List of parties to the Ramsar Convention

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This is a list of parties contracting to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, also known as the Convention on Wetlands. The convention's mission is "the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world". It calls upon contracting parties to recognize the interdependence of humans and the environment as well as the ecological functions of wetlands, such as wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling, and flood control.

The Ramsar Convention is the oldest multilateral international conservation convention and the only one to deal with one habitat or ecosystem type, wetlands. The convention's headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland, and it works closely with the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[1][2][3]

The convention was held in the city of Ramsar, Iran, in February 1971 and was originally contracted by seven countries when it came into force on 21 December 1975. As of November 2022, there are 172 contracting parties and 2,471 designated sites covering 256,192,356 hectares (633,065,100 acres). 170 of the contracting parties have designated at least one Ramsar site, and 31 of the contracting countries have only one site. The country with the most sites is the United Kingdom with 175. To become a Ramsar site, a site must be nominated by a contracting country, meet at least one of nine criteria, and undergo scientific review.

The table lists the countries contracting to the convention, the entry date of each country to the convention, the number of Ramsar sites in each country, and the total area of all Ramsar sites in each country.

Ramsar Convention contracting parties[4]
Country Region Entry date[5] Ramsar sites Area
hectares acres
Albania Europe 29 February 1996 4 98,181 242,610
Algeria Africa 4 March 1984 50 3,032,813 7,494,240
Andorra Europe 23 November 2012 3 6,870 17,000
Angola Africa 10 October 2021 0 0 0
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America and the Caribbean 2 October 2005 1 3,600 8,900
Argentina Latin America and the Caribbean 4 September 1992 23 5,714,016 14,119,640
Armenia Europe 6 November 1993 3 493,511 1,219,490
Australia Oceania 21 December 1975 66 8,307,694 20,528,760
Austria Europe 16 April 1983 23 124,968 308,800
Azerbaijan Europe 21 September 2001 2 99,560 246,000
Bahamas Latin America and the Caribbean 7 June 1997 1 32,600 81,000
Bahrain Asia 27 February 1998 2 6,810 16,800
Bangladesh Asia 21 September 1992 2 611,200 1,510,000
Barbados Latin America and the Caribbean 12 April 2006 1 33 82
Belarus Europe 25 August 1991 26 777,895 1,922,220
Belgium Europe 4 July 1986 9 46,944 116,000
Belize Latin America and the Caribbean 22 August 1998 2 23,592 58,300
Benin Africa 24 May 2000 4 2,587,342 6,393,460
Bhutan Asia 7 September 2012 3 1,225 3,030
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Latin America and the Caribbean 27 October 1990 11 14,842,405 36,676,380
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1 March 1992 3 57,192 141,320
Botswana Africa 9 April 1997 1 5,537,400 13,683,000
Brazil Latin America and the Caribbean 24 September 1993 27 26,794,455 66,210,540
Bulgaria Europe 24 January 1976 11 49,397 122,060
Burkina Faso Africa 27 October 1990 25 1,940,481 4,795,030
Burundi Africa 5 October 2002 4 78,515 194,010
Cambodia Asia 23 October 1999 5 85,235 210,620
Cameroon Africa 20 July 2006 7 827,060 2,043,700
Canada North America 15 May 1981 37 13,086,767 32,338,110
Cape Verde Africa 18 November 2005 4 2,300 5,700
Central African Republic Africa 5 April 2006 2 376,300 930,000
Chad Africa 13 October 1990 6 12,405,068 30,653,590
Chile Latin America and the Caribbean 27 November 1981 16 363,927 899,280
China Asia 31 July 1992 64 7,326,952 18,105,290
Colombia Latin America and the Caribbean 18 October 1998 10 814,717 2,013,210
Comoros Africa 9 June 1995 3 16,030 39,600
Congo Africa 18 October 1998 14 13,813,865 34,134,800
Costa Rica Latin America and the Caribbean 27 April 1992 12 569,742 1,407,860
Côte d'Ivoire Africa 27 June 1996 6 127,344 314,670
Croatia Europe 25 June 1991 5 93,590 231,300
Cuba Latin America and the Caribbean 12 August 2001 6 1,188,411 2,936,630
Cyprus Europe 11 November 2001 1 1,107 2,740
Czech Republic Europe 1 January 1993 14 60,207 148,770
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Asia 16 January 2018 2 7,241 17,890
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 18 May 1996 4 11,906,617 29,421,890
Denmark Europe 2 January 1978 43 2,335,939 5,772,230
Djibouti Africa 22 March 2003 1 3,000 7,400
Dominican Republic Latin America and the Caribbean 15 September 2002 6 225,173 556,410
Ecuador Latin America and the Caribbean 7 January 1991 19 1,064,483 2,630,390
Egypt Africa 9 September 1988 4 415,532 1,026,800
El Salvador Latin America and the Caribbean 22 May 1999 8 228,719 565,180
Equatorial Guinea Africa 2 October 2003 3 136,000 340,000
Estonia Europe 29 July 1994 17 306,481 757,330
Eswatini Africa 15 June 2013 3 1,183 2,920
Fiji Oceania 11 August 2006 2 135,515 334,860
Finland Europe 21 December 1975 49 799,518 1,975,650
France Europe 1 December 1986 52 3,751,519 9,270,210
Gabon Africa 30 April 1987 9 3,001,769 7,417,530
The Gambia Africa 16 January 1997 3 31,244 77,210
Georgia Europe 7 June 1997 4 36,010 89,000
Germany Europe 26 June 1976 35 869,265 2,148,000
Ghana Africa 22 June 1988 6 176,134 435,240
Greece Europe 21 December 1975 10 163,501 404,020
Grenada Latin America and the Caribbean 22 September 2012 1 518 1,280
Guatemala Latin America and the Caribbean 26 October 1990 7 628,592 1,553,280
Guinea Africa 18 March 1993 16 9,065,446 22,401,200
Guinea-Bissau Africa 14 May 1990 4 1,189,633 2,939,650
Honduras Latin America and the Caribbean 23 October 1993 12 305,927 755,960
Hungary Europe 11 August 1979 29 260,668 644,120
Iceland Europe 2 April 1978 6 128,666 317,940
India Asia 1 February 1982 75 1,326,677 3,278,290
Indonesia Asia 8 August 1992 7 1,372,976 3,392,700
Iran (Islamic Republic of) Asia 21 December 1975 25 1,488,624 3,678,470
Iraq Asia 17 February 2008 4 537,900 1,329,000
Ireland Europe 15 March 1985 45 66,994 165,550
Israel Europe 12 March 1997 2 366 900
Italy Europe 14 April 1977 57 73,982 182,810
Jamaica Latin America and the Caribbean 7 February 1998 4 37,847 93,520
Japan Asia 17 October 1980 53 155,174 383,440
Jordan Asia 10 May 1977 2 13,472 33,290
Kazakhstan Asia 2 May 2007 10 3,188,557 7,879,100
Kenya Africa 5 October 1990 6 265,449 655,940
Kiribati Oceania 3 August 2013 1 1,033 2,550
Kuwait Asia 5 September 2015 1 50,948 125,900
Kyrgyzstan Asia 12 March 2003 3 679,408 1,678,850
Lao People's Democratic Republic Asia 28 October 2010 2 14,760 36,500
Latvia Europe 25 November 1995 6 150,318 371,440
Lebanon Asia 16 August 1999 4 1,075 2,660
Lesotho Africa 1 November 2004 1 434 1,070
Liberia Africa 2 November 2003 5 95,879 236,920
Libya Africa 5 August 2000 2 83 210
Liechtenstein Europe 6 December 1991 1 101 250
Lithuania Europe 20 December 1993 7 65,581 162,050
Luxembourg Europe 15 August 1998 2 17,213 42,530
Madagascar Africa 25 January 1999 21 2,147,911 5,307,600
Malawi Africa 14 March 1997 1 286,356 707,600
Malaysia Asia 10 March 1995 7 134,182 331,570
Mali Africa 25 September 1987 4 4,204,640 10,389,900
Malta Europe 30 January 1989 2 117 290
Marshall Islands Oceania 13 November 2004 2 70,119 173,270
Mauritania Africa 22 February 1983 4 1,240,600 3,066,000
Mauritius Africa 30 September 2001 3 401 990
Mexico North America 4 November 1986 144 8,721,911 21,552,310
Monaco Europe 20 December 1997 1 23 57
Mongolia Asia 8 April 1998 11 1,439,530 3,557,200
Montenegro Europe 3 June 1996 3 21,627 53,440
Morocco Africa 20 October 1980 38 316,086 781,070
Mozambique Africa 3 December 2004 2 4,534,872 11,205,910
Myanmar Asia 17 March 2005 6 278,679 688,630
Namibia Africa 23 December 1995 5 676,564 1,671,830
Nepal Asia 17 April 1988 10 60,561 149,650
Netherlands Europe 23 September 1980 54 914,219 2,259,080
New Zealand Oceania 13 December 1976 7 67,186 166,020
Nicaragua Latin America and the Caribbean 30 November 1997 9 406,852 1,005,350
Niger Africa 30 August 1987 14 7,534,289 18,617,630
Nigeria Africa 2 February 2001 11 1,076,728 2,660,650
North Macedonia Europe 8 September 1991 3 46,821 115,700
Norway Europe 21 December 1975 63 909,134 2,246,520
Oman Asia 19 August 2013 2 161 400
Pakistan Asia 23 November 1976 19 1,343,627 3,320,170
Palau Oceania 18 February 2003 1 500 1,200
Panama Latin America and the Caribbean 26 November 1990 5 220,737 545,450
Papua New Guinea Oceania 16 July 1993 2 594,924 1,470,090
Paraguay Latin America and the Caribbean 7 October 1995 6 785,970 1,942,200
Peru Latin America and the Caribbean 30 March 1992 14 6,789,685 16,777,680
Philippines Asia 8 November 1994 8 247,684 612,040
Poland Europe 22 March 1978 19 152,964 377,980
Portugal Europe 24 March 1981 31 132,487 327,380
Republic of Korea Asia 28 July 1997 24 20,214 49,950
Republic of Moldova Europe 20 October 2000 3 94,705 234,020
Romania Europe 21 September 1991 20 1,177,748 2,910,280
Russian Federation Europe 11 February 1977
(ratified as Soviet Union)
35 10,323,767 25,510,580
Rwanda Africa 1 April 2006 1 6,736 16,650
Saint Lucia Latin America and the Caribbean 19 June 2002 2 85 210
Samoa Oceania 6 February 2005 2 5,489 13,560
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 21 December 2006 1 23 57
Senegal Africa 11 November 1977 9 159,137 393,240
Serbia Europe 27 April 1992
(ratified as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
11 130,411 322,250
Seychelles Africa 22 March 2005 3 44,025 108,790
Sierra Leone Africa 13 April 2000 1 295,000 730,000
Slovakia Europe 1 January 1993 14 40,697 100,560
Slovenia Europe 25 June 1991 3 8,205 20,270
South Africa Africa 21 December 1975 28 572,252 1,414,070
South Sudan Africa 10 October 2013 1 5,700,000 14,000,000
Spain Europe 4 September 1982 76 313,083 773,640
Sri Lanka Asia 15 October 1990 6 198,172 489,690
Sudan Africa 7 May 2005 4 3,436,009 8,490,560
Suriname Latin America and the Caribbean 22 November 1985 1 12,000 30,000
Sweden Europe 21 December 1975 68 665,474 1,644,420
Switzerland Europe 16 May 1976 11 14,690 36,300
Syrian Arab Republic Asia 5 July 1998 1 10,000 25,000
Tajikistan Asia 18 November 2001 5 94,600 234,000
Thailand Asia 13 September 1998 15 405,219 1,001,320
Togo Africa 4 November 1995 4 1,210,400 2,991,000
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America and the Caribbean 21 April 1993 3 15,919 39,340
Tunisia Africa 24 March 1981 42 844,685 2,087,260
Turkey Europe 13 November 1994 14 184,487 455,880
Turkmenistan Asia 3 July 2009 1 267,124 660,080
Uganda Africa 4 July 1988 12 454,303 1,122,610
Ukraine Europe 1 December 1991 50 802,604 1,983,280
United Arab Emirates Asia 29 December 2007 10 39,166 96,780
United Kingdom Europe 5 May 1976 175 1,283,040 3,170,500
United Republic of Tanzania Africa 13 August 2000 4 4,868,424 12,030,140
United States of America North America 18 December 1986 41 1,884,551 4,656,830
Uruguay Latin America and the Caribbean 22 September 1984 3 435,837 1,076,980
Uzbekistan Asia 8 February 2002 3 590,400 1,459,000
Vanuatu Oceania 4 November 2019 0 0 0
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Latin America and the Caribbean 23 November 1988 5 265,668 656,480
Vietnam Asia 20 January 1989 9 120,549 297,880
Yemen Asia 8 February 2008 1 580 1,400
Zambia Africa 28 December 1991 8 4,030,500 9,960,000
Zimbabwe Africa 3 May 2013 7 453,828 1,121,430

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A brief history of the Ramsar Convention". The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  2. ^ "Contracting Parties of the Ramsar Convention". Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  3. ^ Heinen, Joel (20 June 2007). Hite, Kirsten (ed.). "Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat". Encyclopedia of Earth. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  4. ^ "Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands". The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  5. ^ This is the date the Convention came into force for the state, not the date of the ratification of the treaty.