List of pasta

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Some different colours and shapes of pasta in a pasta specialty store in Venice
Comparison between different types of long Italian pasta

There are many different varieties of pasta, a staple dish of Italian cuisine.

Some pasta varieties are uniquely regional and not widely known; some types or forms may have different names in different languages, or sometimes in the same language. For example, the cut rotelle is also called ruote in Italy and wagon wheels in the United States. Manufacturers and cooks often invent new shapes of pasta; or may invent new names for preexisting shapes for marketing reasons.

Italian pasta names often end with the masculine plural suffixes -ini, -elli, -illi, -etti or the feminine plurals -ine, -elle etc., all conveying the sense of "little"; or with -oni, -one, meaning "large". Many other suffixes like -otti ("largish") and -acci ("rough", "badly made") may occur, too. In Italian, all pasta type names are plural.


Long and Medium Length pasta[edit]

Long pasta may be made by extrusion or rolling and cutting.

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Barbine.jpg Barbina Thin strands often coiled into nests Little beards
Bigoi co l'arna (cropped).jpg Bigoli Thick, softer spaghetti-like pasta from Veneto
Bucatinicloseup.JPG Bucatini Thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the center Hollow straws[1]Translated from Italian: buco, meaning "hole", and Italian: bucato, meaning "pierced". Perciatellini, Foratini, Fidelini bucati, Fide bucate[2]
Busiate.jpg Busiate Type of long macaroni. Typical from the region of Trapani, is often coiled around a twig of ampelodesmos[3]
Capelli d'angelo A synonym of capellini, often coiled into nests Angel hair[1] Angel's hair, Cabellos de Angel, Capelvenere, Fidelini, Fedelini, Cappellini, Sopracappellini, 

Capellini fini, Bassetti, 

Tagliolini a nido, Barbine a nido[2]

Capellini.jpg Capellini Very thin spaghetti Literally "thin hair" in Italian language, synonymous with angel hair Capelli d'angelo[2]
Fedellini.jpg Fedelini Very thin spaghetti[4] Little faithful ones
Pistacchio di Bronte (pesto) - cropped.jpg Fusilli Long, thick, corkscrew-shaped pasta that may be solid or hollow. Traditionally it is "spun" by pressing and rolling a small rod over each thin strips of pasta to wind them around it in a corkscrew shape, much like a modern Turkish spindle. "Long rifles". The word fusilli presumably comes from Italian: fuso, meaning "spindle". Eliche, Tortiglioni, Spirali[2]
Fusilli lunghi bucati.jpg Fusilli bucati A hollow version of Fusilli.[5] Also called fusilli col buco.[6] Holed rifles
Mac Molinara Tomato Sauce.JPG Maccheroni alla molinara Very thick, long, fresh hand-pulled pasta. Typical from the Abruzzo region. The miller’s wife’s pasta
Matriciani Similar to perciatelli, but folded over rather than hollowed out
Perciatelli.jpg Perciatelli Identical to bucatini From perciare, "to hollow" Maccheroncelli, Maccheronicini, Mezzanelli, Long Macaroni[2]
Pici con albume.jpeg Pici Very thick, long, hand-rolled pasta. It originates in the province of Siena in Tuscany; in the Montalcino area it is also referred to as pinci.
Spaghetti-prepared.jpg Spaghetti A long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin, made of semolina or flour and water[7] "Little strings".[1] Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning "thin string" or "twine".[7] Vermicelli, Fide, Ristoranti, Vermicelloni, Filatelli, Vermicelloni giganti, Spaghettoni[2]
Spaghettiniphoto.jpg Spaghettini Thin spaghetti Small little twines
Spaghettoni.jpg Spaghettoni extra thick or extra long spaghetti[8]
Vermicelli A traditional pasta round that is thicker than spaghetti (refers in U.S. to a style thinner than spaghetti) Worms[1]
Vermicelloni Thick vermicelli Large worms

Ribbon-cut pasta[edit]

Ribbon style pasta are often rolled flat and then cut. This can be done by hand or mechanically.

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Bavette pasta.jpg Bavette Narrower version of tagliatelle Bibs[1]
Pasta 12.jpg Bavettine Narrower version of bavette
Ciriole Thicker version of chitarra
Fettucce Wider version of fettuccine Little slices
Fettucine1.JPG Fettuccine Ribbon of pasta approximately 6.5 millimeters wide Little slices[9] Lasagnette, Fettucce[2]
Fettucelle Narrower version of fettuccine Little slices
Fileja.jpg Fileja Rolled pasta, originating from Calabria.[10]
Lagane[11] Wide pasta Lasagnoni, Bardele[2]
Lasagne Blätter01.jpg Lasagne (Gravagna)[12] Very wide pasta that often have fluted edges Possibly "Cooking pot"[9]
Lasagnette-with-pumpkin-and-parmesan.jpg Lasagnette Narrower version of lasagne Little lasagne
Lasagnotte Longer version of lasagne Bigger lasagne
Linguettine Narrower version of linguine Little tongues
Linguine2.jpg Linguine Flattened spaghetti Little tongues[1] Bavettine, Bavette fini, Radichini, Linguettine[2]
Reginette.jpg Mafalde Long rectangular ribbons with ruffled sides Named in honor of Princess Mafalda of Savoy[11] Reginette, Frese, Tagliatelle nervate[2]
Mafalde corte.jpg Mafaldine Short ribbons with ruffled sides Little mafalde
Pappardelle.jpg Pappardelle Thick flat ribbon Papparelle[2]
Pillus Very thin ribbons
Pizzochero.jpg Pizzoccheri A type of short tagliatelle, a flat ribbon pasta, made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour
Sagnarelli Rectangular ribbons with fluted edges
Rombi pasta.jpg Rombi Rhombus-shaped ribbons
Sagnette pasta.jpg Sagnette Short thick ribbons from Abruzzo and Molise. Also called sagne or tagliolini.
Scialatielli.jpg Scialatelli or scialatielli Short, flat ribbons from the Sorrento region
Spaghetti alla chitarra.jpg Spaghetti alla chitarra Square spaghetti,[13] made of egg and flour Named after the guitar-like device used to cut the pasta,[13] which has a wooden frame strung with metal wires, sheets of pasta are pressed down onto the device, and then the wires are "strummed" so the slivers of pasta fall through.
Stringozzi.jpg Stringozzi Similar to shoelaces Shoestring-like
Tagliatelle 2.jpg Tagliatelle Ribbon, generally narrower than fettuccine. From the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut" Tagliarelli, Reginelle, Fresine, Nastri, Fettuccelle, Fettucce romane, Fiadi[2]
Zucca, Bermondsey, London (5890371182).jpg Taglierini Thinner version of tagliatelle From the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut"
Testaroli-Pesto-Pontremoli-2800.jpg Testaroli
Trenette.jpg Trenette Thin ribbon ridged on one side
Tripoline Thick ribbon ridged on one side Signorine[2]

Short-cut extruded pasta[edit]

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Anelloni 2.jpg Anelloni Short tubular pasta with ridges on the inside.[14] Another type of pasta also with the name anelloni, involving thick ringed ribbons, was developed by physicists at the University of Warwick to study ring-shaped polymers[15] Big rings
Calamarata al ragù di Cernia (7097131809).jpg Calamarata Wide ring shaped pasta Squid-like
Calamaretti Little squids
Cellentani2.jpg Cavatappi Corkscrew-shaped macaroni. Corkscrews Cellentani, amori, spirali, tortiglioni, or fusilli rigati.
Chifferi Rigati Pasta.JPG Chifferi Short and wide macaroni
Pasta e fagioli rapida.jpg Ditalini Short tubes Small thimbles
Tortiglioni.jpg Elicoidali Slightly ribbed tube pasta, the ribs are corked as opposed to those on rigatoni Helicoidal ones, spirals[1] Tortiglioni[2]
Fagioloni Short narrow tube Large beans
Gemelli closeup.jpg Gemelli A single S-shaped strand of pasta twisted in a loose spiral The name derives from the Italian for twins.[9]
Girandole.jpeg Girandole A single S-shaped strand of pasta twisted in a loose spiral. Tighter and smaller than fusilli. From the italian girare: to turn.
Macaronis.jpeg Macaroni Tubes, either bent or straight[16] From Greek for food made from barley[17] Macaroni[2]
Maccheroncelli Hollow tube-shaped pasta that is slightly smaller than a pencil in thickness[18] Small maccheroni
EMS-109321-Manicotti-rule..JPG Manicotti Large stuffable ridged tubes
Marziani Short spirals Martians (refers to the antennae of cartoon martians)[citation needed]
Mezzani pasta Short curved tube[19][20] Half-size ones Perciatelloni, Mezze Zite, Regine, Scaloppi, Napoletani[2]
Mezze penne Short version of penne Half-pens
Mezzi bombardoni Wide short tubes Half bombards
Paccheri Pasta.jpg Paccheri Large tube pasta often topped with sauce or stuffed with ingredients[21] "Slaps." The name has been ascribed to a slapping sound they may make when eaten.[21]
Pasta al ceppo Sheet pasta that is similar in shape to a cinnamon stick[22] Log-type pasta
Pennerigate.jpg Penne Medium length tubes with ridges, cut diagonally at both ends. They can be either lisce (smooth) or rigate (furrowed). Mostaccioli is also sometimes used for Barilla products. Pennette have a shorter length. Pens (after a quill pen) or feathers.[1] Pennine, Mezze pennette lisce, Mezze penne, Mezzani, Pennettine, Pennuzze, Penne Regina[2]
Pennoni A wider and thicker version of penne.[23] Tube pasta with a diagonal cut on both ends.[23] Pennants[1] Penne di Zitoni, Zitoni tagliati, Penna a candela[2]
Rigatoncini Smaller version of rigatoni Small large lined ones
Rigatoni.jpg Rigatoni Medium-Large tube with square-cut ends, sometimes slightly curved Large lined ones
Fusilli pasta.jpg Rotini Fusilli with a tighter helix. 2-edged spiral, tightly wound, can be 3-edged. Helix- or corkscrew-shaped pasta
Sagne ncannulate pomodoro.jpg Sagne 'ncannulate Long tube formed of twisted ribbon Caned lasagne
Spirali Spiraled tubes Spirals
Spiralini (Scharfalini) Tightly coiled spirali Little spirals
Trenne Carbonara (3113690414).jpg Trenne Penne shaped as a triangle
Tuffoli Ridged rigatoni
Baked Ziti (cropped).jpg Ziti Long, narrow hose-like tubes larger than mezzani (also called mezzi ziti) or bucatini. The addition of the word rigati (e.g. ziti rigati) denotes lines or ridges on the pasta's surface. bridegroom (Ziti is plural). Boccolotti, Zitoni, Zituane, Candele[2]
Zitoni Wider version of Ziti Large ziti

Decorative cuts[edit]

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Biciclette.jpg Biciclette Bicycle-shaped pasta Bicycles
Boccoli.jpg Boccoli Short, thick twisted shape from Sardinia
Cacavelle Large bowl-like pasta intended for stuffing Caravel
Campanelle with Summer Veggies (top view).jpg Campanelle Flattened bell-shaped pasta with a frilly edge on one end Little bells[9]
Capunti.jpg Capunti Short convex ovals resembling an open empty pea pod
Casarecce2.jpg Casarecce Short lengths rolled into a S shape From casereccio meaning homemade Casarecci, Cesariccia[2]
Castellane parmigiane.jpeg Castellane Shell pasta coiled into a conical shape Castellane can be translated as "castle dweller", for the shape of the pasta loosely resembles that of a long, flowing robe.
Cavatelli in cheese sauce.jpg Cavatelli Short, solid lengths From the verb cavare meaning to hollow
Cencioni.jpg Cencioni Petal shaped, slightly curved with rough convex side Little rags
Conchiglie (pasta).jpg Conchiglie Seashell shaped Shells[1] Tofettine, Coccioline, Cinesini, Margaritine, Cinesi rigati, Mezzi cocci, Margherite rigate, Cappettine[2]
Conchiglioni.jpg Conchiglioni Large, stuffable seashell shaped Large shells
Corzetti.jpg Corzetti Flat figure-eight stamped
Pasta creste di galli.jpg Creste di galli Short, curved, and ruffled Cock's comb[1]
Croxetti2.jpg Croxetti Flat coin-shaped discs stamped with coats of arms Little crosses
Farfalle Pasta.JPG Farfalle Bow tie or butterfly shaped Butterflies[1] Galla genovese, Fiocconi, Farfalloni[2]
Farfalloni.jpg Farfalloni Large bow ties Large butterflies
Fiorentine.jpg Fiorentine Grooved cut tubes Florentine
Fiori pasta.jpg Fiori Shaped like a flower Flowers
Foglie d'ulivo.JPG Foglie d'ulivo Shaped like an olive leaf Olive leaves
Fusilli Avellinesi.png Fusilli Avellinesi Ribbon rolled around a stick The word fusilli presumably comes from fuso, as traditionally it is "spun" by pressing and rolling a small rod over each thin strips of pasta to wind them around it in a corkscrew shape, much like a modern Turkish spindle. Long rifles.
Pastasorten Garganelli.JPG Garganelli Egg pasta in a square shape rolled into a tube Oesophagus[9]
Gigli pasta.jpg Gigli Cone or flower shaped Lilies[9] Cornetti, Corni di bue[2]
Barilla gnocchi 03.jpg Gnocchi Lobed shells. Not to be confused with gnocchi dumplings. Possibly "knots"[9]
Gramigna.jpg Gramigna Short curled lengths of pasta Infesting weed[1] Crestine, Margherite lisce, Fagioletti, Zitellini, Tubettini lunghi[2]
Lanterne.jpg Lanterne Curved ridges Lanterns
Lumache pasta.jpg Lumache Snailshell-shaped pieces Snails[1] Lumachelle, Lumachette, Cirillini[2]
Lumaconi.jpg Lumaconi Large snailshell-shaped pieces Large snails
La preparazione domestica dei maccheroni al pettine.jpg Maccheroni al pèttine Egg pasta in a square shape rolled into a tube and pressed on a weaving reed (in italian: pèttine), bigger than garganelli Maccheroni on weaving reed
Mandala pasta.jpg Mandala Designed by Philippe Starck in 1987 for French pasta maker Panzani, intended to compensate for overcooking.[24] A reference to mandalas.
Marille Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in 1983 - like a rolling ocean wave in cross-section with internal rugosities, but unsuccessful and no longer produced.[24] From mare, meaning "sea"
Malloredus.jpg Malloreddus Hand-rolled, shell-shaped pasta from Sardinia. Also called gnocchetti sardi. In Campidanese dialect a malloreddu is a male cow (plur. malloreddus) Gnocchetti sardi[2]
Orecchiette Pasta.JPG Orecchiette Bowl or ear-shaped pasta Little ears[1]
Pipe Pasta.jpg Pipe rigate Very similar to Lumaconi but has lines running the length of it Smoking pipes
Quadrefiore.jpg Quadrefiore Square with rippled edges From quadro ("square") and fiore ("flower")
Radiatori.jpg Radiatori Shaped like radiators, they were created between the First and Second World War.[9][better source needed] They are often used in similar dishes as rotelle or fusilli because their shape works well with thicker sauces.[25] Radiator[9] Marziani[2]
Ricciolini.jpg Ricciolini Short wide pasta with a 90-degree twist Little curls
Ricciutelli.jpg Ricciutelle Short spiralled pasta Little curls
Rotelle2.jpg Rotelle Wagon wheel-shaped pasta Little wheels. Ruotine, Ruote, Rotelline, Rotine, Rotini[2]
Sorprese.jpg Sorprese Small bell shaped pasta with a ruffled edge and a crease on one side Surprise
Sorprese Lisce.jpg Sorprese Lisce Bell shaped pasta with a ruffled edge and a crease on one side (A larger version of Sorprese with smoother ruffles) Smooth surprise
Strozzapretti.jpg Strozzapreti Rolled across their width. Similar to Sicilian casarecce. Priest-chokers or priest-stranglers
Torchio noodle.jpg Torchio Torch shaped Torch[9]
Trofie pasta macro.jpg Trofie[26] Thin twisted pasta possibly "Nutriment"[9]

Miniature pasta[edit]

These are small types of pasta, mainly used in soups, many of which belong to the pastina ("small pasta") family.[27][11]

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
AciniDiPepe3.jpg Acini di pepe Bead-like pasta Grains of pepper
Buchstabensuppe.jpg Alfabeto Pasta shaped as letters of the alphabet Alphabet
Uncooked anellini pasta.jpg Anelli Small rings of pasta (not to be confused with Calamaretti) Rings
Anellini2.jpg Anellini Smaller version of anelli Little rings[9]
Conchigliette.jpg Conchigliette Small shell-shaped pasta Little shells
Corallini.jpg Corallini Small short tubes of pasta Little corals
Ditali Small short tubes Thimbles
Ditalini.jpg Ditalini Smaller versions of ditali Little thimbles[9]
Tarhonya-3.JPG Egg barley
Farfalloni.jpg Farfalline Small bow tie-shaped pasta Little butterflies ("bow tie" in Italian is cravatta a farfalla, "butterfly tie")
Fideo (coiled vermicelli).JPG Fideos [28] Pasta prepared with eggs, flour and water.[28]
Filini.jpg Filini Smaller version of fideos, about 12–15 mm long before cooking Little threads.
UncookedFregula.jpg Fregula Bead-like pasta from Sardinia Little fragments [29]
Funghini Small mushroom-shaped pasta Little mushrooms
Grattini.jpg Grattini Small granular, irregular shaped pasta (smaller version then Grattoni) Little Grains
Grattoni.jpg Grattoni Large granular, irregular shaped pasta Grains
Midolline.jpg Midolline Flat teardrop shaped pasta (similar to Orzo but wider)
Occhip.jpg Occhi di pernice Very small rings of pasta Partridge's eyes
Orzo.jpg Orzo (also risoni) Rice shaped pasta Barley[9] Puntine, Punte d'ago, Armelline, Semi d'orzo, Semi d'avena, Semi di riso, Occhi di giudeo, Armellette, Puntalette, Semi di cicoria, Cicorietta, Risetto, Chicchi di riso, Semini, Avena, Avena grande, Cicorie[2]
Pastina.jpg Pastina Although pastina is the name for an entire family of miniature pasta shapes, it is also used to describe the most basic one in this family - small spheres, smaller than acini di pepe Little pasta
Pearl Pasta.jpg Piombi Spheres slightly larger than acini di pepe Pearl pasta
Puntine.jpg Puntine Smaller version of Risi
Quadrettini.jpg Quadrettini Small flat squares of pasta Little squares[9] Quadrucci, Quadratini, Quadretti, Lucciole[2]
Risi closeup.jpg Risi Smaller version of orzo Little rice[9]
Seme melone nudo.jpg Seme di melone Small seed-shaped pasta Melon seeds[9] Semi di mela, Midolline, Semoni, Risone[2]
Stelle Small star-shaped pasta Stars Stellettine, Stellette, Astri, Fiori di Sambuco[2]
Pasta stelline.jpg Stelline Smaller version of stelle Little stars[9]
Stortini pasta.jpg Stortini Smaller version of elbow macaroni Little crooked ones
Tripolini2.jpg Tripolini In larger varieties these are sometimes called Farfalle Rotonde. Small bow tie-shaped pasta with rounded edges. Signorine[2]

Pasta with filling[edit]

The name raviolo (plur. ravioli) can be used as a generic description for almost any type of pasta with filling.

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Agnolotti2.jpg Agnolotti Semicircular or square pockets; can be stuffed with ricotta, a mix of cheese and meats, or pureed vegetables. Typical from Piedmont.[30] Diminutive of old word for "angel"; Agnolotti was Giotto di Bondone's nickname.[9]
Cannelloni mit Hackfleischfüllung.jpg Cannelloni Rolls of pasta with various fillings, usually cooked in an oven[31] Big little canes Gnocchettoni Zitoni, Tagliati di Zitoni, Cannelloni Zitoni, Canneroni, Spole, Sigarette, Schiaffoni[2]
Cappelletti1.JPG Cappelletti Squares of dough filled with minced meat and closed to form a triangle. Little caps[32]
Caramelle di sfoglia con ricotta, basilico e zucchine (14072207807).jpg Caramelle A stuffed pasta resembling double twist candies Candy
Casoncelli in una grande padella.jpg Casoncelli or casonsèi A stuffed pasta typical of Lombardy with various fillings Possibly from casa "house"
Casunziei A stuffed pasta typical of the Veneto area with various fillings From casa house
Culurgione.jpg Culurgiones A stuffed pasta typical of Sardinia (particularly the South-Eastern Ogliastra region) with a filling of potato and mint
Fagottini al tartufo.JPG Fagottini A 'purse' or bundle of pasta, made from a round of dough gathered into a ball-shaped bundle, often stuffed with ricotta and fresh pear Little cloth bundles
Maultaschensuppe.jpg Maultasche A pasta stuffed with meat and spinach common in southern Germany Mouth pocket[33]
Mezzelune di mare al pesto (2498933582).jpg Mezzelune Semicircular pockets about 2.5 in. diameter Half-moons
Occhi di lupo Large, stuffed, penne-shaped pasta Ribbed wolf eyes[1]
Pelmeni Russian.jpg Pelmeni Russian dumplings (of Tatar origin) consisting of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough Derived from pel'nyan' (пельнянь) – literally "ear bread" in the native Finno-Ugric Komi, Udmurt, and Mansi languages
Ravioli-casalinghi-con-la-ricotta-2.jpg Ravioli Square. About 3x3 cm, stuffed with cheese, ground meat, pureed vegetables, or mixtures thereof Possibly from rapa, "turnip"
Sacchettini Round, similar to fagottini, but also may use ravioli stuffing. A small square of pasta brought around the stuffing and twisted. Little sacks
Sacchettoni Large Sacchetini Large little sacks Sacchetti[2]
Bologna-DSCF7178.JPG Tortellini Ring-shaped, usually stuffed with a mixture of meat and cheese Little pies
Pastasorten Tortelloni.JPG Tortelloni Round or rectangular, similar to ravioli, usually stuffed with a mixture of cheese and vegetables (The term tortelloni is also used for a larger variety of tortellini) Large little pies
Tufoli A pasta shell large enough for stuffing (as with meat or cheese). From a southern Italian dialect, plural of tufolo (tube), modification of Latin tubulus (tubule) Large tube Maniche, Gigantoni, Occhi di elefante, Elefante, Canneroni grandi, Occhi di bove[2]

Irregular and unusual shapes[edit]

Image Type Description Translation Synonyms
Cappelli del prete Pasta that is shaped like a hat, can take many forms Priest's hats[1][34][35]
Pasta 01.jpg Maltagliati Irregular shapes of flat pasta formed from scraps of pasta production.[36] badly cut[11] Strengozze[2]
Passatelli-piato.JPG Passatelli Made from bread crumbs, eggs, grated Parmesan cheese, lemon, and nutmeg, and cooked in chicken broth. It is typically found in Pesaro e Urbino (northern Marche) and other regions of northern Italy such as Emilia Romagna[37]
Spätzle-02.jpg Spätzle German egg pasta that is either round in shape, or completely irregular (when hand made) Means "little sparrow" in Swabian German.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Why Italians Love to Talk About Food - Elena Kostioukovitch - Google Books
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "> Pasta-shapes". Retrieved 2017-11-12. 
  3. ^ "Busiate". Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  4. ^ Marchetti, Domenica (2011). The Glorious Pasta of Italy. Chronicle Books. p. 122. ISBN 1452106908
  5. ^ The Digital Pasta Book 1 / Italian pasta - H.W. Gade - Google Books
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b Definition of spaghetti. Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. (accessed: June 03, 2008).
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of Pasta - Oretta Zanini De Vita - Google Books
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "The Ministry - Perfect Pasta Shapes - Geometry Of Pasta". Geometry Of Pasta. Retrieved 2017-11-07. 
  10. ^ Riley, Gillian (2007). The Oxford companion to Italian food. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0198606176. OCLC 87771396. 
  11. ^ a b c d Oretta Zanini De Vita (2009). Encyclopedia of Pasta. University of California Press. pp. 145–147. ISBN 978-0-520-25522-7. 
  12. ^ "Lasagne". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  13. ^ a b 2 Meatballs in the Italian Kitchen - Pino Luongo, Mark Strausman - Google Books
  14. ^ "Bowled Over". Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  15. ^ "Physicists Invented a Horrible New Pasta Shape, for Science". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "Waitrose Macaroni". Waitrose. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014. 
  17. ^ "macaroni". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014. 
  18. ^ Cucina Napoletana - Arturo Iengo - Google Books
  19. ^ Slim and Healthy Italian Cooking - Polvay - Google Books
  20. ^ 365 Ways to Cook Pasta: For Every Season, For Every Reason, a Pasta Lover's ... - Marie Simmons - Google Books
  21. ^ a b Naples at Table: Cooking in Campania - Arthur Schwartz - Google Books
  22. ^ The Food of Campanile: Recipes from the Famed Los Angeles Restaurant - Mark Peel, Nancy Silverton - Google Books
  23. ^ a b The Florida Keys Cookbook, 2nd: Recipes & Foodways of Paradise - Victoria Shearer - Google Books
  24. ^ a b Joseph Froncioni. "DESIGNERS' PASTA PASTS - Extreme pasta shapes that never made it". 
  25. ^ "The Cook's Thesaurus, Pasta Shapes". 
  26. ^ Kyle Phillips. "Trofie". 
  27. ^ Zanini De Vita, Oretta; Fant, Maureen B. (2013). "Pasta". Sauces & Shapes: Pasta the Italian Way. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 357. ISBN 978-0393082432. 
  28. ^ a b Eat, Drink, Think in Spanish: A Food Lover's English-Spanish/Spanish-English ... - Lourdes Castro - Google Books
  29. ^ Paolo Rossi. "The Different Types of Pasta". 
  30. ^ Amparo Machado, Chiara Prete (2015). 1001 specialità della cucina italiana da provare almeno una volta nella vita. Newton Compton Editions. ISBN 9788854186484. 
  31. ^ Cannelloni Recipes Organization. "Cannelloni Recipes". Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  32. ^ merriam-webster (ed.). "Merriam Webster". Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  33. ^ "What the heck is a maultaschen and why would I want to make a casserole out of it?". Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Encyclopedia of Pasta - Oretta Zanini De Vita - Google Books
  35. ^ Bella Tuscany - Frances Mayes - Google Books
  36. ^ Making Artisan Pasta: How to Make a World of Handmade pasta, Stuffed Pasta ... - Aliza Green - Google Books
  37. ^ Maria Pia Hellrigl recipe