List of parties to the Paris Agreement

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Parties to the Paris Agreement
  Parties
  Signatories
  Parties also covered by European Union ratification

The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020. The Agreement aims to respond to the global climate change threat by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.[1]

History[edit]

The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.[2][3] The Agreement was open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the UNFCCC (the Convention) from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 at the UN Headquarters in New York.[4] The agreement stated that it would enter into force (and thus become fully effective) only if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list produced in 2015)[5] ratify, accept, approve or accede to the agreement.[6][7] On 1 April 2016, the United States and China, which together represent almost 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that both countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.[8][9] 175 Parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first date it was open for signature.[10][11] On the same day, more than 20 countries issued a statement of their intent to join as soon as possible with a view to joining in 2016. With ratification by the European Union, the Agreement obtained enough parties to enter into effect as of 4 November 2016.

Parties[edit]

As of November 2018, 194 states and the European Union have signed the Agreement. 183 states and the EU, representing more than 88% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified or acceded to the Agreement, including China, the United States (who is intent on leaving) and India, the countries with three of the four largest greenhouse gas emissions of the UNFCC members total (about 42% together).[12][13][14] All 197 UNFCCC members have either signed or acceded to the Paris Agreement.

Party[12] Percentage of greenhouse
gases for ratification[5]
Date of signature Date of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession Date of entry into force
 Afghanistan 0.05% 22 April 2016 15 February 2017 17 March 2017
 Albania 0.02% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Algeria 0.30% 22 April 2016 20 October 2016 19 November 2016
 Andorra 0.00% 22 April 2016 24 March 2017 23 April 2017
 Antigua and Barbuda 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Argentina 0.89% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Armenia 0.02% 20 September 2016 23 March 2017 22 April 2017
 Australia 1.46% 22 April 2016 9 November 2016 9 December 2016
 Austria[a] 0.21% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Azerbaijan 0.13% 22 April 2016 9 January 2017 8 February 2017
 Bahamas, The 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 August 2016 4 November 2016
 Bahrain 0.06% 22 April 2016 23 December 2016 22 January 2017
 Bangladesh 0.27% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Barbados 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Belarus 0.24% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Belgium[a] 0.32% 22 April 2016 6 April 2017 6 May 2017
 Belize 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Benin 0.02% 22 April 2016 31 October 2016 30 November 2016
 Bhutan 0.00% 22 April 2016 19 September 2017 19 October 2017
 Bolivia 0.12% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.08% 22 April 2016 16 March 2017 15 April 2017
 Botswana 0.02% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 Brazil 2.48% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Brunei N/A[b] 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Bulgaria[a] 0.15% 22 April 2016 29 November 2016 29 December 2016
 Burkina Faso 0.06% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 Burundi 0.07% 22 April 2016 17 January 2018 16 February 2018
 Cambodia 0.03% 22 April 2016 6 February 2017 8 March 2017
 Cameroon 0.45% 22 April 2016 29 July 2016 4 November 2016
 Canada 1.95% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Cape Verde 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2017 21 October 2017
 Central African Republic 0.01% 22 April 2016 11 October 2016 10 November 2016
 Chad 0.06% 22 April 2016 12 January 2017 11 February 2017
 Chile[15] 0.25% 20 September 2016 10 February 2017 12 March 2017
 China[c] 20.09% 22 April 2016 3 September 2016[13] 4 November 2016
 Colombia 0.41% 22 April 2016 12 July 2018 11 August 2018
 Comoros 0.00% 22 April 2016 23 November 2016 23 December 2016
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.06% 22 April 2016 13 December 2017 12 January 2018
 Congo, Republic of the 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 April 2017 21 May 2017
 Cook Islands 0.00% 24 June 2016 1 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Costa Rica 0.03% 22 April 2016 13 October 2016 12 November 2016
 Côte d'Ivoire 0.73% 22 April 2016 25 October 2016 24 November 2016
 Croatia[a] 0.07% 22 April 2016 24 May 2017 23 June 2017
 Cuba 0.10% 22 April 2016 28 December 2016 27 January 2017
 Cyprus[a] 0.02% 22 April 2016 4 January 2017 3 February 2017
 Czech Republic[a] 0.34% 22 April 2016 5 October 2017 4 November 2017
 Denmark[d][a] 0.15% 22 April 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 Djibouti 0.00% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 Dominica 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Dominican Republic 0.07% 22 April 2016 21 September 2017 21 October 2017
 East Timor 0.00% 22 April 2016 16 August 2017 15 September 2017
 Ecuador 0.67% 26 July 2016 20 September 2017 20 October 2017
 Egypt 0.52% 22 April 2016 29 June 2017 29 July 2017
 El Salvador 0.03% 22 April 2016 27 March 2017 26 April 2017
 Equatorial Guinea N/A[b] 22 April 2016 30 October 2018 29 November 2018
 Estonia[a] 0.06% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 Ethiopia 0.13% 22 April 2016 9 March 2017 8 April 2017
 European Union N/A[e] 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Fiji 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Finland[a] 0.17% 22 April 2016 14 November 2016 14 December 2016
 France[a] 1.34% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Gabon 0.02% 22 April 2016 2 November 2016 2 December 2016
 Gambia, The 0.05% 26 April 2016 7 November 2016 7 December 2016
 Georgia 0.03% 22 April 2016 8 May 2017 7 June 2017
 Germany[a] 2.56% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Ghana 0.09% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Greece[a] 0.28% 22 April 2016 14 October 2016 13 November 2016
 Grenada 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Guatemala 0.04% 22 April 2016 25 January 2017 24 February 2017
 Guinea 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Guinea-Bissau 0.02% 22 April 2016 22 October 2018 21 November 2018
 Guyana 0.01% 22 April 2016 20 May 2016 4 November 2016
 Haiti 0.02% 22 April 2016 31 July 2017 30 August 2017
 Honduras 0.03% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Hungary[a] 0.15% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Iceland 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 India 4.10% 22 April 2016 2 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Indonesia 1.49% 22 April 2016 31 October 2016 30 November 2016
 Ireland[a] 0.16% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 Israel 0.20% 22 April 2016 22 November 2016 22 December 2016
 Italy[a] 1.18% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 Jamaica 0.04% 22 April 2016 10 April 2017 10 May 2017
 Japan 3.79% 22 April 2016 8 November 2016 8 December 2016
 Jordan 0.07% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 Kazakhstan 0.84% 2 August 2016 6 December 2016 5 January 2017
 Kenya 0.06% 22 April 2016 28 December 2016 27 January 2017
 Kiribati 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 North Korea 0.23% 22 April 2016 1 August 2016 4 November 2016
 South Korea 1.85% 22 April 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 Kuwait 0.09% 22 April 2016 23 April 2018 23 May 2018
 Laos 0.02% 22 April 2016 7 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Latvia[a] 0.03% 22 April 2016 16 March 2017 15 April 2017
 Lesotho 0.01% 22 April 2016 20 January 2017 19 February 2017
 Liberia 0.02% 22 April 2016 27 August 2018 26 September 2018
 Liechtenstein 0.00% 22 April 2016 20 September 2017 20 October 2017
 Lithuania[a] 0.05% 22 April 2016 2 February 2017 4 March 2017
 Luxembourg[a] 0.03% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 Macedonia, Republic of 0.03% 22 April 2016 9 January 2018 8 February 2018
 Madagascar 0.08% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Malawi 0.07% 20 September 2016 29 June 2017 29 July 2017
 Malaysia 0.52% 22 April 2016 16 November 2016 16 December 2016
 Maldives 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Mali 0.03% 22 April 2016 23 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Malta[a] 0.01% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Marshall Islands 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Mauritania 0.02% 22 April 2016 27 February 2017 29 March 2017
 Mauritius 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Mexico 1.70% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Micronesia 0.00% 22 April 2016 15 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Moldova 0.04% 21 September 2016 20 June 2017 20 July 2017
 Monaco 0.00% 22 April 2016 24 October 2016 23 November 2016
 Mongolia 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Montenegro 0.01% 22 April 2016 20 December 2017 19 January 2018
 Morocco 0.16% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Mozambique 0.02% 22 April 2016 4 June 2018 4 July 2018
 Myanmar 0.10% 22 April 2016 19 September 2017 19 October 2017
 Namibia 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Nauru 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
   Nepal 0.07% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Netherlands[f][a] 0.53% 22 April 2016 28 July 2017 27 August 2017
 New Zealand[g] 0.22% 22 April 2016 4 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Nicaragua 0.03% 23 October 2017 22 November 2017
 Niger 0.04% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Nigeria 0.57% 22 September 2016 16 May 2017 15 June 2017
 Niue 0.01% 28 October 2016 28 October 2016 27 November 2016
 Norway 0.14% 22 April 2016 20 June 2016 4 November 2016
 Pakistan 0.43% 22 April 2016 10 November 2016 10 December 2016
 Palau 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Palestine N/A[h] 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Panama 0.03% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Papua New Guinea 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Paraguay 0.06% 22 April 2016 14 October 2016 13 November 2016
 Peru 0.22% 22 April 2016 25 July 2016 4 November 2016
 Philippines 0.34% 22 April 2016 23 March 2017 22 April 2017
 Poland[a] 1.06% 22 April 2016 7 October 2016 6 November 2016
 Portugal[a] 0.18% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Qatar 0.17% 22 April 2016 23 June 2017 23 July 2017
 Romania[a] 0.30% 22 April 2016 1 June 2017 1 July 2017
 Rwanda 0.02% 22 April 2016 6 October 2016 5 November 2016
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Saint Lucia 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.00% 22 April 2016 29 June 2016 4 November 2016
 Samoa 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 San Marino 0.00% 22 April 2016 26 September 2018 26 October 2018
 São Tomé and Príncipe 0.00% 22 April 2016 2 November 2016 2 December 2016
 Saudi Arabia 0.80% 3 November 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 Senegal 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Serbia 0.18% 22 April 2016 25 July 2017 24 August 2017
 Seychelles 0.00% 25 April 2016 29 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Sierra Leone 0.98%[i] 22 September 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 Singapore 0.13% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Slovakia[a] 0.12% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 Slovenia[a] 0.05% 22 April 2016 16 December 2016 15 January 2017
 Solomon Islands 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Somalia N/A[b] 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 South Africa 1.46% 22 April 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 Spain[a] 0.87% 22 April 2016 12 January 2017 11 February 2017
 Sri Lanka 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Sudan 0.18% 22 April 2016 2 August 2017 1 September 2017
 Swaziland 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Sweden[a] 0.15% 22 April 2016 13 October 2016 12 November 2016
  Switzerland 0.14% 22 April 2016 6 October 2017 5 November 2017
 Syria 0.21% 13 November 2017 13 December 2017
 Tanzania 0.11% 22 April 2016 18 May 2018 17 June 2018
 Tajikistan 0.02% 22 April 2016 22 March 2017 21 April 2017
 Thailand 0.64% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Togo 0.02% 19 September 2016 28 June 2017 28 July 2017
 Tonga 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Trinidad and Tobago 0.04% 22 April 2016 22 February 2018 24 March 2018
 Tunisia 0.11% 22 April 2016 10 February 2017 12 March 2017
 Turkmenistan 0.20% 23 September 2016 20 October 2016 19 November 2016
 Tuvalu 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 Uganda 0.07% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Ukraine 1.04% 22 April 2016 19 September 2016 4 November 2016
 United Arab Emirates 0.53% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 United Kingdom[a] 1.55% 22 April 2016 18 November 2016 18 December 2016
 United States[j] 17.89% 22 April 2016 3 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Uruguay 0.05% 22 April 2016 19 October 2016 18 November 2016
 Uzbekistan 0.54% 19 April 2017 9 November 2018 9 December 2018
 Vanuatu 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 Venezuela 0.52% 22 April 2016 21 July 2017 20 August 2017
 Vietnam 0.72% 22 April 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 Zambia 0.04% 20 September 2016 9 December 2016 8 January 2017
 Zimbabwe 0.18% 22 April 2016 7 August 2017 6 September 2017
Total 89.31%[5] 184[12]

European Union and its member states[edit]

Both the EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was reported that the EU and its 28 member states deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its member states engage themselves to fulfilling obligations that strictly belong to the other,[22] and there were fears that disagreement over each individual member state's share of the EU-wide reduction target, as well as Britain's vote to leave the EU might delay the Paris pact.[23] However, the European Parliament approved ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016,[24] and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016, along with several individual EU member states.[23]

Withdrawal from Agreement[edit]

Article 28 of the agreement enables parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a withdrawal notification to the depositary, but notice can be given no earlier than three years after the agreement goes into force for the country. Withdrawal is effective one year after the depositary is notified. Alternatively, the Agreement stipulates that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also withdraw the state from the Paris Agreement. The conditions for withdrawal from the UNFCCC are the same as for the Paris Agreement. In the agreement no provisions for non compliance are stated.

On 1 June 2017, US President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.[25] In accordance with Article 28, as the agreement entered into force in the United States on 4 November 2016, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is 4 November 2020. If it chooses to withdraw by way of withdrawing from the UNFCCC, notice could be given immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the US in 1994), and be effective one year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump Administration delivered an official notice to the United Nations that the US intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally eligible to do so.[21] The formal notice of withdrawal cannot be submitted until the agreement is in force for 3 years for the US, in 2019.[26][27]

According to a memo obtained by HuffPost believed to be written by US State Department legal office, any "attempts to withdraw from the Paris Agreement outside of the above-described withdrawal provisions would be inconsistent with international law and would not be accepted internationally."[28][29]

Signatories[edit]

A further 13 states have signed but not ratified the Paris Agreement.

Signatory[12] Percentage of greenhouse
gases for ratification[5]
Date of signature
 Angola 0.17% 22 April 2016
 Eritrea 0.01% 22 April 2016
 Iran 1.30% 22 April 2016
 Iraq 0.20% 8 December 2016
 Kyrgyzstan 0.03% 21 September 2016
 Lebanon 0.07% 22 April 2016
 Libya N/A[b] 22 April 2016
 Oman 0.06% 22 April 2016
 Russia 7.53% 22 April 2016
 South Sudan N/A[b] 22 April 2016
 Suriname 0.01% 22 April 2016
 Turkey 1.24% 22 April 2016
 Yemen 0.07% 23 September 2016
Total 10.69% 13

Non-signatories[edit]

As per terms of the Paris Agreement, only UNFCCC member states are entitled to become parties to the Paris Agreement. The Holy See is an observer state of the UNFCCC and can accede to the Paris Agreement if it first joins the UNFCCC.

State Percentage of greenhouse
gases for ratification[5]
UNFCCC
membership
Notes
 Holy See N/A[h] Observer state In 2015, Bernardito Auza stated that the Holy See intended to join the UNFCCC in order to sign the Paris Agreement.[30]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Also covered by European Union ratification.
  2. ^ a b c d e Emissions of parties to the UNFCCC that had not yet submitted their first national communication to the UNFCCC secretariat with an emissions inventory at the time of adoption of the Paris Agreement were not included in the figure for entry into force of the Agreement.[5]
  3. ^ Including Hong Kong and Macau.
  4. ^ Excluding Greenland.[16]
  5. ^ The emissions of the European Union are accounted for in the total of its individual member states.
  6. ^ For the European Part of the Netherlands.
  7. ^ Extended to Tokelau[17] after initially excluding it.[18]
  8. ^ a b Emissions of states that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of adoption of the Paris Agreement,[19] which were thus not permitted to sign the Agreement, were not included in the totals for entry into force for the Agreement.
  9. ^ Though corresponding with the source the provided number for Sierra Leone's emissions is incorrect. According to World Bank data, the correct 2000 emissions for Sierra Leone is 14,763 kt CO2-equivalents (not 365,107 kt), or 0.04% of the world total (not 0.98%).[20]
  10. ^ Notified the depositary of its intention to withdraw from the agreement.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php
  2. ^ Sutter, John D.; Berlinger, Joshua (12 December 2015). "Final draft of climate deal formally accepted in Paris". CNN. Cable News Network, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Paris climate talks: France releases 'ambitious, balanced' draft agreement at COP21". ABC Australia. 12 December 2015.
  4. ^ Article 20(1)
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Information provided in accordance with paragraph 104 of decision 1 CP21 related to entry into force of the Paris Agreement (Article 21)" (PDF). UNFCCC. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  6. ^ Article 21(1)
  7. ^ "Historic Paris Agreement on Climate Change - 195 Nations Set Path to Keep Temperature Rise Well Below 2 Degrees Celsius". UN Climate Change Newsroom. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  8. ^ McGrath, Matt (31 March 2016). "Paris Climate Treaty: 'Significant step' as US and China agree to sign". Bbc.com. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  9. ^ Obama and President Xi of China Vow to Sign Paris Climate Agreement Promptly 1 April 2016
  10. ^ "'Today is an historic day,' says Ban, as 175 countries sign Paris climate accord". United Nations. 22 April 2016.
  11. ^ "PARIS AGREEMENT Signature Ceremony" (PDF). UNFCCC. 22 April 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d "Paris Agreement". United Nations Treaty Collection. 8 July 2016.
  13. ^ a b "Paris climate deal: US and China formally join pact", BBC News, 3 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  14. ^ "India Ratifies Landmark Paris Climate Deal, Says, 'Kept Our Promise'". Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Chile firmará acuerdo climático en septiembre y será uno de los 57 países que lo ratificarían este año".
  16. ^ https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CN/2016/CN.819.2016-Eng.pdf
  17. ^ https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CN/2017/CN.705.2017-Eng.pdf
  18. ^ https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CN/2016/CN.723.2016-Eng.pdf
  19. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  20. ^ "Total greenhouse gas emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)". World Bank. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  21. ^ a b "Reference: C.N.464.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d (Depositary Notification)" (PDF). United Nations. 2017-08-08. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  22. ^ Yeo, Sophie (23 June 2016). "Explainer: When will the European Union ratify the Paris Agreement?". Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  23. ^ a b "Paris climate deal to take effect as EU ratifies accord". Nature. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  24. ^ "Paris Agreement to enter into force as EU agrees ratification". European Commission. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  25. ^ Halper, Evan (1 June 2017). "Trump quits the Paris climate accord, calling it a 'bad deal' for the U.S." Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  26. ^ "Trump administration delivers notice US intends to withdraw from Paris climate deal". POLITICO. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  27. ^ Producer, Kevin Liptak, CNN White House. "WH: US staying out of climate accord". CNN. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  28. ^ Kaufman, Alexander; Sheppard, Kate (2 May 2017). "White House Leaning Toward Exiting Paris Agreement By Next Week, Sources Say". HuffPost. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  29. ^ "Paris Agreement: Overview of Legal Issues". Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  30. ^ John Nery (9 December 2015). "Vatican intent on signing Paris climate agreement". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 31 May 2017.