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List of paraphilias

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Paraphilias are sexual interests in objects, situations, or individuals that are atypical. The American Psychiatric Association, in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM), draws a distinction between paraphilias (which it describes as atypical sexual interests) and paraphilic disorders (which additionally require the experience of distress, impairment in functioning, and/or the desire to act on them with a nonconsenting person).[1][2] Some paraphilias have more than one term to describe them, and some terms overlap with others. Paraphilias without DSM codes listed come under DSM 302.9, "Paraphilia NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)".

In his 2008 book on sexual pathologies, Anil Aggrawal compiled a list of 547 terms describing paraphilic sexual interests. He cautioned, however, that "not all these paraphilias have necessarily been seen in clinical setups. This may not be because they do not exist, but because they are so innocuous they are never brought to the notice of clinicians or dismissed by them. Like allergies, sexual arousal may occur from anything under the sun, including the sun."[3]

Most of the following names for paraphilias, constructed in the nineteenth and especially twentieth centuries from Greek and Latin roots (see List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes), are used in medical contexts only.



Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Abasiophilia People with impaired mobility.[4]
Acrotomophilia People with amputations.[5][6]
Agalmatophilia Statues, mannequins and immobility.[7]
Algolagnia Pain, particularly involving an erogenous zone; differs from masochism as there is a biologically different interpretation of the intense sensation rather than a subjective interpretation.[8]
Amaurophilia Being unable to see.[9][10][11]
Amokoscisia To slash and mutilate women.[12]
Andromimetophilia Trans men.[4][13]
Anililagnia Attraction by young men to older women.[14]
Anthropophagolagnia Raping and then cannibalizing another person.[15]
Apotemnophilia Being an amputee.[5][16]
Aquaphilia A sexual fetish that involves people swimming, posing, or even drowning in water.
Armpit fetishism/maschalagnia Armpits.[3]
Asphyxiophilia Asphyxia or strangling of oneself or others.[5][17]
Attraction to disability People with one or more physical disabilities.[18]
Autagonistophilia Being on stage or on camera.[19][20]
Autassassinophilia Being in life-threatening situations.[5]
Autoandrophilia Sexual arousal of a female in response to the image of herself as male.[21]
Autoerotic asphyxiation Self-induced asphyxiation, sometimes to the point of near unconsciousness.[20]
Autogynephilia Sexual arousal of a male in response to the image of himself as female.[21]
Autohemofetishism Making oneself bleed, a type of hematolagnia.[22]
Autonepiophilia The image of oneself in the form of an infant.[19]
Autopedophilia The image of oneself in the form of a child.[23]
Autoplushophilia The image of oneself in the form of a plush.[23]
Autovampirism/vampirism The image of oneself in the form of a vampire.[24][25][26] Involves ingesting or seeing one's own blood.[22]
Autozoophilia The image of oneself in the form of an animal.[27][28]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Belly fetishism/alvinolagnia The midriff or belly.
Biastophilia/raptophilia Raping a person, possibly consensual rape fantasy.
Bondage Being tied up or physically restrained.[5][19]
Breast fetishism/mazophilia Female breasts.


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Candaulism Exposing one's partner or images of their partner to others.
Cannibalism/anthropophagy Ingesting human flesh.[15]
Canophilia Dogs.[29]
Capnolagnia Smoking.[30]
Chremastistophilia Being robbed or held up.[19]
Chronophilia Partners of a widely differing chronological age.[19]
Coprophilia/scatophilia/fecophilia Feces.[2][31]
Cuckolding fetishism/troilism Observing one's partner engaged in sexual activities with another person.[32][4][20]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Dacryphilia Tears or crying.[33]
Diaper fetishism Diapers; considerable overlap with paraphilic infantilism.[34]
Dendrophilia Trees.[5]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Emetophilia Vomit.[4]
Eproctophilia Flatulence.[3]
Erotophonophilia/dacnolagnomania Murder, often of strangers.[15]
Exhibitionism/peodeiktophilia Exposing one's genitals to unsuspecting and nonconsenting others.[2][5]
Exophilia Extraterrestrials.[35]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Fat fetishism/adipophilia Overweight or obese people.[36]
Feederism Eating, feeding, and weight gain.[37]
Fictosexuality/fictophilia Fictional characters.[38]
Foot fetishism/podophilia Feet.[39]
Formicophilia Being crawled on by insects.[19][40]
Forniphilia Turning a human being into a piece of furniture.
Frotteurism Rubbing against a non-consenting person.[2]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Gerontophilia Elderly people.[41]
Gynandromorphophilia/gynemimetophilia Transgender women.[4][42]
Gynephilia Females or femininity, regardless of one's own sex or gender identity.[43]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Hair fetishism/trichophilia Hair.[44]
Hand fetishism/cheirophilia Hands.
Hematolagnia Drinking or looking at blood.[45]
Heterophilia Idealization of heterosexuality and/or people who are "straight-acting", especially by non-heterosexual people.[46][47][48]
Hierophilia Religious/sacred objects.[11]
Hoplophilia Firearms, guns.[49]
Hybristophilia Criminals, particularly those who committed cruel or outrageous crimes.[19][50]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Infantophilia Children less than five years old; a recently suggested term that is not in general use.[51]
Impregnation fetishism The event of being impregnated or impregnating another person.[52]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Kleptolagnia/kleptophilia Stealing;[4] a form of kleptomania.
Klismaphilia Enemas, arousal and enjoyment in receiving, administering, or both.[4][53]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Lactophilia/galactophilia Breast milk, breastfeeding or sucking on a woman's breasts.[44][54]
Leg fetishism/crurophilia Legs.[55]
Liquidophilia Immersing genitals in liquids.[44]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Macrophilia Giant beings; imagined growth of beings.[44]
Masochism Suffering or humiliation; being beaten, bound, or otherwise abused.[2]
Mechanophilia Cars or other machines; also "mechaphilia".[56][57][58]
Melolagnia Music.[59]
Menophilia Menstruation.[44]
Metrophilia Poetry.[59]
Microphilia Shrunken beings; imagined shrinking of beings.[44]
Morphophilia Particular body shapes or sizes.[20]
Mucophilia Mucus.[44]
Mysophilia Dirtiness, soiled or decaying things.[4]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Narratophilia Obscene words.[4]
Navel fetishism/alvinophilia Navel.
Nebulophilia Fog or smoke.[60]
Necrophilia Corpses.[2][4][61]
Nose fetishism/nasophilia Noses.[44]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Objectophilia Specific inanimate objects.[2]
Oculolinctus The act of licking the eyes of another person for the purpose of gratification.
Odaxelagnia Biting or being bitten.
Olfactophilia/bromidrophilia Smells and odors (particularly foul ones) emanating from the body, especially the sexual areas and/or from the opposite sex (as from bad breath, urine, feces, flatulence, etc.).[4][19]
Omorashi Having a full bladder and/or wetting oneself, or from seeing someone else experiencing a full bladder and/or wetting themself.


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Paraphilic infantilism/autonepiophilia/adult baby syndrome Dressing or being treated like a baby;[19][62] considerable overlap with diaper fetishism.[34]
Partialism Specific, non-genital body parts.[2][4]
Pedophilia Prepubescent children; also spelled paedophilia.[2][63]
Pedovestism Dressing like a child.[64]
Pictophilia Pornography or erotic art, particularly pictures.[4][19]
Piquerism Piercing the flesh of another person, most commonly by stabbing or cutting the body with sharp objects.[65]
Plushophilia Stuffed toys ("plushies").[66]
Pregnancy fetishism/maiesiophilia Pregnant women.[67]
Pygophilia Buttocks.[68]
Pyrophilia Fire.[69]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Robot fetishism/robophilia Humanoid robots.


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Sadism Inflicting pain on others.[2]
Salirophilia Soiling or dirtying others.[4]
Sexual fetishism Nonliving objects.[2]
Shoe fetishism Shoes, especially high heels.
Somnophilia/dormaphilia Being asleep or unconscious, or pretending to be asleep or unconscious.[4][19][70]
Sophophilia Learning.[71]
Sthenolagnia Muscles and displays of strength.[44]
Stigmatophilia Body piercings and tattoos.[5][44]
Symphorophilia Witnessing or staging disasters such as car accidents.[5]
Telephone scatologia/telephonicophilia/scatophilia Obscene phone calls, particularly to strangers.[2][19][72]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Teratophilia Deformed or monstrous people.[3] The term is also sometimes used in a more literal sense (from ancient Greek τέρας, teras, meaning monster) for attraction to monstrous mythical and fictional creatures such as werewolves.
Tickling fetishism/knismolagnia Tickling.[73]
Toucherism Touching an unsuspecting, non-consenting person with the hand.[74]
Toxophilia Archery.[59]
Transvestic fetishism Cross-dressing.[75]
Timophilia Gold, wealth, or social status.[76]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Urolagnia/water sports Urination, particularly in public, on others, and/or being urinated on.[2][4][19][20]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Vorarephilia/vore The idea of one person or creature eating or being eaten by another; usually swallowed whole, in one piece.[77]
Voyeurism/scopophilia Watching others while naked or having sex, generally without their knowledge.[2][20]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Wet and messy fetishism Messy situations, including, but not limited to, being pied, slimed or covered in mud.


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Xenophilia Foreign peoples, cultures, or customs.[78]


Paraphilia Focus of erotic interest
Zoophilia Non-human animals.[2][4][19]
Zoosadism Inflicting pain on animals, or seeing animals in pain.[79]

See also


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