List of papal bulls
This is an incomplete list of papal bulls by the year in which they were issued.
(The decrees of some bulls were often tied to the circumstances of time and place and may have been adjusted, attenuated or abrogated by subsequent popes as situations changed.)
|1059||In nomine Domini
("In the name of the Lord")
|Nicholas II||Establishing cardinal-bishops as the sole electors of the pope.|
("The liberty of the Church")
|1079||Antiqua sanctorum patrum||Gregory VII||Granted the church of Lyon primacy over the churches of Gaul.|
|c. 1120||Sicut Judaeis
("Thus to the Jews")
|Callixtus II||Provides protection for the Jews who suffered from the hands of the participants in the First Crusade.|
|1136 (July 7)||Ex commisso nobis||Innocent II||Split Archbishop of Magdeburg from the rest of the Polish church.|
|1139 (Mar. 29)||Omne Datum Optimum||Innocent II||Endorses the Knights Templar.|
("Soldiers of the Temple")
|Celestine II||Provides clergy protection to the Knights Templar and encourages contributions to their cause.|
("Soldiers of God")
|Eugene III||Allows the Knights Templar to take tithes and burial fees and to bury their dead in their own cemeteries.|
|1145 (Dec. 1)||Quantum praedecessores
("How much did our predecessors")
|Eugene III||Calls for the Second Crusade.|
|Adrian IV||Gives the English King Henry II lordship over Ireland.|
("It is clearly demonstrated")
|Alexander III||Recognition of the kingdom of Portugal and Afonso Henriques as the first king.|
|1184 (Nov. 4)||Ad Abolendam||Lucius III||Condemns heresy, and lists some punishments (though stops short of death).|
|1187 (Oct. 29)||Audita tremendi
("Hearing what terrible...")
|Gregory VIII||Calls for the Third Crusade.|
|1191||Clement III||Confirms "Sicut Judaeis"|
|1192||Cum universi||Celestine III||Defined the Scottish Church as immediately subject to the Holy See.|
|1198||Post Miserabile||Innocent III||Calls for the Fourth Crusade.|
|1199 (March 25)||Vergentis in senium||Innocent III||This bull, addressed to the city of Viterbo, announced that heresy would be considered, in terms of punishment, the same as treason.|
|1199 (Sept. 15)||Innocent III||Confirms "Sicut Judæis|
|1205||Esti Judaeos||Innocent III||Jews were allowed their own houses of worship and would not be forced to convert. Jews were forbidden to eat with Christians or own Christian slaves.|
|1207||Innocent III||requiring Jews of Spain to pay tithes on possessions obtained from Christians|
|1213 (May)||Bulla Aurea||Innocent III||Ended papal sanctions against John Lackland in England in exchange for that realm's pledge of fealty to the papacy|
|1213||Quia maior||Innocent III||Calls for the Fifth Crusade.|
|1216 (Nov. 6)||Honorius III||In favor of German Jews, confirming the "Sicut Judæis" of Clement III.|
|1216 (December)||Religiosam vitam
("The religious life")
|Honorius III||Established the Dominican Order|
|1218||In generali concilio||Honorius III||Demanded the enforcement of the 4th Lateran Council that Jews wear clothing to distinguish themselves and that Jews be made to pay the tithe to local churches.|
|1219||Honorius III||Permitting the King of Castile to suspend the wearing of the badge by Jews|
|1219||Super speculam||Honorius III||Closed law schools in Paris and forbid the study of civil law.|
|1223 (Nov. 29)||Solet annuere||Honorius III||Approves the Rule of St. Francis.|
|1228 (October 21)||Gregory IX||Remitting interest on Crusaders' debts to Jews and granting a "moratorium" for repayment|
|1228||Mira Circa Nos||Gregory IX||canonizing St. Francis of Assisi|
|1230||Quo elongati||Gregory IX||Resolved issues concerning the testament of Francis of Assisi.|
|1231 (April 13)||Parens scientiarum
("The Mother of Sciences")
|Gregory IX||Guarantees the independence of the University of Paris.|
|1232 (Feb. 8)||Ille humani generis||Gregory IX||Instructed the Dominican prior of Regensburg to form an Inquisitional tribunal.|
|1233 (April 6)||Etsi Judaeorum
("Even if the Jews")
|Gregory IX||Demands that Jews in Christian countries be treated with the same humanity with which Christians wish to be treated in heathen lands.|
|1233||Licet ad capiendos||Gregory IX||Marks the start of the Inquisition by the Church.|
|1233||Sufficere debuerat||Gregory IX||Forbids Christians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews|
|1234||Pietati proximum||Gregory IX||Confirms Germanic Orders rule of Kulmerland.|
|1234||Rex pacificus||Gregory IX||Announcement of the Liber Extra, the collection of papal decretals.|
|1234 (June 5)||Gregory IX||To Thibaut of Navarre, enforcing the badge|
|1235||Gregory IX||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1235||Cum hora undecima
("Since the eleventh hour")
|Gregory IX||First bull authorizing friars to preach to pagan nations.|
|1239 (June 20)||Si vera sunt
("If they are true")
|Gregory IX||Orders the seizure and examination of Jewish writings, especially the Talmud, suspected of blasphemies against Christ and the Church.|
|1240||Gregory IX||Ordering all Jewish books in Castile to be seized on first Saturday in Lent while Jews were in synagogue|
|1243||Qui iustis causis||Innocent IV||Orders a crusade to the Baltic lands. Repeated 1256 and 1257.|
|1244||Impia judeorum perfidia||Innocent IV||Stated that Jews could not hire Christian nurses.|
|1244 (March 9)||Impia gens||Innocent IV||Ordering Talmud to be burned|
|1245||Inter alia desiderabilia||Innocent IV||Charges against Sancho II of Portugal.|
|1245 (March 5)||Dei patris immensa
("God the Father's immense...")
|Innocent IV||Exposition of the Christian faith, and urged Mongols to accept baptism.|
|1245 (March 13)||Cum non solum
("With not only...")
|Innocent IV||Appeal to the Mongols to desist from attacking Christians and other nations, and an enquiry as to their future intentions. Innocent expresses desire for peace (possibly unaware that in the Mongol vocabulary, "peace" is a synonym for "subjection").|
|1245 (late March)||Cum simus super||Innocent IV||Letter addressed to multiple prelates and 'Christians of the East' which affirmed the primacy of the Roman Church and urged ecclesiastical unity.|
|1246||Innocent IV||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1247 (May 8)||Divina justitia nequaquam||Innocent IV||against blood libel against Jews|
|1247 (July 5)||Lachrymabilem Judaeorum||Innocent IV||Urged the end of persecution of the Jews based the blood libel.|
|1247 (Oct.1)||Quae honorem conditoris omnium||Innocent IV||On the rules of the Carmelite Order|
|1248 (November 22)||Viam agnoscere veritatis||Innocent IV||Letter addressed to Baiju, king of the Mongols, in response to his embassy.|
|1249||De indulgencia xi dierum||Innocent IV||An indulgence to all the faithful who visit the Shrine of St. Margaret in Scotland|
|1250 (April 15)||Innocent IV||Refusing permission to Jews of Cordova to build a new synagogue|
|1252 (May 15)||Ad exstirpanda
("For the elimination")
|Innocent IV||Authorizes the use of torture for eliciting confessions from heretics during the Inquisition and executing relapsed heretics by burning them alive.|
|1253 (July 23)||Innocent IV||Expelling Jews from Vienne|
|1253 (September 25)||Innocent IV||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1254 (October 6)||Querentes in agro||Innocent IV||Recognised the University of Oxford and "confirmed its liberties, ancient customs and approved statutes".|
|1255||Clara claris praeclara
("Clare outstandingly clear")
|Alexander IV||On the canonization of St. Clare of Assisi|
|1263/1264||Exultavit cor nostrum
("Our heart has rejoiced")
|Urban IV||Letter from Urban to Hulagu, discussing the arrival of Hulagu's (uncredentialed) envoy John the Hungarian, cautiously welcoming, and announcing that William II of Agen, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, would be investigating further.|
|1264||?||Urban IV||Discussion of the Egyptian threat (no mention of Mongols).|
|1260s (undated)||Audi filia et
("Hear, O daughter, and")
|Urban IV or Clement IV||Caution to Queen Plaisance of Cyprus to cease her unchaste ways, and marry|
|1260s (undated)||De sinu patris
("The bosom of the Father")
|Urban IV or Clement IV||Admonishment to an unnamed nobleman to cease his adultery and return to his wife|
|1265||Licet Ecclesiarum||Clement IV||Stated that appointments to all benefices were a papal prerogative.|
|1267 (July 26)||Turbato corde||Clement IV||Legally barred Christians from converting to Judaism.|
|1272||Gregory X||Confirms the "Sicut Judæis"|
|1272 (July 7)||"Letter on Jews"||Gregory X||Against the Blood Libel |
("Where there is danger")
|Gregory X||Established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope, imposing progressively stricter restrictions on cardinals the longer a conclave lasted to encourage a quick selection.|
|1274||Gregory X||confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1278 (August 4)||Vineam sorce||Nicholas III||Ordering conversion sermons to Jews|
|1279||Exiit qui seminat||Nicholas III||Confirming the rules of the Friar Minor|
|1281||Ad fructus uberes||Pope Martin IV||Gave Franciscan priests the right to preach and hear confession.|
|1283||Exultantes||Pope Martin IV||Relaxed the restrictions on poverty for Franciscans.|
|1286 (November 30)||Honorius IV||To Archbishop of York and of Canterbury, against Talmud|
|1288||Habet carissima filia||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to Christian women at the court of the Mongol Ilkhan|
|1289||Supra Motem||Pope Nicholas IV||On the Rule of the Third Order of St. Francis|
|1291 (January 30)||Orat mater ecclesia||Pope Nicholas IV||To protect the Roman Jews from oppression|
|1291 (March)||Prae cunctis||Pope Nicholas IV||Authorized the Franciscans to start the inquisition in Bosnia.|
|1291||Gaudemus in Domino||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to Arghun's third wife, Uruk Khatun, the mother of Nicholas (Oljeitu), Arghun's successor.|
|1291||Pastoralis officii||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to two young Mongol princes, Saron and Cassian, urging their conversion to Christianity.|
|1296 (January 20)||Redemptor mundi
("Redeemer of the world")
|Boniface VIII||Named James II of Aragon as standardbearer, captain-general, and admiral of the Roman Church.|
|1296 (February 25)||Clericis Laicos
|Boniface VIII||Excommunicates all members of the clergy who, without authorization from the Holy See, pay to laymen any part of their income or the revenue of the Church, and all rulers who receive such payments.|
|1297||Super rege et regina
("About king and queen")
|Boniface VIII||Bestowed on James II of Aragon the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica.|
|1297||Excelso throno||Pope Boniface VIII||Jacopo Colonna and Pietro Colonna, both cardinals, were excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII for refusing to surrender their relative Stefano Colonna (who had seized and robbed the pope's nephew) and refusing to give the pope Palestrina along with two fortresses, which threatened the pope. This excommunication was extended in the same year to Jacopo's nephews and their heirs, after the two Colonna cardinals denounced the pope's election as invalid and appealed to a general council.|
|1299 (June 13)||Exhibita nobis||Boniface VIII||Declares Jews be included among persons who might be denounced to the Inquisition without the name of the accuser revealed|
|1299 (27 June)||Scimus, Fili
("We know, my son")
|Boniface VIII||Challenged Edward I's claim to Scotland, stating the Scottish kingdom belonged to the apostolic see.|
|1299||De Sepulturis||Boniface VIII||Prohibited Crusaders from dismembering and boiling of the bodies so that the bones, separated from the flesh, may be carried for burial in their own countries.|
|1299||Fuit olim||Boniface VIII||Denounces those who supply arms, ammunition, and provisions to the Saracens|
|1300 (22 February)||Antiquorum fida relatio||Boniface VIII||Reinstates the Jubilee Years, granting indulgence during those years for those who fulfill various conditions.|
|1302 (November 18)||Unam Sanctam
("The One Holy")
|Boniface VIII||Declares that there is no salvation outside the Church (Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus), and that the Church must remain united.|
|1303||"Excomminicamus et anathematazimus||Boniface VIII||Directed against those who molest persons travelling to and from Rome|
|1307 (November 22)||Pastoralis praeminentiae||Clement V||Orders the arrest of the Knights Templar and the confiscation of their possessions.|
|1307 (23 July)||Rex regnum||Clement V||Nominates seven Franciscans to act as papal suffragans in China.|
|Clement V||Sets out the procedure to prosecute the Knights Templar.|
|1308 (August 12)||Regnans in caelis
("Reigning in heaven")
|Clement V||Convenes the Council of Vienne to discuss the Knights Templar.|
|1310 (April 4)||Alma mater
("A nurturing mother")
|Clement V||Postpones the opening of the Council of Vienne until 1 October 1311, on account of the investigation of the Templars that was not yet finished.|
|1312 (March 22)||Vox in excelso
("A voice from on high")
|Clement V||Disbands the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (May 2)||Ad providam||Clement V||Grants the bulk of Templar property on to the Knights Hospitallers.|
|1312 (May 6)||Considerantes dudum||Clement V||Outlined the disposition for members of the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (May 16)||Nuper in concilio||Clement V||Gave Templar property to the Knights Templar|
|1312 (December 18)||Licet dudum||Clement V||Suspends privileges and confirms the disposition of property of the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (December 31)||Dudum in generali concilio||Clement V||Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.|
|1313 (January 13)||Licet pridem||Clement V||Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.|
|1317||Sane Considerante||John XXII||Elevated the Diocese of Toulouse to Archbishop and created six new bishoprics.|
|1317||John XXII||orders Jews to wear badge on breast, and issues bull against ex-Jews|
|1318 (January 23)||Gloriosam ecclesiam||John XXII||The Franciscan "Spirituals" of Tuscany are declared heretics and excommunicated.|
|1318 (April 1)||Redemptor noster
|John XXII||Withdrew the Mongol Ilkhan's dominions and 'India' from the archdiocese of Khanbaligh, transferring to a Dominican province|
|1319||Ad ea ex quibus||John XXII||Created Portuguese Order of Christ.|
|1320 (June 28)||John XXII||Orders that converts from Judaism shall retain their property|
|1320 (September 4)||John XXII||to French bishops bull against Talmud|
|1322||Quia nonnunquam||John XXII||Freedom of discussion in poverty controversy|
|1322||Ad conditorem canonum||John XXII||Continuation of poverty controversy|
|1323||Cum inter nonnullos||John XXII||Defines the belief in the poverty of Christ and the Apostles as heretical.|
|1324||Quia quorundam||John XXII||Condemned those that disagreed with Cum inter nonnullos|
|1329||Quia vir reprobus||John XXII|
|1329||In agro dominico||John XXII|
|1333 (December 2)||Summa providit altitudo consilii||John XXII|
("On the beatific vision of God")
|Benedict XII||Declared that the saved see Heaven (and thus, God) before Judgement Day.|
|1337 (August 29)||Ex zelo fidei||Benedict XII||Promising inquiry into host-tragedy of Pulka|
|1338||Exultanti precepimus||Benedict XII||Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg and his family, thanking them for having granted land to Franciscans to build a church|
|1338||Dundum ad notitiam||Benedict XII||Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg recommending ambassadors, and thanking Ozbeg for prior favors shown to missionaries|
|1342||Gratiam Agimus||Clement VI||Declared the Franciscan Order as the official Custodian of the Holy Land in the name of the Church.|
|1343 January 27||Unigenitus Dei filius||Clement VI||Justified papal power to issue indulgences|
|1345 (July 5)||Clement VI||Against forcible baptism|
|1348 (July 4)||Clement VI||Confirms "Sicut Judäis"|
|1348 September 26||Quamvis Perfidiam||Clement VI||An attempt to dispel the rumor that the Jews caused the Black Death by poisoning wells.|
|1350||cum natura humana||Clement VI|
|1363||Apostolatus Officium(sometimes known as In Coena Domini)||Urban V||Against pirates, those who supply arms to Saracens, and those who intercept supplies intended for Rome|
|1365 (July 7)||Urban V||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1372||"Excomminicamus et anathematazimus||Gregory XI||Excommunicating forgers of Letters Apostolic|
|1383||Quia sicut||Urban VI||Regarding ecclesiastical immunities|
|Boniface IX||Raises the see of Lisbon to Metropolitan status|
|1389 (July 2)||Boniface IX||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1397 (April 6)||Boniface IX||Confirms grant of Roman citizenship to Jewish physician Manuele and son Angelo|
|1402 (April 15)||Boniface IX||Grants privileges to Roman Jews—reducing their taxes, ordering their Sabbath to be protected, placing them under the jurisdiction of the Curia, protecting them from oppression by officials; all Jews and Jewesses dwelling in the city to be regarded and treated as Roman citizens|
|1409 (December 20)||Alexander V||ordered to suppress all the books of John Wycliffe in Bohemia |
|1415 (May 11)||Etsi doctoribus gentium||Antipope Benedict XIII||Against Talmud or any other Jewish book attacking Christianity|
|1417||Bull against Talmud|
|1418||Quod Antidota||Martin V||Exempt jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical courts|
|1418 (January 31)||Martin V||Forbidding the forcible baptism of Jews or the disturbance of their synagogues|
|1418 (April 4)||Sane charissimus||Martin V||After the seizure of Cueta called on all to support John I of Portugal in his war against the Moors|
|1420 (March 1)||Omnium Plasmatoris Domini||Martin V||Calls for a crusade against followers of Jan Hus, John Wycliffe, and other heretics. It initiates the Hussite Wars.|
|1420 (November 25)||Concessum Judaæis||Martin V||To German Jews confirming their privileges|
|1420 (Dec. 23)||Licet Judæorum omnium||Martin V||In favor of Austrian Jews|
|1421||Martin V||To the Benedictine Abbey of St. Bertin at St. Omer, granting permission for the monks to elect their own confessors.|
|1421 (Feb. 23)||Martin V||In favor of Jews and against anti-Jewish sermons; permits Jewish physicians to practice|
|1422 (Feb. 20)||Martin V||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1423 (June 3)||Sedes apostolica||Martin V||Renews law requiring Jews to wear badge|
|1425||Sapientie immarcessibilis||Martin V||Foundation of the Old University of Leuven|
|1425||Mare Anglicanum||Martin V||Confirmed the bull Mare Magnum and gave Syon independence from Vadstena and the general order chapter house.|
|1426 (Feb. 14)||Martin V||Against Jews|
|1428||Ad Repremendas||Martin V||Supreme jurisdiction of the Roman court|
|1429 (Feb. 15)||Quamquam Judæi||Martin V||Places Roman Jews under the general civic law, protects them from forcible baptism, and permits them to teach in the school|
|Etsi cunctis fidei||Eugene IV||Prohibited imposition of inordinately high dues on converted Canary islanders|
|1432 (Feb. 8)||Eugene IV||Protection for Jews, renewing ordinances against forcible baptism and disturbance of synagogues and graveyards|
|1434 (Feb. 20)||Eugene IV||Prohibiting anti-Jewish sermons|
|1434 (December 17)||Creator Omnium||Eugene IV||On slave raiding in the Canaries|
|1435||Sicut Dudum||Eugene IV||Forbidding the slavery of local natives in the Canary Islands by Spanish slave traders.|
|1437 (September 18)||Doctoris gentium||Eugene IV||Transfers the Council of Basel to Ferrara|
|1437||Praeclaris tuae||Eugene IV|
|1439 (January)||Eugene IV||Transfers the Council of Ferrara to Florence because of the plague|
|1439 (July 6)||Laetentur Caeli
("Rejoicing of the Heavens")
|Eugene IV||Officially re-united the Roman Catholic Church with the Eastern Orthodox Churches. This agreement was quickly repudiated by most eastern bishops.|
|1441||Cantate Domino||Eugene IV|
|1442 (August 8)||Dundum ad nostram audientiam||Eugene IV||Complete separation of Jews and Christians (ghetto).|
|1442 (August 10)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Eugene IV||Revokes the privileges of the Castilian Jews and imposes severe restrictions on them. Forbids Castilian Christians to eat, drink, live or bathe with Jews or Muslims and declaring invalid the testimony of Jews or Muslims against Christians.|
|1442 (December 19)||Illius qui se pro divini||Eugene IV||On Henry of Portugal's "crusade" against the Saracens|
|1443 (Jan.5)||Rex regum||Eugene IV||Takes neutral position on territorial disputes between Portugal and Castile regarding rights claimed in Africa.|
|1447 (June 23)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Nicholas V||Re-issues Eugene IV's bull against Castilian Jews to Italy.|
|1447 (Nov. 2)||Nicholas V||Confirms "Sicut Judæis"|
|1451 (January 7)||Nicholas V||Foundation of the University of Glasgow.|
|1451 (Feb. 25)||Nicholas V||Prohibiting social intercourse with Jews and Saracens|
|1451 (March 1)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Nicholas V||Third issuance of Eugenius IV's bull. Confirms the earlier revocation of privileges and restrictions against Spanish and Italian Jews.|
|1451 (May 8)||Nicholas V|
|1451 (Sept. 21)||Romanus pontifex||Nicholas V||Relieving the dukes of Austria from ecclesiastical censure for permitting Jews to dwell there|
|1452 (June 18)||Dum diversas||Nicholas V||Authorizes Afonso V of Portugal to reduce any Muslims, pagans and other unbelievers to perpetual slavery.|
|1454 (Jan.8)||Nicholas V||Concedes to Afonso V all conquests in Africa from Cape Non to Guinea, with authorization to build churches|
|1454 (Jan.8)||Nicholas V||Extended Portuguese dominion over all the seas from Africa to India.|
|1455 (January 8)||Romanus Pontifex
("The Roman pontiff")
|Nicholas V||Granting the Portuguese a perpetual monopoly in trade with Africa and allows the enslavement of natives.|
|1455||Exivi de paradiso||Clement V||On the rules of the Friar Minor|
|1456 (March 13)||Inter Caetera||Calixtus III||Confirmed the Bull Romanus Pontifex and gave the Portuguese Order of Christ the spiritualities of all lands acquired and to be acquired.|
|1456 (June 20)||Cum hiis superioribus annis and is titled Bulla Turcorum||Calixtus III||Announces the Fall of Constantinople and seeks funding for another crusade against the Turks.|
|1460 (January 18)||Execrabilis
|Pius II||Prohibits appealing a papal judgment to a future general council.|
|1470 (April 19)||Ineffabilis providentia
|Paul II||Declared that a Jubilee would take place every 25 years.|
|1472 (Feb. 21)||Sixtus IV||Orders taxation of Roman Jews at a tithe during the Turkish war, and a carnival tax of 1,100 gulden|
|1476||Regimini Gregis||Sixtus IV||Threatens to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslave Christians|
|1478 (November 1)||Exigit sinceræ devotionis||Sixtus IV||Authorized Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint inquisitors which created the Spanish Inquisition.|
|1481 (April 3)||Sixtus IV||Orders all Christian princes to restore all fugitives to Inquisition of Spain|
|1481 (June 21)||Aeterni regis||Sixtus IV||Confirms the Treaty of Alcáçovas.|
|1481 (Oct. 18)||Sixtus IV||Appointing Tomas de Torquemada inquisitor-general of Avignon, Valencia, and Catalonia|
|1482 (April 14)||Superna caelestis||Sixtus IV||By which Bl. Bonaventure, Is registered in the Canon of the Saints|
|1482 (April 18)||Ad Perpetuam Rei memoriam||Sixtus IV||Ordered humanitarian reforms to the Spanish Inquisition.|
|1484 (December 5)||Summis desiderantes||Innocent VIII||Condemns an alleged outbreak of witchcraft and heresy in the region of the Rhine River valley, and deputizes Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany.|
|1491||Officii nostri||Innocent VIII|
|1493 (May 3)||Eximiae Devotionis||Alexander VI||Accords to Spain recognition of the same rights and privileges regarding lands discovered in the west as had been previously confirmed to Portugal in the east.|
|1493 (May 4)||Inter caetera
("Among the other")
|Alexander VI||On the division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal|
|1493 (June 25)||Piis Fidelium||Alexander VI||Grants Spain vicarial power to appoint missionaries to the Indies.|
|1493 (Sept 26)||Dudum siquidem||Alexander VI||Territorial grants supplemental to Inter caetera|
|1497 (October 15)||Ad sacram ordinis||Alexander VI||The ancient custom of selecting the Prefect of the Apostolic Chapel from the Augustinian Order was given legal foundation.|
|1500 (June 1)||Alexander VI||Demanding for three years for the Turkish war one-twentieth of Jewish property throughout the world|
|1503 (December 26)||Julius II||Matrimonial dispensation for Henry VIII of England to marry Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow.|
|1509||Suspecti Regiminis||Julius II||Prohibiting appeals to future councils|
|1509||Pontifex Romanis Pacis||Julius II||Against plunderers of shipwrecks|
|1511||Pax Romana||Julius II||To stop the feuding between the Orsini and Colonna families|
|1513 (December 19)||Apostolici Regiminis||Leo X||Concerning immortality of the soul.|
|1514||Supernæ||Leo X||Declares that the cardinals in a body should come immediately after the pope and precede all others in the church.|
|1515||Regimini Universalis||Leo X|
|1520 (June 15)||Exsurge Domine
("Arise, O Lord")
|Leo X||Demands that Martin Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses, as well as other specified errors, within sixty days of its publication in neighbouring regions to Saxony.|
|1521 (January 3)||Decet Romanum Pontificem
("[It] befits [the] Roman Pontiff")
|Leo X||Excommunicates Martin Luther.|
|1529 (May 8)||Intra Arcana||Clement VII||Grant of permissions and privileges to Emperor Charles V and the Spanish Empire, which included patronage power over their lands in the Americas.|
|1524 (April 7)||Clement VII||In favor of Maranos|
|1531 (Dec. 17)||Introduces Inquisition into Portugal at Evora, Coimbra, and Lisbon|
|1533||Romanus Pontifex||Clement VII|
|1537 (May 29)||Sublimus Dei||Paul III||Forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.|
|1538 (October 28)||In apostolatus culmine||Paul III|
|1540||Paul III||Granting Neo-Christians family property except that gained by usury, also municipal rights, but must not marry among themselves or be buried among Jews|
|1540 (May 12)||Licet Judæi||Paul III||against blood libel|
|1540 (September 27)||Regimini militantis ecclesiae
("To the Government of the Church Militant")
|Paul III||Approves the formation of the Society of Jesus.|
|1543 (March 14)||Injunctum nobis||Paul III||Repealed a clause in the previous Bull which had only allowed the Society of Jesus sixty members.|
|1550 (July 21)||Exposcit debitum
("The Duty demands")
|Julius III||Second and final approval of the Society of Jesus|
|1553 (April 28)||Divina disponente clementia
("So predisposed by the divine clemency")
|Julius III||Create Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa the first patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church.|
|1554 (August 31)||Pastoris æterni vices||Julius III||Imposes tax of ten gold ducats on two out of the 115 synagogues in the Papal States|
|1555 (July 14)||Cum nimis absurdum
("Since it is absurd")
|Paul IV||Places religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States.|
|1555 (August 8)||Paul IV||Ameliorates some of the restrictions imposed by "Cum nimis absurdum"|
|1559 (February 15)||Cum ex apostolatus officio
("By virtue of the apostolic office")
|Paul IV||Confirms that only Catholics can be elected Popes.|
|1564||Dominici Gregis Custodiae||Pius IV||Containing the rules for forbidding books|
|1564 (January 26)||Benedictus Deus
|Pius IV||Ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent.|
|1565 (January 17)||Æquum reputamus
("We consider it equal")
|1566||Cum nobis ex parte||Pius V||Reiterates condemnation of those who plunder shipwrecks|
|1567||Ex omnibus afflictionibus||Pius V||Condemns 79 statements made by Michael Baius|
|1567 (Jan. 19)||Cum nos nuper||Pius V||Orders Jews to sell all property in Papal States|
|1568 (June 7)||Quod a nobis||Pius V||Modified the Roman Breviary|
|1569 (February)||Hebraeorum gens sola
||Pius V||Restricted Jews in the Papal States to Rome and Ancona.|
|1569 (Sept. 17)||Consueverunt||Pius V|
|1570 (February 25)||Regnans in excelsis
("Ruling from on high")
|Pius V||Declares Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releases her subjects from any allegiance to her.|
|1570 (July 14)||Quo primum
("From the first")
|Pius V||Describes the method used to reform the Roman rite, promulgates the Missal of Pius V (Tridentine rite, and abrogates any other rite which cannot demonstrate two hundred year of continuous use|
|1574||Ad Romani Pontificis||Gregory XIII|
|1581 (February 24)||Inter gravissimas
("Among the most important")
|Gregory XIII||Establishes the Gregorian calendar.|
|1581 (March 30)||Multos adhuc ex Christianis||Gregory XIII||Renews Church law against Jewish physicians|
|1581 (June 1)||Antiqua Judæorum improbitas||Gregory XIII||Gives jurisdiction over Jews of Rome to Inquisition in cases of blasphemy, protection of heretics, possession of forbidden works, employment of Christian servants|
|1582||Inter gravissimas||Gregory XIII||reformed the Julian calendar|
|1584 (Sept 1)||Sancta mater ecclesia||Orders 150 Jews (100 Jews, 50 Jewesses) to attend weekly conversion sermons|
|1586 (January)||Coeli et terrae
("The heavens and the lands")
|Sixtus V||Condemned "judicial astrology" as superstitious.|
|1586 (October)||Christiana pietas
|Sixtus V||Allowed Jews to settle in the Papal States, revoking Pius V's 1569 bull, Hebraeorum gens sola.|
|1587 (June 4)||Sixtus V||Grants Magino di Gabriel of Venice the monopoly of silk-manufacture in Papal States for sixty years, and ordering five mulberry-trees to be planted in every rubbio of land|
|1588 (February 11)||Immensa Aeterni Dei
("The immense [wisdom] of Eternal God")
|Sixtus V||Reorganized the Roman Curia, establishing several permanent congregations to advise the Pope.|
|1588 (October)||[Contra procurantes, consulentes, & consentientes, quocumque modo abortum [Against Those who Procure [...] abortion]||Sixtus V|
|1588||Triumphantis Hierusalem||Sixtus V||On St. Bonaventure|
|1591||[Constitutio moderatoria bullae [...] Sixti pp. 5, contra abortum]||Gregory XIV|
|1592 (Feb. 28)||Cum sæpe accidere||Clement VIII||Forbidding Jews to deal in new commodities|
|1593||Caeca et Obdurata
("The Blind and Obdurate")
|Clement VIII||Expelled the Jews from the Papal States.|
|1593 (Mar. 8)||Clement VIII||In favor of Turkish Jews|
|1604 (Aug. 23)||Clement VIII||In favor of Portuguese Maranos|
|Dominici gregis||Clement VIII||Marian piety as the basis of the Church.|
|1610 (Aug. 7)||Exponi nobis nuper fecistis||Paul V||Regulates dowries of Roman Jews|
|1631||Contra astrologos iudiciarios||Urban VIII||Condemns astrological predictions of the deaths of princes and popes.|
|1639 (April 22)||Commissum nobis||Urban VIII||Reaffirms "Sublimus Dei" forbidding enslavement of indigenous people|
|1641 (6 March)||In eminenti Ecclesiae militantis||Urban VIII||Censures Jansenist publications.|
|1644||Urban VIII||Grants pilgrims to the Jesuit mission at Ste. Marie, Canada "a Plenary Indulgence each year and the remission of all their sins."|
|1653 (May 31)||Cum occasione||Innocent X||Condemns 5 Jansenist propositions.|
|1658 (Nov. 15)||Ad ea per quae||Alexander VII||Orders Roman Jews to pay rent even for unoccupied houses in ghetto, because Jews would not hire houses from which Jews had been evicted|
|1659||Super cathedram Principis Apostolorum||Alexander VII||Establishing the Catholic mission in Vietnam|
("To the sacred")
|1674 (Oct. 3)||Clement X||Suspends operations of Portuguese Inquisition against Maranos|
|1679 (May 27)||Clement X||Suspends grand inquisitor of Portugal on account of his treatment of Maranos|
|1692||Romanum decet Pontificem
("It befits the Roman Pontiff")
|Innocent XII||Abolished the office of Cardinal-Nephew|
|Clement XI||Condemns Jansenism.|
|1715 (Mar. 19)||Ex illa die||Clement XI||Chinese customs and traditions that are not contradictory to Roman Catholicism will be allowed, while those that are clearly contradictory to it will not be tolerated.|
|1738||In eminenti apostolatus specula
("In the high watchtower of the Apostolate")
|Clement XII||Bans Catholics from becoming Freemasons.|
|1747 (Feb. 28)||Postremo mense superioris anni||Benedict XIV||Confirms decision of Roman Curia of Oct. 22, 1597, that a Jewish child, once baptized, even against canonical law, must be brought up under Christian influences|
|Benedict XIV||Beatified child martyr Andreas Oxner, said in a blood libel accusation to have been murdered by Jews in 1462.|
|1773||Dominus ac Redemptor noster
("Our Master and Redeemer")
|Clement XIV||Permanently and irrevocably suppressing the Society of Jesus.|
|1814||Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum
("The care of all the churches")
|Pius VII||Reestablishes the Society of Jesus.|
|1824||Quod divina sapientia
("What divine wisdom")
|Leo XII||Restructures education in the Papal States under ecclesiastical supervision.|
|1831||Sollicitudo ecclesiarum||Gregory XVI||That in the event of a change of government, the church would negotiate with the new government for placement of bishops and vacant dioceses.|
|1850 (September 29)||Universalis Ecclesiae
("Of the Universal Church")
|Pius IX||Recreates the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England.|
|1853 (March 4)||Ex qua die arcano||Pius IX||Reestablishment of the episcopal hierarchy in the Netherlands|
|1854||Ineffabilis Deus||Pius IX||Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception|
|1866 (July 12)||Reversurus
("To came back")
|Pius IX||Extends to the Armenian Catholic Church the Western provisions about appointment of bishops.|
|1868 (June 29)||Aeterni Patris
("Of the Eternal Father")
|Pius IX||Summons First Vatican Council.|
|1869 (October 12)||Apostolicæ Sedis moderationi
("To the guidance of the Apostolic See")
|Pius IX||Regulates the system of censures and reservations in the Catholic Church.|
("The eternal shepherd")
|Pius IX||Defines papal infallibility.|
|1880 (July 13)||Dolemus inter alia
("Among other things, we lament")
|Leo XIII||Reinstates the privileges of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), nullifying the bull Dominus ac Redemptor Noster of 21 July 1773.|
|1884 (November 1)||Omnipotens Deus
|Leo XIII||Accepted the authenticity of the relics at Compostela, Galicia, Spain.|
("Of the Apostolic care")
|Leo XIII||Declares all Anglican Holy Orders null and void.|
|Pius X||Allows the admittance of Communion to children who have reached the age of reason (about seven years old).|
|1930||Ad Christi nomen||Pius XI||Created the Diocese of Vijayapuram.|
|1950 (November 1)||Munificentissimus Deus
("The most bountiful God")
|Pius XII||Defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.|
|1961 (December 25)||Humanae salutis
("Of human salvation")
|John XXIII||Summons Second Vatican Council.|
|1965 (November 18)||Dei verbum
("Word of God")
|Paul VI||Aims to promote the "theological virtues" of faith, hope, and love, and strongly urges Christians to study the Bible as "a pure and lasting fount of the spiritual life".|
|1998 (November 29)||Incarnationis mysterium
("The mystery of the Incarnation")
|Pope John Paul II||Indiction of the Great Jubilee of 2000|
|2015 (April 11)||Misericordiae Vultus
("The Face of Mercy")
|Pope Francis||Indiction of a Holy Year: The ExtraOrdinary Jubilee of Mercy 2015-2016|
- McNamara, Edward. "Pius V's 1570 Bull", Zenit, October 31, 2006
- Ehler, Sidney Z. and John B. Morrall, Church and State Through the Centuries , (Biblo-Moser, 1988), 23.
- Carroll, James, Constantine's sword: the church and the Jews, (Houghton Mifflin Co, 2002), 269-270.
- Malcolm Barber; A. K. Bate (2002). The Templars: selected sources. Manchester University Press. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5110-4. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Read, Piers Paul, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, (Da Capo Press, 1999), 116.
- Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple, (Cambridge University Press, 1994), 58.
- Burman, Edward, The Templars: Knights of God, (Traditions/Bear Company, 1986), 49.
- Madden, Thomas F., The new concise history of the Crusades, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), 52.
- Ehler, Sidney Z., Church and State Through the Centuries, (Biblo-Moser, 1988), 50.
- Linehan, Peter and Janet Laughland Nelson, The Medieval World, Vol.10, (Routledge, 2001), 524.
- Thomsett, Michael C. (26 April 2010). The Inquisition: A History. McFarland. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-7864-4409-0. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Wakefield, Walter Leggett and Austin Patterson Evans, Heresies of the high middle ages, (Columbia University Press, 1991), 33.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The crusades: a history, (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005), 137.
- Barrell, A. D. M. "The background to Cum universi: Scoto-papal relations, 1159–1192". Innes Review (Edinburgh University Press) 46 (2): pp. 116–138. doi:10.3366/inr.1918.104.22.168. ISSN 0020-157X. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Crusades: a history, (Continuum International Publishing, 1987), 149.
- Morris, Colin, The Papal Monarchy: the Western church from 1050 to 1250, (Oxford University Press, 2001), 442.
- Frederic Cople Jaher, A Scapegoat in the New Wilderness: The Origins and Rise of Anti-Semitism in America, (Harvard University Press, 1996), 61.
- Bruno Aguilera Barchet, A History of Western Public Law: Between Nation and State, (Springer, 2015), 139 note48.
- Madden, 143.
- Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, Vol.1, Editor Christopher Kleinhenz, (Routledge, 2004), 303.
- Stern, Mortiz, Urkundliche Beiträge über die Stellung der Päpste zu den Juden, (H.Fiencke:Kiel, 1893), 13.
- Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies, (Routledge, 2002), 734.
- Gobry, Ivan, Saint Francis of Assisi, (Ignatius Press, 2003), 198.
- "Mira circa Nos", Papal Encyclicals Online
- Leff, Gordon, Heresy in the later Middle Ages, (Manchester University Press, 1967), 65.
- Ames, Christine Caldwell, Righteous persecution: inquisition, Dominicans, and Christianity in the Middle Ages, (University of Pennsylvania, 2009), 6.
- Deutsch, Gotthard; Jacobs, Joseph (1906). "The Popes". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "Popes, The", Jewish Encyclopedia
- Max Perlbach, Preussische Regesten bis zum Ausgange des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, (Ferds. Beyer vormals Th. Theile's buchhandlung, 1876), 41. (German)
- Jackson, p. 13
- "Papal Bulls". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Fonnesberg-Schmitt, I.,The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, (U. of Cambridge, 2007), 225.
- Thomsett, Michael C., The Inquisition: A History, (MacFarland & Co. Inc., 2010), 118.
- Jackson, p. 88
- Jackson, p. 90
- Jackson, pp. 93-94
- "Quae honorem conditoris omnium", Papal Encyclicals Online
- A History of the Crusades, Vol.3, Ed. Harry W Hazard, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), 522.
- Schaff, Philip and David Schley Schaff, History of the Christian church, Vol.1, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907), 523.
- Aston, Trevor Henry; Catto, J. I., eds. (1984). The History of the University of Oxford Volume I: The Early Oxford Schools. Clarendon Press. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Pope Alexander IV, "Clara claris praeclara", Franciscan Archives
- Peter Jackson, Mongols and the West, p. 166
- Mayer, Hans Eberhard (February 15, 1978). "Ibelin versus Ibelin". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 122 (1). pp. 51–56.
- Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Pope:The Pontiff from St.Peter to John Paul II, (HarperCollins, 2000), 218.
- Thomsett, 118.
- "Gregory X: Letter on Jews, (1271-76): Against the Blood Libel", Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University
- Pope Nicholas III, "Exiit qui seminat", Franciscan Archives
- Wieruszowski, H.. "Martin IV, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2003. HighBeam Research. (October 14, 2012)
- Ryan, James D. (November 1998). "Christian wives of Mongol khans: Tartar queens and missionary expectations in Asia". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 8 (9): 411–421. doi:10.1017/s1356186300010506.
- Pope Nicholas IV, "Supra Motem", Franciscan Arhcives
- Mitja Velikonja, Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, transl. Rang'ichi Ng'inga, (Texas A&M University Press, 2003), 35
- Robertson, James Craigie, History of the Christian church, Vol.6, (Pott, Young and Co., 1874), 317-318.
- Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope Boniface VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 23 Jul. 2014
- Chaplais, Pierre, English diplomatic practice in the Middle Ages, (Hambledon and London, 2003), 79.
- Glasgow medical journal, Vol.64, Glasgow and West of Scotland Medical Association, Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society of Glasgow, Ed. Thomas Kirkpatrick Monro, M.D. and George Henry Edington, M.D., (Alex Macdougal, 1905), 324.
- The Bull "In Coena Domini", John Hatchard & Son, London, 1848
- F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Vol.II, (Princeton University Press, 2003), 145.
- Jackson, p. 258
- Barber, Malcolm, The Trial of the Templars, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 293.
- Barber, 293.
- Dillon, Charles Raymond, Templar Knights and the Crusades, (iUniverse, Inc., 2005), 191.
- Dillon, 194.
- Malcolm Lambert, Medieval Heresy: Popular movements from Bogomil to Hus, (Edward Arnold Ltd., 1977), 201 note56.
- The Papacy and the Crusade in XV Century Portugal, Luis Adao de Fonseca, Maria Christina Pimenta and Paula Pinto Costa, The Papacy and the Crusades, ed. Michel Balard, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2011), 143.
- "Cum inter nonnullos". franciscan-archive.org. 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- G. R. Evans, Fifty Key Medieval Thinkers, (Routledge, 2002), 151. – via Questia (subscription required)
- "Benedictus Deus". papalencyclicals.net. 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- THE HISTORY OF PROTESTANTISM VOL. 1 by Rev. J. A. Wylie
- Housley, Norman. Religious Warfare in Europe 1400-1536, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 9780198208112
- "Notable Acquisitions", Stanford University Library
- Gabriel, Astrik L. "Sapientie Immarcessibilis. A Diplomatic and Comparative Study of the Bull of Foundation of the University of Louvain (December 9, 1425)." The Catholic Historical Review. 1997. HighBeam Research. (October 14, 2012). http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-11371717.html
- Syon Abbey and Its Books:Origins, Influences and Transitions, E.A. Jones and Alexandra Walsham, Syon Abbey and Its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion, C.1400-1700, ed. Edward Alexander Jones, Alexandra Walsham, (Boydell Press, 2010), 6.
- Stark, Rodney, For the glory of God, (Princeton University Press, 2003), 330.
- Stieber, Joachim W., Pope Eugenius IV, the Council of Basel and the Secular and Ecclesiastical Authorities in the Empire: The Conflict Over Supreme Authority and Power in the Church, Brill, 1978 ISBN 9789004052406
- Van der Essen, Léon. "The Council of Florence." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 24 Jul. 2014
- Davies, Norman. Europe: A History. p.446-448. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0
- Carroll, William. "Cantate Domino, EWTN
- Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 250.
- Raiswell, Richard. "Eugene IV, Papal bulls of", The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Junius P. Rodriguez ed., ABC-CLIO, 1997 ISBN 9780874368857
- Davenport p.12.
- Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 253.
- Shlomo Simonsohn, Between Scylla and Charybdis: The Jews in Sicily, (BRILL, 2011), 142.
- "The Papal Bull". University of Glasgow. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Graetz, H, "History of the Jews", Volume 4, (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894), 254.
- Shlomo Simonsohn, 142.
- Mapping Territories, Shaunnagh Dorsett, Jurisprudence of Jurisdiction, Ed. Shaun McVeigh, (Routledge, 2007), 144.
- Prestage, Edgar. "Portugal." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 27 Jul. 2014
- Mapping Territories, Shaunnagh Dorsett, Jurisprudence of Jurisdiction, 144-145.
- Pope Clement V, "Exivi de paradiso", Franciscan Archive
- European treaties bearing on the history of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648, Ed. Frances Gardiner Davenport, (Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1917), 27.
- Michael J. Lacey and Francis Oakley, The Crisis of Authority in Catholic Modernity, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 37.
- Pérez, Joseph and Janet Lloyd, The Spanish Inquisition: A History, (Yale University Press, 2005), 19.
- Verzijl, J. H. W., International law in historical perspective, Vol.4, (A.W. Sijthoff, 1971), 16.
- Lea, Henry Charles, A History of the Inquisition of Spain, Vol.1, (The Macmillan Company, 1906), 587.
- (ES), Bernardino Llorca, Bulario pontificio de la Inquisición española, (Pontifica Universita Gregoriana, 1949), 67.
- "The Vatican". Catholic Encyclopedia. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Loughlin, James. "Colonna." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 23 Jul. 2014
- Bakker, Paul and J. M. M. H. Thijssen, Mind, cognition and representation, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2007), 134.
- Gouwens, Kenneth and Sheryl E. Reiss, The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005), 363.
- Hanke, Lewis (1937-04-01). "Pope Paul III and the American Indians". The Harvard Theological Review 30 (2): 65–102.
- "The New Cambridge modern history, Vol II, Ed. G.R. Elton, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 257.
- The Church and Reform, R. V. Laurence, The Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 2, ed. A.W. Ward, G.W. Prothero and Stanley Leathes,(Cambridge University Press, 1907), 655.
- Leon Poliakov, Jewish Bankers and the Holy See, (Routledge, 1977)
- Bulman, Raymond F. and Frederick J. Parrella, From Trent to Vatican II: historical and theological investigations, (Oxford University Press, 2006), 20.
- Leszek Kołakowski, God owes Us Nothing, (University of Chicago Press, 1998), 4.
- Krinsky, Carol Herselle. 1996. Synagogues of Europe: Architecture, History, Meaning. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29078-6. p. 118.
- Butler, Alban and Michael J. Walsh, Butler's lives of the saints, (HarperCollins, 1991), 128.
- Salo Wittmayer Baron (January 1970). A Social and Religious History of the Jews: Late Middle Ages and the era of European expansion, 1200-1650. COLUMBIA University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-231-08851-0. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Levillain, Philippe (2002). The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 772. ISBN 0-415-92230-5.
- Pope Sixtus V, "Triumphantis Hierusalem", Papal Encyclicals Online
- The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0-85244-650-0 page 120
- Robert S. Westman, Two Cultures or One?: A Second Look at Kuhn's The Copernican Revolution, Isis, Vol. 85, No. 1, Mar., 1994, 104.
- Brian E. Strayer, Suffering Saints: Jansenists and Convulsionnaires in France, 1640-1799, (Sussex Academic Press, 2012), 67.
- "Martyrs' Shrine Archives & Research Library". martyrs-shrine.com. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Doyle, William, Jansenism, (MacMillan Press Ltd., 2000), 26.
- Anura Gurugé, The Next Pope, (WOWNH, 2010), 115.
- "Beatus Andreas - Pope Benedict XIV". Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, 339.
- Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Aprilbeweging" (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
- "Catholic Church News" (PDF). The New York Times. August 27, 1886. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Francis J. Buckley, Growing in the Church: From Birth to Death, (University Press of America, 2000), 33.
- Edward T. Oakes and David Moss, The Cambridge companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 65.
- Fr. Benedict Ashley, O.P. (2011). "'Dei Verbum' and Christian Morals". Ignatius Insight. Retrieved 24 December 2011.