXII Freedom of discussion in poverty controversy
1322 Ad conditorem canonum John XXII Continuation of poverty controversy
1323 Cum inter nonnullos John XXII Defines the belief in the poverty of Christ and the Apostles as heretical.[85]
1324 Quia quorundam John XXII Condemned those that disagreed with Cum inter nonnullos[86]
1329 Quia vir reprobus John XXII
1329 In agro dominico John XXII
1333 (December 2) Summa providit altitudo consilii John XXII
1336 Benedictus Deus
("On the beatific vision of God")
Benedict XII Declared that the saved see Heaven (and thus, God) before Judgement Day.[87]
1337 (August 29) Ex zelo fidei Benedict XII Promising inquiry into host-tragedy of Pulka
1338 Exultanti precepimus Benedict XII Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg and his family, thanking them for having granted land to Franciscans to build a church[63]
1338 Dundum ad notitiam Benedict XII Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg recommending ambassadors, and thanking Ozbeg for prior favors shown to missionaries[63]
1342 Gratiam Agimus Clement VI Declared the Franciscan Order as the official Custodian of the Holy Land in the name of the Church.
1343 (January 27) Unigenitus Dei filius Clement VI Justified papal power to issue indulgences
1345 (July 5) Clement VI Against forcible baptism
1348 (July 4) Clement VI Confirms "Sicut Judäis"
1348 (September 26) Quamvis Perfidiam Clement VI An attempt to dispel the rumor that the Jews caused the Black Death by poisoning wells.
1350 cum natura humana Clement VI
1363 Apostolatus Officium (sometimes known as In Coena Domini)[70] Urban V Against pirates, those who supply arms to Saracens, and those who intercept supplies intended for Rome
1365 (July 7) Urban V Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1372 Excomminicamus et anathematazimus Gregory XI Excommunicating forgers of Letters Apostolic
1383 Quia sicut Urban VI Regarding ecclesiastical immunities
Boniface IX Raises the see of Lisbon to Metropolitan status
1389 (July 2) Boniface IX Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1397 (April 6) Boniface IX Confirms grant of Roman citizenship to Jewish physician Manuele and son Angelo
1402 (April 15) Boniface IX Grants privileges to Roman Jews—reducing their taxes, ordering their Sabbath to be protected, placing them under the jurisdiction of the Curia, protecting them from oppression by officials; all Jews dwelling in the city to be regarded and treated as Roman citizens
1409 (December 20) Alexander V order to suppress all the books of John Wycliffe in Bohemia.[88]
1415 (May 11) Etsi doctoribus gentium Antipope Benedict XIII Against Talmud or any other Jewish book attacking Christianity
1417 Bull against Talmud
1418 Quod Antidota Martin V Exempt jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical courts
1418 (January 31) Martin V Forbidding the forcible baptism of Jews or the disturbance of their synagogues
1418 (April 4) Sane charissimus Martin V After the seizure of Ceuta called on all to support John I of Portugal in his war against the Moors[89]
1420 (March 1) Omnium Plasmatoris Domini Martin V Calls for a crusade against followers of Jan Hus, John Wycliffe, and other heretics. It initiates the Hussite Wars.
1420 (November 25) Concessum Judaæis Martin V To German Jews confirming their privileges
1420 (December 23) Licet Judæorum omnium Martin V In favor of Austrian Jews[37]
1421 Martin V To the Benedictine Abbey of St. Bertin at St. Omer, granting permission for the monks to elect their own confessors.[90]
1421 (February 23) Martin V In favor of Jews and against anti-Jewish sermons; permits Jewish physicians to practice
1422 (February 20) Martin V Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1423 (June 3) Sedes apostolica Martin V Renews law requiring Jews to wear badge
1425 Sapientie immarcessibilis Martin V Foundation of the Old University of Leuven[91]
1425 Mare Anglicanum Martin V Confirmed the bull Mare Magnum and gave Syon independence from Vadstena and the general order chapter house.[92]
1426 (February 14) Martin V Against Jews
1428 Ad Repremendas Martin V Supreme jurisdiction of the Roman court
1429 (February 15) Quamquam Judæi Martin V Places Roman Jews under the general civic law, protects them from forcible baptism, and permits them to teach in the school
Etsi cunctis fidei Eugene IV Prohibited imposition of inordinately high dues on converted Canary islanders[89]
1432 (February 8) Eugene IV Protection for Jews, renewing ordinances against forcible baptism and disturbance of synagogues and graveyards
1434 (February 20) Eugene IV Prohibiting anti-Jewish sermons
1434 (December 17) Creator Omnium Eugene IV On slave raiding in the Canaries
1435 Sicut Dudum Eugene IV Forbidding the slavery of local natives in the Canary Islands by Spanish slave traders.[93]
1437 (September 18) Doctoris gentium Eugene IV Transfers the Council of Basel to Ferrara[94]
1437 Praeclaris tuae Eugene IV
1439 (January) Eugene IV Transfers the Council of Ferrara to Florence because of the plague[95]
1439 (July 6) Laetentur Caeli
("Rejoicing of the Heavens")
Eugene IV Officially re-united the Roman Catholic Church with the Eastern Orthodox Churches. This agreement was quickly repudiated by most eastern bishops.[96]
1442 (February 4) Bull of Union with the Copts Eugene IV Part of an attempt by the Catholic Church to reunite with other Christian groups including the Coptic Church of Egypt.
1442 (August 8) Dundum ad nostram audientiam Eugene IV Complete separation of Jews and Christians (ghetto).
1442 (August 10) Super Gregem Dominicum Eugene IV Revokes the privileges of the Castilian Jews and imposes severe restrictions on them. Forbids Castilian Christians to eat, drink, live or bathe with Jews or Muslims and declaring invalid the testimony of Jews or Muslims against Christians.[97]
1442 (December 19) Illius qui se pro divini Eugene IV On Henry of Portugal's crusade against the Saracens[98]
1443 (January 5) Rex regum Eugene IV Takes neutral position on territorial disputes between Portugal and Castile regarding rights claimed in Africa.[99]
1447 (June 23) Super Gregem Dominicum Nicholas V Re-issues Eugene IV's bull against Castilian Jews to Italy.[100][101]
1447 (Nov. 2) Nicholas V Confirms "Sicut Judæis"
1451 (January 7) Nicholas V Foundation of the University of Glasgow.[102]
1451 (February 25) Nicholas V Prohibiting social intercourse with Jews and Saracens
1451 (March 1) Super Gregem Dominicum Nicholas V Third issuance of Eugenius IV's bull. Confirms the earlier revocation of privileges and restrictions against Spanish and Italian Jews.[103][104]
1451 (May 8) Nicholas V
1451 (September 21) Romanus pontifex Nicholas V Relieving the dukes of Austria from ecclesiastical censure for permitting Jews to dwell there
1452 (June 18) Dum diversas Nicholas V Authorizes Afonso V of Portugal to reduce any Muslims, pagans and other unbelievers to perpetual slavery.[105]
1453 (September 30) Etsi ecclesia Christi
Nicholas V Calls for a crusade to reverse the fall of Constantinople.[106]
1454 (January 8) Nicholas V Concedes to Afonso V all conquests in Africa from Cape Non to Guinea, with authorization to build churches[107]
1454 (Jan.8) Nicholas V Extended Portuguese dominion over all the seas from Africa to India.[107]
1455 (January 8) Romanus Pontifex
("The Roman pontiff")
Nicholas V Granting the Portuguese a perpetual monopoly in trade with Africa and allows the enslavement of natives.[108]
1455 Exivi de paradiso Clement V On the rules of the Friar Minor[109]
1455 (May 15) Ad summi apostolatus apicem Callixtus III Confirmed the bull Etsi ecclesia Christi.[110]
1456 (March 13) Inter Caetera Calixtus III Confirmed the Bull Romanus Pontifex and gave the Portuguese Order of Christ the spiritualities of all lands acquired and to be acquired.[111]
1456 (June 20) Cum hiis superioribus annis and is titled Bulla Turcorum Calixtus III Announces the Fall of Constantinople and seeks funding for another crusade against the Turks.[112]
1458 (October 13) Vocavit nos pius
Pius II Invites the European powers to the Congress of Mantua.[113]
1458 Veram semper et solidam
Pius II Orders the creation of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem to protect Christians in Greek waters from the Ottomans.[114]
1460 (January 14) Ecclesiam Christi
Pius II Calls for a three year crusade against the Ottoman Empire.[115]
1460 (January 18) Execrabilis
Pius II Prohibits appealing a papal judgment to a future general council.[116]
1462 (April 28) Cum almam nostram urbem
Pius II Prohibits the destruction or removal of the ancient ruins in Rome and Campagna.[117]
1463 (October 22) Ezechielis prophetae
Pius II Calls for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire.[118]
1470 (April 19) Ineffabilis providentia
("Ineffable Providence")
Paul II Declared that a Jubilee would take place every 25 years.
1472 (Feb. 21) Sixtus IV Orders taxation of Roman Jews at a tithe during the Turkish war, and a carnival tax of 1,100 gulden
1476 Regimini Gregis Sixtus IV Threatens to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslave Christians
1478 (November 1) Exigit sinceræ devotionis Sixtus IV Authorized Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint inquisitors which created the Spanish Inquisition.[119]
1481 (April 3) Sixtus IV Orders all Christian princes to restore all fugitives to Inquisition of Spain
1481 (April 8) Cogimur jubente altissimo Sixtus IV Calls for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire.[120]
1481 (June 21) Aeterni regis Sixtus IV Confirms the Treaty of Alcáçovas.[121]
1481 (Oct. 18) Sixtus IV Appointing Tomás de Torquemada inquisitor-general of Avignon, Valencia, and Catalonia
1482 (April 14) Superna caelestis Sixtus IV By which Bl. Bonaventure, Is registered in the Canon of the Saints
1482 (August 2) Ad Perpetuam Rei memoriam Sixtus IV Ordered humanitarian reforms to the Spanish Inquisition.[122][123]
1484 (December 5) Summis desiderantes Innocent VIII Condemns an alleged outbreak of witchcraft and heresy in the region of the Rhine River valley, and deputizes Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany.
1486 (July 12) Catholice fidei defensionem Innocent VIII Grants plenary indulgences to those who took part in Casimir IV Jagiellon's war against the Ottoman Empire.[124]
1487 (November 13) Universo pene orbi Innocent VIII Calls for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire.[125]
1491 Officii nostri Innocent VIII (This may be a confusion with the decretal of Innocent III of the same name.)
1493 (May 3) Eximiae devotionis Alexander VI Accords to Spain recognition of the same rights and privileges regarding lands discovered in the west as had been previously confirmed to Portugal in the east.
1493 (May 4) Inter caetera
("Among the other")
Alexander VI On the division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal
1493 (June 25) Piis Fidelium Alexander VI Grants Spain vicarial power to appoint missionaries to the Indies.
1493 (Sept 26) Dudum siquidem Alexander VI Territorial grants supplemental to Inter caetera
1497 (October 15) Ad sacram ordinis Alexander VI The ancient custom of selecting the Prefect of the Apostolic Chapel from the Augustinian Order was given legal foundation.[126]
1500 (June 1) Alexander VI Demanding for three years for the Turkish war one-twentieth of Jewish property throughout the world
1500 (June 1) Quamvis ad amplianda Alexander VI Calls for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire in response to Ottoman invasions of Venetian territories in Greece.[127]
1503 (December 26) Julius II Matrimonial dispensation for Henry VIII of England to marry Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow.
1509 Suspecti Regiminis Julius II Prohibiting appeals to future councils
1509 Pontifex Romanis Pacis Julius II Against plunderers of shipwrecks
1511 Pax Romana Julius II To stop the feuding between the Orsini and Colonna families[128]
1511 Consueverunt Julius II
1513 (December 19) Apostolici Regiminis Leo X Concerning immortality of the soul.[129]
1514 (March 22) Sincerae devotionis Leo X
1514 Precelse denotionis Leo X renewed Dum Diversas of 1452
1514 Supernæ dispositionis arbitrio Leo X Calls for reform of the curia and declares that cardinals should come immediately after the pope in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
1515 (May 4) Regimini Universalis Leo X Requires that metropolitan bishops hold a provincial synod every three years.
1515 (July 19) Salvatoris Nostri Leo X Roman hospitals, S. Maria del Popolo and S. Giacomo and Tridente.[130][131]
1516 (may 19) Illius qui in altis habitat[132] Leo X Roman hospitals.
1516 (June 16) De Supernae dispositionis arbitrio Leo X Funding of San Giacomo hospital throughout enfiteusis[133]
1517 (May 29) Ite vos Leo X Order of Friars Minor[134]
1519 Supremo Leo X
1520 (June 15) Exsurge Domine
("Arise, O Lord")
Leo X Demands that Martin Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses, as well as other specified errors, within sixty days of its publication in neighbouring regions to Saxony.
1521 (January 3) Decet Romanum Pontificem
("[It] befits [the] Roman Pontiff")
Leo X Excommunicates Martin Luther.[135]
1529 (May 8) Intra Arcana Clement VII Grant of permissions and privileges to Emperor Charles V and the Spanish Empire, which included patronage power over their lands in the Americas.[136]
1524 (April 7) Clement VII In favor of Maranos
1531 (Dec. 17) Cum ad nihil magis Clement VII Introduces Inquisition into Portugal at Evora, Coimbra, and Lisbon
1533 (Apr. 7) Sempiterno regi Clement VII Partial condemnation of the forced baptism of Portuguese Jews, and general pardon to New Christians.[137]
1533 Romanus Pontifex Clement VII
1537 (May 29) Sublimis Deus Paul III Forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
1538 (October 28) In apostolatus culmine Paul III
1540 Paul III Granting Neo-Christians family property except that gained by usury, also municipal rights, but must not marry among themselves or be buried among Jews
1540 (May 12) Licet Judæi Paul III against blood libel
1540 (September 27) Regimini militantis ecclesiae
("To the Government of the Church Militant")
Paul III Approves the formation of the Society of Jesus.[138]
1542 (July 21) Licet ab initio Paul III Institution of the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition.[139]
1543 (March 14) Injunctum nobis Paul III Repealed a clause in the Regimini militantis ecclesiae which had only allowed the Society of Jesus sixty members.[140]
1550 (July 21) Exposcit debitum
("The Duty demands")
Julius III Second and final approval of the Society of Jesus
1551 (February 25) Super specula militantis Ecclesiae
("Upon the watchtower of the Church Militant")
Julius III Ended the status of Funchal as the largest diocese in the world, creating new bishoprics throughout the Portuguese Empire at Salvador &c.
1553 (April 28) Divina disponente clementia
("So predisposed by the divine clemency")
Julius III Create Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa the first patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church.
1554 (August 31) Pastoris æterni vices Julius III Imposes tax of ten gold ducats on two out of the 115 synagogues in the Papal States
1555 (June 20) Praeclara Carissimi Paul IV Consisted of two parts. Confirmed the sale of church lands under Henry VIII of England and imposed the reordination of all clerics consecrated during Henry VIII and Edward VI of England.[141]
1555 (July 14) Cum nimis absurdum
("Since it is absurd")
Paul IV Places religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States.[142]
1555 (August 8) Paul IV Ameliorates some of the restrictions imposed by "Cum nimis absurdum"
1559 (February 15) Cum ex apostolatus officio
("By virtue of the apostolic office")
Paul IV Confirms that only Catholics can be elected Popes.
1560 (January 19) Ad caritatis et misericordiae opera Pius IV Roman hospital of San Giacomo degli Incurabili.
1564 Dominici Gregis Custodiae Pius IV Containing the rules for forbidding books[1]
1564 (January 26) Benedictus Deus
("Blessed God")
Pius IV Ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent.[143]
1565 (January 17) Æquum reputamus
("We consider it equal")
Pius V
1566 Cum nobis ex parte Pius V Reiterates condemnation of those who plunder shipwrecks
1567 Ex omnibus afflictionibus Pius V Condemns 79 statements made by Michael Baius[144]
1567 (Jan. 19) Cum nos nuper Pius V Orders Jews to sell all property in Papal States
1568 (June 7) Quod a nobis Pius V Modified the Roman Breviary
1569 (February) Hebraeorum gens sola
Pius V Restricted Jews in the Papal States to Rome and Ancona.[145]
1569 (Sept. 17) Consueverunt Romani Pontifices Pius V On the power of the Rosary
1570 (February 25) Regnans in excelsis
("Ruling from on high")
Pius V Declares Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releases her subjects from any allegiance to her.[146]
1570 (July 14) Quo primum
("From the first")
Pius V Promulgates the Roman Missal (Tridentine Mass), and forbids use of other Latin liturgical rites that cannot demonstrate two hundred year of continuous use.
1572 (September 16) Cristiani Populi
Gregory XIII Foundation of Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
1572 (November 13) Pro Commissa Nobis
Gregory XIII Dispositions about Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
1574 Ad Romani Pontificis Gregory XIII
1581 (March 30) Multos adhuc ex Christianis Gregory XIII Renews Church law against Jewish physicians
1581 (June 1) Antiqua Judæorum improbitas Gregory XIII Gives jurisdiction over Jews of Rome to Inquisition in cases of blasphemy, protection of heretics, possession of forbidden works, employment of Christian servants
1582 (February 24) Inter gravissimas
("Among the most important")
Gregory XIII Establishes the Gregorian calendar.
1584 (24 May) Ascendente Domino Gregory XIII Confirms the constitution of the Society of Jesus.
1584 (Sept 1) Sancta mater ecclesia Gregory XIII Orders 150 Jews (100 men, 50 women) to attend weekly conversion sermons
1586 (January 5) Coeli et terrae
("The heavens and the lands")
Sixtus V Condemned "judicial astrology" as superstitious.
1586 (October) Christiana pietas
("Christian piety")
Sixtus V Allowed Jews to settle in the Papal States, revoking Pius V's 1569 bull, Hebraeorum gens sola.[147]
1587 (June 4) Sixtus V Grants Magino di Gabriel of Venice the monopoly of silk-manufacture in Papal States for sixty years, and ordering five mulberry-trees to be planted in every rubbio of land
1588 (February 11) Immensa Aeterni Dei
("The immense [wisdom] of Eternal God")
Sixtus V Reorganized the Roman Curia, establishing several permanent congregations to advise the Pope.[148]
1588 (October 29) Effraenatam
("Against Those who Procure")
Sixtus V Declares that the canonical penalty of excommunication would be levied for any form of contraception and for abortion at any stage of fetal development.
1588 Triumphantis Hierusalem Sixtus V Officially elevates St. Bonaventure to the status of Doctor of the Church[149]
1592 (Feb. 28) Cum sæpe accidere Clement VIII Forbidding Jews to deal in new commodities
1593 Caeca et Obdurata
("The Blind and Obdurate")
Clement VIII Expelled the Jews from the Papal States.
1593 Pastoralis Clement VIII
1593 (Mar. 8) Clement VIII In favor of Turkish Jews
1604 (Aug. 23) Clement VIII In favor of Portuguese Maranos
Dominici gregis Clement VIII Marian piety as the basis of the Church.[150]
1610 (Aug. 7) Exponi nobis nuper fecistis Paul V Regulates dowries of Roman Jews
1631 Contra astrologos iudiciarios Urban VIII Condemns astrological predictions of the deaths of princes and popes.[151]
1639 (April 22) Commissum nobis Urban VIII Reaffirms "Sublimus Dei" forbidding enslavement of indigenous people
1641 (6 March) In eminenti Ecclesiae militantis Urban VIII Censures Jansenist publications.[152]
1644 Urban VIII Grants pilgrims to the Jesuit mission at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons "a Plenary Indulgence each year and the remission of all their sins."[153]
1653 (May 31) Cum occasione Innocent X Condemns 5 Jansenist propositions.[154]
1658 (Nov. 15) Ad ea per quae Alexander VII Orders Roman Jews to pay rent even for unoccupied houses in ghetto, because Jews would not hire houses from which Jews had been evicted
1659 Super cathedram Principis Apostolorum Alexander VII Establishing the Catholic mission in Vietnam
1665 Ad sacram
("To the sacred")
Alexander VII Confirms bull Cum occasione and further condemns Jansenism[155]
1674 (Oct. 3) Clement X Suspends operations of Portuguese Inquisition against Maranos
1676 (November 16) Inter Pastoralis Officii Curas Innocent XI Establishes Salvador as independent of Lisbon and as primate over Brazil, Congo, and Angola
1679 (May 27) Innocent XI Suspends grand inquisitor of Portugal on account of his treatment of Maranos
1687 Coelestis Pastor Innocent XI Condemns Quietism as heresy.
1692 Romanum decet Pontificem
("It befits the Roman Pontiff")
Innocent XII Abolished the office of Cardinal-Nephew[156]
1713 Unigenitus
("The only-begotten")
Clement XI Condemns Jansenism.
1715 (Mar. 19) Ex illa die Clement XI Chinese customs and traditions that are not contradictory to Roman Catholicism will be allowed, while those that are clearly contradictory to it will not be tolerated.
1737 (Dec. 17) Inter praecipuas apostolici ministerii
("Among the main attributes of the Apostolate")
Clement XII Determines that whoever is elected Patriarch of Lisbon is to be elevated to the dignity of cardinal in the first consistory following their election.
1738 In eminenti apostolatus specula
("In the high watchtower of the Apostolate")
Clement XII Bans Catholics from becoming Freemasons.
1740 (Dec. 13) Salvatoris nostri Mater
("The Mother of Our Saviour")
Benedict XIV Suppresses the vacant Metropolitan Archdiocese of Eastern Lisbon and merges it with the Patriarchate of Lisbon; grants the canons of the cathedral chapter the title of Principal.
1741 (Feb. 23) Apostolicae Servitutis
("Apostolic Servitude")
Benedict XIV Forbids members of the clergy from engaging in worldly pursuits such as business.
1747 (Feb. 28) Postremo mense superioris anni Benedict XIV Confirms decision of Roman Curia of Oct. 22, 1597, that a Jewish child, once baptized, even against canonical law, must be brought up under Christian influences and removed from its parents
1755 Beatus Andreas
("Blessed Andreas")
Benedict XIV Beatified child martyr Andreas Oxner, said in a blood libel accusation to have been murdered by Jews in 1462.[157]
1773 Dominus ac Redemptor noster
("Our Master and Redeemer")
Clement XIV Permanently and irrevocably suppressing the Society of Jesus.
1814 Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum
("The care of all the churches")
Pius VII Reestablishes the Society of Jesus.
1824 Quod divina sapientia
("What divine wisdom")
Leo XII Restructures education in the Papal States under ecclesiastical supervision.
1831 Sollicitudo ecclesiarum Gregory XVI That in the event of a change of government, the church would negotiate with the new government for placement of bishops and vacant dioceses.[158]
1850 (September 29) Universalis Ecclesiae
("Of the Universal Church")
Pius IX Recreates the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England.
1853 (March 4)[159] Ex qua die arcano Pius IX Reestablishment of the episcopal hierarchy in the Netherlands
1854 Ineffabilis Deus Pius IX Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception[1]
1866 (July 12) Reversurus
("To come back")
Pius IX Extends to the Armenian Catholic Church the Western provisions about appointment of bishops.
1868 (June 29) Aeterni Patris
("Of the Eternal Father")
Pius IX Summons First Vatican Council.
1869 (October 12) Apostolicæ Sedis moderationi
("To the guidance of the Apostolic See")
Pius IX Regulates the system of censures and reservations in the Catholic Church.
1871 Pastor aeternus
("The eternal shepherd")
Pius IX Defines papal infallibility.
1880 (July 13) Dolemus inter alia
("Among other things, we lament")
Leo XIII Reinstates the privileges of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), nullifying the bull Dominus ac Redemptor Noster of 21 July 1773.[160]
1884 (November 1) Omnipotens Deus
("God Almighty")
Leo XIII Accepted the authenticity of the relics at Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
1896 Apostolicae curae
("Of the Apostolic care")
Leo XIII Declares all Anglican Holy Orders null and void.
1910 Quam singulari
("How special")
Pius X Allows the admittance of Communion to children who have reached the age of reason (about seven years old).[161]
1930 Ad Christi nomen Pius XI Created the Diocese of Vijayapuram.
1949 Jubilaeum Maximum

("Great jubilee")

Pius XII Announcement of 1950 as a Holy Year
1950 (November 1) Munificentissimus Deus
("The most bountiful God")
Pius XII Defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.[162]
1961 (December 25) Humanae salutis
("Of human salvation")
John XXIII Summons Second Vatican Council.
1965 (November 18) Dei verbum
("Word of God")
Paul VI Aims to promote the "theological virtues" of faith, hope, and love, and strongly urges Christians to study the Bible as "a pure and lasting fount of the spiritual life".[163]
1998 (November 29) Incarnationis mysterium
("The mystery of the Incarnation")
John Paul II Indiction of the Great Jubilee of 2000
2015 (April 11) Misericordiae Vultus
("The Face of Mercy")
Francis Indiction of a Holy Year: The Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy 2015-2016

Also note In Coena Domini ("At the table of the Lord"), a recurrent papal bull issued annually between 1363 and 1770, at first on Holy Thursday, later on Easter Monday.


  1. ^ a b c McNamara, Edward. "Pius V's 1570 Bull", Zenit, October 31, 2006
  2. ^ Ehler, Sidney Z. and John B. Morrall, Church and State Through the Centuries , (Biblo-Moser, 1988), 23.
  3. ^ Damian J. Smith, Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2004), 135.
  4. ^ Carroll, James, Constantine's sword: the church and the Jews, (Houghton Mifflin Co, 2002), 269-270.
  5. ^ Malcolm Barber; A. K. Bate (2002). The Templars: selected sources. Manchester University Press. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5110-4. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  6. ^ Read, Piers Paul, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, (Da Capo Press, 1999), 116.
  7. ^ Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple, (Cambridge University Press, 1994), 58.
  8. ^ Burman, Edward, The Templars: Knights of God, (Traditions/Bear Company, 1986), 49.
  9. ^ Madden, Thomas F., The new concise history of the Crusades, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), 52.
  10. ^ a b Giles Constable, 'The Second Crusade as seen by Contemporaries', Traditio Vol. 9 (1953), p. 255.
  11. ^ Ehler, Sidney Z., Church and State Through the Centuries, (Biblo-Moser, 1988), 50.
  12. ^ Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades (London: Penguin, 1997), p. 71.
  13. ^ Linehan, Peter and Janet Laughland Nelson, The Medieval World, Vol.10, (Routledge, 2001), 524.
  14. ^ Thomsett, Michael C. (26 April 2010). The Inquisition: A History. McFarland. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-7864-4409-0. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  15. ^ Wakefield, Walter Leggett and Austin Patterson Evans, Heresies of the high middle ages, (Columbia University Press, 1991), 33.
  16. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The crusades: a history, (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005), 137.
  17. ^ Barrell, A. D. M. (1995). "The background to Cum universi: Scoto-papal relations, 1159–1192". Innes Review. Edinburgh University Press. 46 (2): 116–138. doi:10.3366/inr.1995.46.2.116. ISSN 0020-157X. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  18. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Crusades: a history, (Continuum International Publishing, 1987), 149.
  19. ^ Morris, Colin, The Papal Monarchy: the Western church from 1050 to 1250, (Oxford University Press, 2001), 442.
  20. ^ Frederic Cople Jaher, A Scapegoat in the New Wilderness: The Origins and Rise of Anti-Semitism in America, (Harvard University Press, 1996), 61.
  21. ^ Madden, 143.
  22. ^ "Bull of Innocent III taking England under his protection". British Library. (Cotton Charter VIII 24). Retrieved 28 April 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ Barchet, Bruno Aguilera. A History of Western Public Law: Between Nation and State, (Springer, 2015), p. 139 note48.
  24. ^ Har, Katherine (9 July 2015). "Papal Overlordship of England: The Making of an Escape Clause for Magna Carta". British Library: Medieval manuscripts blog. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  25. ^ Patterson, M.W., Rev. (1929). A History of the Church of England (PDF). London: Longmans, Green & Co. pp. 115–6, 156–7.
  26. ^ "The papal bull annulling Magna Carta". British Library. (Cotton MS Cleopatra E I, ff. 155–156). Retrieved 28 April 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  27. ^ Ottenberg, Louis (June 1957). "Magna Charta Documents: The Story Behind the Great Charter". American Bar Association Journal. 43 (6): 495–498, 569–572. JSTOR 25720021.
  28. ^ Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, Vol.1, Editor Christopher Kleinhenz, (Routledge, 2004), 303.
  29. ^ Stern, Mortiz, Urkundliche Beiträge über die Stellung der Päpste zu den Juden, (H.Fiencke:Kiel, 1893), 13.
  30. ^ Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies, (Routledge, 2002), 734.
  31. ^ Gobry, Ivan, Saint Francis of Assisi, (Ignatius Press, 2003), 198.
  32. ^ Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades: 1147–1254 (Brill, 2007), p. 169.
  33. ^ "Mira circa Nos", Papal Encyclicals Online
  34. ^ Leff, Gordon, Heresy in the later Middle Ages, (Manchester University Press, 1967), 65.
  35. ^ Ames, Christine Caldwell, Righteous persecution: inquisition, Dominicans, and Christianity in the Middle Ages, (University of Pennsylvania, 2009), 6.
  36. ^ Deutsch, Gotthard; Jacobs, Joseph (1906). "The Popes". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  37. ^ a b c "Popes, The", Jewish Encyclopedia
  38. ^ Max Perlbach, Preussische Regesten bis zum Ausgange des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, (Ferds. Beyer vormals Th. Theile's buchhandlung, 1876), 41. (in German)
  39. ^ Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades: 1147–1254 (Brill, 2007), pp. 197–198.
  40. ^ Jackson, p. 13
  41. ^ a b "Papal Bulls". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  42. ^ Fonnesberg-Schmitt, I.,The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, (U. of Cambridge, 2007), 225.
  43. ^ Thomsett, Michael C., The Inquisition: A History, (MacFarland & Co. Inc., 2010), 118.
  44. ^ Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades: 1147–1254 (Brill, 2007), p. 228.
  45. ^ a b Jackson, p. 88
  46. ^ Jackson, p. 90
  47. ^ Jackson, pp. 93-94
  48. ^ "Quae honorem conditoris omnium", Papal Encyclicals Online
  49. ^ A History of the Crusades, Vol.3, Ed. Harry W Hazard, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), 522.
  50. ^ Schaff, Philip and David Schley Schaff, History of the Christian church, Vol.1, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907), 523.
  51. ^ Aston, Trevor Henry; Catto, J. I., eds. (1984). The History of the University of Oxford Volume I: The Early Oxford Schools. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780199510115. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  52. ^ Pope Alexander IV, "Clara claris praeclara", Franciscan Archives
  53. ^ [1]
  54. ^ [2]
  55. ^ a b Peter Jackson, Mongols and the West, p. 166
  56. ^ a b Mayer, Hans Eberhard (February 15, 1978). "Ibelin versus Ibelin". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 122 (1). pp. 51–56. ISBN 9781422370858.
  57. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Pope:The Pontiff from St.Peter to John Paul II, (HarperCollins, 2000), 218.
  58. ^ Thomsett, 118.
  59. ^ "Gregory X: Letter on Jews, (1271-76): Against the Blood Libel", Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University
  60. ^ Biller, Bruschi & Sneddon 2011, p. 43.
  61. ^ Pope Nicholas III, "Exiit qui seminat", Franciscan Archives
  62. ^ a b Wieruszowski, H.. "Martin IV, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2003. HighBeam Research. (October 14, 2012)
  63. ^ a b c d e Ryan, James D. (November 1998). "Christian wives of Mongol khans: Tartar queens and missionary expectations in Asia". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 8 (9): 411–421. doi:10.1017/s1356186300010506.
  64. ^ Pope Nicholas IV, "Supra Motem", Franciscan Archives
  65. ^ Mitja Velikonja, Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, transl. Rang'ichi Ng'inga, (Texas A&M University Press, 2003), 35
  66. ^ Robertson, James Craigie, History of the Christian church, Vol.6, (Pott, Young and Co., 1874), 317-318.
  67. ^ Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope Boniface VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 23 Jul. 2014
  68. ^ Chaplais, Pierre, English diplomatic practice in the Middle Ages, (Hambledon and London, 2003), 79.
  69. ^ Glasgow medical journal, Vol.64, Glasgow and West of Scotland Medical Association, Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society of Glasgow, Ed. Thomas Kirkpatrick Monro, M.D. and George Henry Edington, M.D., (Alex Macdougal, 1905), 324.
  70. ^ a b c The Bull "In Coena Domini", John Hatchard & Son, London, 1848
  71. ^ F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Vol.II, (Princeton University Press, 2003), 145.
  72. ^ Jackson, p. 258
  73. ^ Barber, Malcolm, The Trial of the Templars, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 293.
  74. ^ Barber, 293.
  75. ^ Dillon, Charles Raymond, Templar Knights and the Crusades, (iUniverse, Inc., 2005), 191.
  76. ^ Nick Havely, Dante and the Franciscans: Poverty and the Papacy in the "Commedia", (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 41, 73.
  77. ^ Dillon, 194.
  78. ^ William Caferro, 'Empire, Italy, and Florence', in Dante in Context, edited Z. Baranski and L Pertile, C.U.P., 2015, pp.28.
  79. ^ Gordon Leff, Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: The Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent, c.1250-c.1450, (Manchester University Press, 1999), 158.
  80. ^ "Sarcasm and its Consequences in Diplomacy and Politics in Medieval Italy", Nicolino Applauso, Words that Tear the Flesh: Essays on Sarcasm in Medieval and Early Modern , ed. Stephen Alan Baragona, and Elizabeth Louise Rambo, (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2018), 134.
  81. ^ "The Life of Marsilius of Padua", Frank Godthardt, A Companion to Marsilius of Padua, ed.Gerson Moreno-Riano and Cary Nederman, (Brill, 2012), 17.
  82. ^ Poverty and Charity: Pope John XXII and the canonization of Louis of Anjou, Melanie Brunner, Franciscan Studies, Vol. 69 (2011), 231.
  83. ^ Two views of John XII as a Heretical Pope, Patrick Nold, Defenders and Critics of Franciscan Life: Essays in Honor of John V. Fleming, Vol. 6, edited by Michael F. Cusato, Guy Geltner, (Brill, 2009), 142.
  84. ^ The Papacy and the Crusade in XV Century Portugal, Luis Adao de Fonseca, Maria Christina Pimenta and Paula Pinto Costa, The Papacy and the Crusades, ed. Michel Balard, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2011), 143.
  85. ^ "Cum inter nonnullos". 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  86. ^ G. R. Evans, Fifty Key Medieval Thinkers, (Routledge, 2002), 151.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  87. ^ "Benedictus Deus". 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  88. ^ Voices of the Reformation: Contemporary Accounts of Daily Life, ed. John A. Wagner, (ABC-CLIO, 2015), xx.
  89. ^ a b Housley, Norman. Religious Warfare in Europe 1400-1536, Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 9780198208112
  90. ^ ""Notable Acquisitions", Stanford University Library". Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2014-07-26.
  91. ^ Gabriel, Astrik L. "Sapientie Immarcessibilis. A Diplomatic and Comparative Study of the Bull of Foundation of the University of Louvain (December 9, 1425)." The Catholic Historical Review. 1997. Questia Online Library. (October 14, 2012).
  92. ^ Syon Abbey and Its Books:Origins, Influences and Transitions, E.A. Jones and Alexandra Walsham, Syon Abbey and Its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion, C.1400-1700, ed. Edward Alexander Jones, Alexandra Walsham, (Boydell Press, 2010), 6.
  93. ^ Stark, Rodney, For the glory of God, (Princeton University Press, 2003), 330.
  94. ^ Stieber, Joachim W., Pope Eugenius IV, the Council of Basel and the Secular and Ecclesiastical Authorities in the Empire: The Conflict Over Supreme Authority and Power in the Church, Brill, 1978 ISBN 9789004052406
  95. ^ Van der Essen, Léon. "The Council of Florence." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 24 Jul. 2014
  96. ^ Davies, Norman. Europe: A History. p.446-448. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0
  97. ^ Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 250.
  98. ^ Raiswell, Richard. "Eugene IV, Papal bulls of", The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Junius P. Rodriguez ed., ABC-CLIO, 1997 ISBN 9780874368857
  99. ^ European treaties bearing on the history of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648, ed. Frances Gardiner Davenport, p. 12
  100. ^ Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 253.
  101. ^ Shlomo Simonsohn, Between Scylla and Charybdis: The Jews in Sicily, (BRILL, 2011), 142.
  102. ^ "The Papal Bull". University of Glasgow. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  103. ^ Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 254.
  104. ^ Shlomo Simonsohn, 142.
  105. ^ Mapping Territories, Shaunnagh Dorsett, Jurisprudence of Jurisdiction, Ed. Shaun McVeigh, (Routledge, 2007), 144.
  106. ^ Norman Housley, Crusading and the Ottoman Threat, 1453–1505 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 18.
  107. ^ a b Prestage, Edgar. "Portugal." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 27 Jul. 2014
  108. ^ Mapping Territories, Shaunnagh Dorsett, Jurisprudence of Jurisdiction, 144-145.
  109. ^ Pope Clement V, "Exivi de paradiso", Franciscan Archive
  110. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume II (London: John Hodges, 1891), p. 349.
  111. ^ European treaties bearing on the history of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648, Ed. Frances Gardiner Davenport, (Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1917), 27.
  112. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume II (London: John Hodges, 1891), p. 400.
  113. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume III (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., 1894), p. 24.
  114. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume III (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., 1894), p. 46.
  115. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume III (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., 1894), p. 98.
  116. ^ Michael J. Lacey and Francis Oakley, The Crisis of Authority in Catholic Modernity, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 37.
  117. ^ Ruth Rubinstein, 'Pius II and Roman ruins', Renaissance Studies Vol. 2, No. 2 (October 1988), p. 199.
  118. ^ Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571 (American Philosophical Society, 1976), p. 261.
  119. ^ Pérez, Joseph and Janet Lloyd, The Spanish Inquisition: A History, (Yale University Press, 2005), 19.
  120. ^ Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, Volume IV (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., 1894), p. 341.
  121. ^ Verzijl, J. H. W., International law in historical perspective, Vol.4, (A.W. Sijthoff, 1971), 16.
  122. ^ Lea, Henry Charles, A History of the Inquisition of Spain, Vol.1, (The Macmillan Company, 1906), 587.[3]
  123. ^ (ES), Bernardino Llorca, Bulario pontificio de la Inquisición española, (Pontifica Universita Gregoriana, 1949), 67.
  124. ^ Liviu Pilat, 'The 1487 crusade: a turning point in the Moldavian-Polish relations', in Liviu Pilat and Bogdan-Petru Maleon (eds.), Medieval and Early Modern Studies for Central and Eastern Europe: II (2010) (Iași: Alexandru Ioa Cruza University Press, 2010), p. 129.
  125. ^ Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571 (American Philosophical Society, 1976), p. 403.
  126. ^ "The Vatican". Catholic Encyclopedia. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  127. ^ Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571 (American Philosophical Society, 1976), p. 527.
  128. ^ Loughlin, James. "Colonna." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 23 Jul. 2014
  129. ^ Bakker, Paul and J. M. M. H. Thijssen, Mind, cognition and representation, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2007), 134.
  130. ^ Jon Arrizabalaga, John Henderson, and Roger Kenneth French, The Great Pox: The French Disease in Renaissance Europe, (Yale University Press, 1997), 170.
  131. ^ Giada Lepri, Il Tridente romano attraverso i Libri delle Case, dal XVI al XVIII secolo, Storia delle Città, 2018
  132. ^ Giada Lepri, Il Tridente romano attraverso i Libri delle Case, dal XVI al XVIII secolo, Storia delle Città, 2018
  133. ^ Giada Lepri, Il Tridente romano attraverso i Libri delle Case, dal XVI al XVIII secolo, Storia delle Città, 2018
  134. ^ Guidi, Remo L. "Leone X e la definitiva divisione dell'ordine dei Minori (OMin.): La Bolla Ite vos (29 Maggio 1517)." (2004): 575-577.
  135. ^ Gouwens, Kenneth and Sheryl E. Reiss, The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005), 363.
  136. ^ Hanke, Lewis (1937-04-01). "Pope Paul III and the American Indians". The Harvard Theological Review. 30 (2): 65–102. doi:10.1017/s0017816000022161. JSTOR 1508245.
  137. ^ António José Saraiva, The Marrano Factory: The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians 1536-1765, transl. H.P. Salomon and I.S.D. Sassoon, (Brill, 2001), 18.
  138. ^ "The New Cambridge modern history, Vol II, Ed. G.R. Elton, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 257.
  139. ^ Jonathan Seitz, Witchcraft and Inquisition in Early Modern Venice, (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 31.
  140. ^ The Church and Reform, R. V. Laurence, The Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 2, ed. A.W. Ward, G.W. Prothero and Stanley Leathes,(Cambridge University Press, 1907), 655.
  141. ^ Ludwig Freiherr von Pastor, The History of the Popes:From the Close of the Middle Ages, Vol. XIV, transl. Ralph Francis Kerr, (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co. Ltd, 1924), 388-389.
  142. ^ Leon Poliakov, Jewish Bankers and the Holy See, (Routledge, 1977)
  143. ^ Bulman, Raymond F. and Frederick J. Parrella, From Trent to Vatican II: historical and theological investigations, (Oxford University Press, 2006), 20.
  144. ^ Leszek Kołakowski, God owes Us Nothing, (University of Chicago Press, 1998), 4.
  145. ^ Krinsky, Carol Herselle. 1996. Synagogues of Europe: Architecture, History, Meaning. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29078-6. p. 118.
  146. ^ Butler, Alban and Michael J. Walsh, Butler's lives of the saints, (HarperCollins, 1991), 128.
  147. ^ Salo Wittmayer Baron (January 1970). A Social and Religious History of the Jews: Late Middle Ages and the era of European expansion, 1200-1650. COLUMBIA University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-231-08851-0. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  148. ^ Levillain, Philippe (2002). The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 772. ISBN 0-415-92230-5.
  149. ^ Pope Sixtus V, "Triumphantis Hierusalem", Papal Encyclicals Online
  150. ^ The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0-85244-650-0 page 120
  151. ^ Robert S. Westman, Two Cultures or One?: A Second Look at Kuhn's The Copernican Revolution, Isis, Vol. 85, No. 1, Mar., 1994, 104.
  152. ^ Brian E. Strayer, Suffering Saints: Jansenists and Convulsionnaires in France, 1640-1799, (Sussex Academic Press, 2012), 67.
  153. ^ "Martyrs' Shrine Archives & Research Library". 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  154. ^ Doyle, William, Jansenism, (MacMillan Press Ltd., 2000), 26.
  155. ^ Alzog, Johannes (1878). Pabisch, Francis Joseph; Byrne, Thomas Sebastian (eds.). Manual of Universal Church History vol. 3. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke & Co. p. 502. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  156. ^ Anura Gurugé, The Next Pope, (WOWNH, 2010), 115.
  157. ^ "Beatus Andreas - Pope Benedict XIV". Archived from the original on 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  158. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, 339.
  159. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Aprilbeweging" (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  160. ^ "Catholic Church News" (PDF). The New York Times. August 27, 1886. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  161. ^ Francis J. Buckley, Growing in the Church: From Birth to Death, (University Press of America, 2000), 33.
  162. ^ Edward T. Oakes and David Moss, The Cambridge companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 65.
  163. ^ Fr. Benedict Ashley, O.P. (2011). "'Dei Verbum' and Christian Morals". Ignatius Insight. Retrieved 24 December 2011.


  • Biller, Peter; Bruschi, C.; Sneddon, S., eds. (2011). Inquisitors and Heretics in Thirteenth-Century Languedoc:Edition and Translation of Toulouse Inquistion Depositions, 1273-1282. Brill.

External links[edit]