List of peasant revolts

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This is a chronological list of conflicts in which peasants played a significant role.

Background[edit]

History of peasant wars spans over a period of over two thousand years.A variety of reasons, fueled the emergence of the peasant revolt phenomenon including:[1]

Later peasant revolts such as the Telangana Rebellion were also influenced by agrarian socialist ideologies.[2]

The majority of peasant rebellions ended prematurely and were unsuccessful. Peasants suffered from limited funding and lacked the training and organisational capabilities of professional armies.[3]

Chronological list[edit]

The list gives the name, the date, the peasant allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

      Peasant victory
      Peasant defeat
      Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
      Ongoing conflict
Date Conflict State Peasants Result Image References
209-206 BC Anti-Qin revolts (including Dazexiang Uprising) Qin dynasty Peasants under several rebel leaders, including Chen Sheng, Wu Guang, Xiang Yu, and Liu Bang Qin dissolution [4]
205–186 BC Great revolt of the Egyptians Ptolemaic Kingdom Native Egyptian peasants and soldiers under secessionist Pharaohs Hugronaphor and Ankhmakis Suppression of the rebellion [5]
17-25 Lülin Xin dynasty Lülin rebels Collapse of Xin dynasty; ascendancy of rebel leader Liu Xiu after infighting among Lülin forces
17-27 Red Eyebrows Rebellions Xin dynasty Red Eyebrows rebels Goal of the rebellion partially achieved, but eventual defeat of the movement by Liu Xiu
172-173 Bucolic War Roman Empire Egyptian peasants under Isidorus Suppression of the rebellion [6]
184–205 Yellow Turban Rebellion Han dynasty Yellow Turban rebels Suppression of the rebellion, though Han dynasty is severely weakened [7]
185–205 Heishan bandit movement Han dynasty Bandit confederacy of the Taihang Mountains
Gongsun Zan's forces
Suppression of the rebellion, though Han dynasty is severely weakened
3rd – 5th century Bagaudae Roman Empire Bagaudae
Suebi
Collapse of the Roman Empire
4th – late 5th century Circumcellions Roman Empire (until 435)
Catholic Church (until 435)
Vandal Kingdom (since 435)
African landlords
Berber and Roman peasants
Donatist authorities
Rebellious Roman military under Gildo (in 398)
End of Roman Catholic rule in Africa, but suppression of the rebellion by Vandals and Arian authorities [8]
611-619 Anti-Sui rebellions Sui dynasty Peasants under several rebel leaders
Defected military forces under several rebel generals, officials and nobles
Collapse of Sui dynasty; ascendancy of rebel leader Li Yuan after infighting among rebel forces
841–843 Stellinga Uprising Saxon nobility
Frankish military under Louis the German
Stellinga Suppression of the rebellion
859–860 Rebellion of Ch'iu Fu Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Ch'iu Fu Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [9]
874–878 Rebellion of Wang Xianzhi Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Wang Xianzhi and Shang Junzhang Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [10]
875–884 Rebellion of Huang Chao Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Huang Chao Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [11]
928–932 Basil the Copper Hand Rebellions Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire Peasants under Basil the Copper Hand Suppression of the rebellion [12]
993-995 Da Shu rebellion in Sichuan Song dynasty Peasants under Wang Xiaobo and Li Shun Suppression of the rebellion [13]
1277–1280 Uprising of Ivaylo Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Bulgarian nobility
Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde
Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Peasants under Ivaylo Murder of Ivaylo [14]
1323–1328 Peasant revolt in Flanders France Ancient.svg Kingdom of France Flemish peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1343–1346 St. George's Night Uprising Den tyske ordens skjold.svg Teutonic Order
Denmark Kingdom of Denmark
Estonian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [15]
1351-1368 Red Turban Rebellion Yuan dynasty
Goryeo
Red Turban Armies of White Lotus members, Manichaeans and Chinese peasants Retreat of Yuan dynasty into Mongolia; ascendancy of rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang after infighting among rebel forces
1358 Jacquerie France Ancient.svg Kingdom of France French peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1381 Peasants' Revolt Royal Coat of Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1382 Harelle France Ancient.svg Kingdom of France French peasants Suppression of the rebellion [16]
1401–1404, 1409 Samogitian uprisings Den tyske ordens skjold.svg Teutonic Order
Herb Pogon Litewska.jpg Švitrigaila's followers
Samogitian peasants
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Kingdom of Poland
Goal of the rebellion largely achieved, though disputes over Samogitia continue until 1422
1437 Budai Nagy Antal Revolt Coa Hungary Country History Mathias Corvinus (1458-1490) big.svg Kingdom of Hungary Transylvanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1441 Funen and Jutland Peasant rebellions Denmark Kingdom of Denmark Danish peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1450 Jack Cade Revolt Royal Coat of Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion [17]
1450–1451 John and William Merfold's Uprising Royal Coat of Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion [18]
1453–1454 Morea revolt of 1453–54 Byzantine Empire Despotate of the Morea
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Ottoman Empire
Greek peasants under Manuel Kantakouzenos
Albanians under Peter Bua
Armoiries Achaïe.svg Latin loyalists under John Asen Zaccaria
Suppression of the rebellion [19]
1462–1472, 1485–1486 Remença Catalan constitutionalists and nobility (1462–1472)
Royal Banner of Aragón.svg Crown of Aragon (1485–1486)
Catalan peasants
Arms of John II of Aragon as Prince.svg Royalists under John II of Aragon (1462–1472)
Goal of the rebellion largely achieved, Sentència de Guadalupe signed [20]
1478 Carinthian peasant revolt Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Ottoman Empire Carinthian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [21]
1482–1511 Yamashiro-ikki uprisings Ashikaga mon.svg Ashikaga shogunate Yamashiro peasant leagues
Hatakeyama clan
Mon Hosokawa.JPG Hosokawa clan
Japanese Crest Oouchi Hisi.svg Ōuchi clan
Most ikki submit to the shogunate in 1493, though continue to retain autonomy until gradual dissolution of the movement [22]
1488–1582 Ikkō-ikki Uprisings Several major samurai clans (including Oda clan and Tokugawa clan)
Nichiren sect
Tendai sōhei
Jōdo-shū sōhei
Ikkō-shū peasant and ji-samurai leagues
Jōdo Shinshū sōhei
Ichimonjimitsuboshi.svg Mōri clan
Japanese Crest mitumori Kikkou ni Hanabishi.svg Azai clan
Japanese Crest mitumori mokkou.svg Asakura clan
Destruction of most militant Ikkō-shū leagues; Jōdo Shinshū sect and remaining Ikkō-ikki submit to Toyotomi Hideyoshi [23]
1498–1878 Opryshky movement Alex K Kingdom of Poland-flag.svg Kingdom of Poland
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Holy Roman Empire
Ukrainian peasants Suppression of the movement
1511 Friulian Revolt Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice Friulian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1514 Poor Conrad Rebellion Wuerttemberg Banner.svg Duchy of Württemberg Württemberg peasants Suppression of the rebellion [24]
1514 György Dózsa Rebellion Coa Hungary Country History Mathias Corvinus (1458-1490) big.svg Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [25]
1515 Slovene peasant revolt Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Holy Roman Empire Slovene peasants Suppression of the rebellion [26]
1515–1523 Frisian peasant rebellion Blason fr Bourgogne.svg Habsburg Netherlands Frisian flag.svg Arumer Zwarte Hoop
Armoiries Gueldre.svg Charles II, Duke of Guelders
Suppression of the rebellion
1516–1521 Trần Cảo Rebellion Lê dynasty Vietnamese peasants under Trần Cảo and Trần Cung Suppression of the rebellion, though Lê dynasty is severely weakened [27]
1524–1525 German Peasants' War Flag of the Swabian League.svg Swabian League German peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1524–1533 Dalecarlian Rebellions Armoiries Suède moderne.svg Sweden Dalarna peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1525 Palatine Peasants' War Flag of The Electoral Palatinate (1604).svg Electoral Palatinate Palatine peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1534 Skipper Clement's Rebellion National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Christian III
Denmark Kingdom of Denmark
Danish Peasants under Skipper Clement
National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Christian II
Suppression of the rebellion
1540 Peasant's Rebellion in Telemark Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark–Norway Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1542–1543 Dacke War Armoiries Suède moderne.svg Sweden Småland peasants Suppression of the rebellion [28]
1549 Kett's Rebellion Royal Coat of Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1573 Croatian–Slovene peasant revolt Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Holy Roman Empire Slovene peasants
Croatian peasants
Suppression of the rebellion [29]
1596–1597 Cudgel War Sweden Sweden Finnish peasants Suppression of the rebellion [30]
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion Flag of Oryol (variant).svg Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1626–1636 Peasants' War in Upper Austria Electoral Standard of Bavaria (1623-1806).svg Electorate of Bavaria Austrian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [31]
1630–1645 Rebellion of Li Zicheng Ming dynasty (1630–1644)
 Qing dynasty (1644–1645)
Peasants under Li Zicheng, Gao Guiying and other generals of the Shun dynasty Collapse of Ming dynasty, but suppression of the rebellion by Qing dynasty
1630–1647 Rebellion of Zhang Xianzhong Ming dynasty (1630–1644)
 Qing dynasty (1644–1647)
Peasants and bandits under Zhang Xianzhong Collapse of Ming dynasty, but suppression of the rebellion by Qing dynasty [32]
1637–1638 Shimabara Rebellion Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Tokugawa shogunate
Netherlands Dutch Empire
Christian peasants and rōnin Suppression of the rebellion [33]
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion [34]
1653 Swiss peasant war of 1653 Early Swiss cross.svg Republic of the Swiss Swiss peasants Suppression of the rebellion [35]
1667–1671 Spepan Razin Rebellion Flag of Oryol (variant).svg Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants
Don Cossacks
Suppression of the rebellion [36]
1669–1670 Peasant Rebellion in Podhale Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion [37]
1705–1706 Bavarian People's Uprising  Habsburg Monarchy Bavarian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion Flag of Oryol (variant).svg Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants
Don Cossacks
Suppression of the rebellion
1730–1769 Peasant revolts for the restoration of the Lê dynasty and land reforms Trịnh lords
Nguyễn lords
Vietnamese peasants
Lê dynasty
Suppression of the rebellions and eventual collapse of Lê dynasty, but start of Tây Sơn Revolt
1768–1769 Koliyivshchyna Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Russia Russian Empire
Haidamaka movement Suppression of the rebellion
1769–1788 Tây Sơn Revolt Nguyễn lords (until 1776)
Nguyễn Ánh's forces (since 1776)
Trịnh lords (until 1786)
Flag of Thailand (1782).svg Siam (in 1785)
Lê dynasty (1786-1788)
 Qing dynasty (1787-1788)
Tay Son Dynasty Flag.svg Tây Sơn dynasty Goal of the rebellion achieved; reunification of Vietnam and introduction of land reforms under Tây Sơn dynasty
1773–1775 Pugachev's Rebellion Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire Russian peasants
Don Cossacks
Suppression of the rebellion [38]
1784 Revolt of Horea, Cloșca and Crișan  Austrian Empire Romanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [39]
1790 Saxon Peasants' Revolt Saxony Saxon peasants Suppression of the rebellion [40]
1793–1796 War in the Vendée France French Republic Catholic and Royal Army
Kingdom of France Chouan rebels
Kingdom of France Émigrés
 Great Britain
Suppression of the rebellion
1793–1804 Chouannerie France French Republic Kingdom of France Chouan rebels
Catholic and Royal Army
Kingdom of France Émigrés
 Great Britain
Suppression of the rebellion
1794 Kościuszko Uprising Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Polish loyalists
Banner of Kościuszko Uprising.PNG Polish nationalist nobility
Banner of Kościuszko Uprising.PNG Kosynierzy
Banner of Kościuszko Uprising.PNG Polish Jacobins
Suppression of the rebellion [41]
1794–1804 White Lotus Rebellion  Qing dynasty White Lotus rebels Suppression of the rebellion
1798 Peasants' War France French Republic Low countries peasants Suppression of the rebellion [42]
1809 Tyrolean Rebellion France French Empire
 Bavaria
Saxony
 Napoleonic Italy
Tyrolean peasants
 Austria
Suppression of the rebellion
1809 Gottscheer Rebellion France First French Empire Austrian Empire Gottschee German peasants
Slovene peasants
Suppression of the rebellion
1834 Palestinian Peasant Revolt Flag of Egypt 1826-1867 and 1881-1914.png Egypt Eyalet Palestinian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [43]
1846 Galician slaughter  Austrian Empire Kosynierzy Suppression of the rebellion [44]
1850–1864 Taiping Rebellion  Qing dynasty Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Suppression of the rebellion
1858 Mahtra War Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire Estonian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [45]
1884 Chichibu Incident Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Tokugawa Shogunate Japanese peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1894–1895 Donghak Peasant Revolution  Japan
Korean Empire Joseon Dynasty
Korean peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1896–1897 War of Canudos Flag of Brazil 15-19 November.svg First Brazilian Republic Canudos inhabitants Suppression of the rebellion
1905-1908 Maji Maji Rebellion German East Africa Matumbi people, Ngoni people, and other Tanganyikans Suppression of the rebellion [46]
1907 1907 Romanian Peasants' Revolt Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania Romanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1913 Peasant revolt in Northern Shaanxi Flag of the Republic of China (1912-1928).svg Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers and bandits under a sect leader Spread of the revolt; poppy plant eradication campaign stopped [47]
1914 Peasant Revolt in Albania Flag of Albania (1914-1920).svg Principality of Albania
Catholic Militia
Muslim peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1916 Urkun Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire Kyrgyz and Kazakh peasants Suppression of the rebellion [48]
1918 Arsk Uprising Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR Tatar peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1920–1921 Tambov Rebellion Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR Green armies Suppression of the rebellion [49]
1921 Malabar rebellion British Raj Red Ensign.svg British India Indian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [50]
1927 Autumn Harvest Uprising Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China 中國工農紅軍軍旗.svg Hunan Soviet Suppression of the rebellion
1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre  El Salvador Salvadoran peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1932 Lesko uprising Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Republic of Poland Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion [51]
1932 Peasant uprising against poppy-tax collection in Su County Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China
Blue Sky White Sun.png Kuomintang members and allied gentry
Chinese poppy farmers and gentry under Wang Xiaobai and Ma Fengshan Suppression of the rebellion [52]
1932 Peasant uprising against poppy-tax collection in Lingbi County Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers under Tian Xuemin Goal of the rebellion achieved [53]
1944 Peasant revolt in Beichuan County Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers of Xiaoyuan and Houyuan Goal of the rebellion achieved [54]
1946–1951 Tebhaga movement Bengal landlords Bengal peasants (All India Kisan Sabha)
CPI-banner.svg Communist Party of India
Goal of the rebellion partially achieved [55]
1946–1951 Telangana Rebellion Asafia flag of Hyderabad State.png Razakars
Hyderabad landlords
Asafia flag of Hyderabad State.png Hyderabad State
Hyderabad peasants (Andhra Mahasabha)
CPI-banner.svg Communist Party of India
Goal of the rebellion achieved [56]
1950 Cazin rebellion Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [57]
1959–1965 War against the Bandits Flag of Cuba.svg Republic of Cuba Cuban peasants
Flag of Cuba.svg Batista loyalists
Flag of Cuba.svg DRE
 United States
Suppression of the rebellion
1968-1969 Agbekoya  Nigeria Yoruba peasants Goal of the rebellion achieved
1970s 1970s peasant revolts in Thailand  Thailand Thai peasants Peasant leaders assassinated
1975–1991 Uprisings in Tigray and Eritrea; part of the Ethiopian Civil War Flag of Ethiopia (1975–1987).svg Ethiopia Tigrayan and Eritrean peasants Derg overthrown; Eritrean independence [58]
2004 Tangshan Protest Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China Chinese peasants of Hebei Suppression of the rebellion
2011 Wukan protests Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China Farmers and villagers of Wukan Goal of the revolt largely achieved

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Theda Skocpol (April 1982). "Review: What Makes Peasants Revolutionary?" (PDF). Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  3. ^ [lang=1&cHash=f8911ce32f21435e54b5720e3e9db0f7 "Peasant Rebellions"]. Danmarkshistorien-Aarhus University. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Chen Sheng and Wu Guang's Revolt Against Qin". Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "The great revolt of the Egyptians (205–186 BC)". Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Dio Cassius, Epitome 72
  7. ^ Ulrich Theobald (28 June 2011). "The Yellow Turban Uprising". Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Baldwin, p. 3-11.
  9. ^ Somers, p. 688-692.
  10. ^ Somers, p. 727-736.
  11. ^ Somers, p. 727-762.
  12. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 268–269
  13. ^ "Die Nördliche Song-Dynastie". Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  14. ^ Andreev, p. 221-228.
  15. ^ Vahtre, p. 79-90.
  16. ^ Sumption, p. 444.
  17. ^ Thomson, p. 195-297.
  18. ^ Hicks, p. 33-55.
  19. ^ Cheetham, p. 218.
  20. ^ Rotger, 2011, p. 26-33.
  21. ^ Štih, Peter (2000). "Kmečki upor na slovenskem Koroškem" [The Peasant Revolt in Slovene Carinthia]. In Vidic, Marko. Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev [The Illustrated History of the Slovenes] (in Slovenian). Mladinska knjiga. p. 132. ISBN 86-11-15664-1. 
  22. ^ Berry, p. 37-44.
  23. ^ Otani, p. 609-612.
  24. ^ "Der Aufstad des Armen Konrad". Gechichtsverein Kongen. 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "Dózsa Rebellion". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  26. ^ Štih, Peter (2000). "Slovenski kmečki upor" [The Slovene Peasant Revolt]. In Vidic, Marko. Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev [The Illustrated History of the Slovenes] (in Slovenian). Mladinska knjiga. p. 142. ISBN 86-11-15664-1. 
  27. ^ Cooke, Vietnamese Confucianization, pp. 289–292.
  28. ^ "Dacke War". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Губеца Матии восстание 1573". Большая Советская Энциклопедия. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  30. ^ Veli Niinimaa. "Jaakko Ilkka". Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  31. ^ "Bauernaufstände in Oberösterreich – Einleitung". Verbundes Oberösterreichischer Museen (in German). Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  32. ^ "Chang Hsien-chung". Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Qing Research Portal, Dartmouth College. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  33. ^ Murray, Japan, pp. 258–262.
  34. ^ Majda, p. 17-30.
  35. ^ Suter, p. 146-155.
  36. ^ Avrich, Paul (1976). Russian Rebels, 1600-1800. New York: Schocken Books. pp. 83–117. ISBN 9780393008364. 
  37. ^ Jacek Pędzimąż (17 May 2009). "Rzeczpospolita Podhalańska 1669/1670". Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  38. ^ Forster, Robert (1970). Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. pp. 163–181. 
  39. ^ Pascu, p. 534-537.
  40. ^ "Sächsischer Bauernaufstand 1790". Bauerkriege. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  41. ^ Żygulski; Wielecki, p. 49.
  42. ^ Kreins, p. 66-70
  43. ^ Manna, 2009, p. 85-96.
  44. ^ Jerzy Lukowski; Hubert Zawadzki (6 July 2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-521-85332-3. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  45. ^ Raun, p. 45-60.
  46. ^ Iliffe, p. 68-176.
  47. ^ Bianco, p. 110.
  48. ^ Bruce Pannier (2 August 2006). "Kyrgyzstan: Victims Of 1916 'Urkun' Tragedy Commemorated". RFE/RL. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  49. ^ Pipes, p. 374-386.
  50. ^ "Battle of Pookottur commemorated". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 27 August 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  51. ^ Głuszko, p. 71-79.
  52. ^ Bianco, p. 76-96.
  53. ^ Bianco, p. 76-96.
  54. ^ Wakabayashi; Brook, p. 110.
  55. ^ Majumdar, p. 13.
  56. ^ "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre". BBC News. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  57. ^ "Dokumentarni film o Cazinskoj buni na cazin.NET". Cazin. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  58. ^ John Young, Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia: The Tigray People's Liberation Front, 1975–1991 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

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