List of people considered a founder in a Humanities field

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Those known as the father, mother, or considered a founder in a Humanities field are those who have made important contributions to that field. In some fields several people are considered the founders, while in others the title of being the "father" is debatable.

Arts[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Abstract art Hilma af Klint[1] For "[inventing] an abstract vocabulary blending biomorphic and geometric forms," that predates Wassily Kandisky.[1]
Animation Lotte Reiniger[2]

Margaret J. Winkler[3]

Reiniger: For making The Adventures of Prince Achmed, "[t]he first full-length animation movie of film history."[2]

Winkler: For being "one of the earliest female producers of animation, with international hits like the cartoon, Felix the Cat."[3]

Anime Ōten Shimokawa
Jun'ichi Kōuchi
Seitaro Kitayama[4]
Australian Studio pottery William Merric Boyd
Cinematography Alice Guy-Blaché[5][6] For being the first female film director and "among the first to employ techniques like close-ups, hand-tinted color, and synchronized sound. "[6]
Dadaism Beatrice Wood[7][8] For her involvement in the movement,[7] which stemmed from her enjoyment of, upon her own admission, "being subversive."[8]
Danish painting Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard[9]
Fashion Coco Chanel[10]

Jeanne Lanvin[11]

Vivienne Westwood[12]

Chanel: For "revolutionizing how [people] dress, she helped form a new ideal of what a fashion brand could be."[10]

Lanvin: for founding "one of the oldest French fashion houses in operation today," through which she popularized the robe de style dress.[11]

Westwood: For "[selling] the customised Teddy Boy threads that developed into punk... [and with her 1981 Pirate collection changing] the way people looked...[and creating] a new language of clothes."[12]

Modern fashion photography Norman Parkinson[13] For taking his models and photoshoots beyond the confines of the studio.
Modern French cooking Eugénie Brazier[14][15] For her Lyonnaise-style of cooking, becoming the first woman to ever hold three Michelin stars[15] and at age 38, the first individual to hold six simultaneously, a record that lasted for 65 years until 1998, which led Curnonsky to deem her as "the greatest chef in the world."[14]
French New Wave cinema Agnès Varda[16] For "directing celebrated films including Cléo from 5 to 7, Happiness and The Creatures."[16]
Gothic architecture Abbot Suger[17] Built the first Gothic church at the Abbey of St Dennis
Harlem Renaissance (sculpture) Augusta Savage[18] For being "a talented sculptor in her own right, [as well as] the first African American wom[a]n to open her own art gallery, the ‘Salon of Contemporary Negro Art’."[18]
Manga Osamu Tezuka[19]
Oil painting Jan van Eyck[20] For experimenting with the medium to remarkable effect
Photojournalism Mathew Brady[21]
Pop art Richard Hamilton[22]
New Puerto Rican cuisine Alfredo Ayala[23][24] "[F]or being the manager of a new local gastronomic movement in times of ‘nouvelle cuisine’, which sought to exalt the richness of Puerto Rican cuisine to position it in haute cuisine,"[23]..."[becoming] the best ambassador of the island."[24]
Scottish country dancing Francis Peacock[25]
Spanish cuisine Penelope Casas[a][26]

María Mestayer [es][27]

Casas: For "demonstrating the breadth of regional Spanish cuisine."[26]

Mestayer: For being "[a] woman ahead of her time who had to fight against the social prejudices of a classist Spain and faced a civil war from the kitchens."[27]

Stop-motion clay animation Art Clokey[citation needed]
Surrealism André Breton

Dorothea Tanning[28]

Communication[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Spam Gary Thuerk[29][30] Penned the first message that advertised the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[31]

Education[edit]

Subject Father / mother Life span Reason
Afghan education Sakena Yacoobi[32] Still living For her work through the Afghan Institute of Learning, which "works...to empower women and bring education and health services to poor women and girls in rural and urban areas, serving hundreds of thousands of women and children a year."[32]
American education Mary McLeod Bethune[33]

Horace Mann[34]

(1875–1955)

(1796–1859)

Bethune: For her "high standards and...[demonstration] of what educated African Americans could do," through her school, which later became Bethune–Cookman University.[33]

Mann: Advocated for common schools and nonsectarian education.

American Catholic education Mary Elizabeth Lange[35][36] (c. 1784–1882) For founding the first Catholic school in the United States for children of color as well as the first religious community of women of African-American descent.[35]
Argentinian education Domingo Faustino Sarmiento[37]

Juana Paula Manso[37]

(1811–1888)

(1819–1875)

Sarmiento: For improving the country's education system.

Manso: For educating women and advocating for their equal education.[37]

Costa Rican education Carmen Lyra[38] (1888–1949) For founding the Escuela Maternal ("Maternal School"), the first Montessori school in Costa Rica in 1925.[38]
Dominican education Salomé Ureña[39] (1850–1898) For founding "the Instituto de Señoritas ("Young Ladie's Institute"), which became the first center devoted exclusively to the training of teachers," in the Dominican Republic and called as such by Chiqui Vicioso [es].[39]
Japanese language education in Romania Angela Hondru[40] Still living "[F]or her role in saving Japanese studies from extinction in her country in the 1970s and for her more than 30 years of dedication to the field since then."[40]
Namibian education Ottilie Abrahams[41] (1937–2018) For "[forming] the Namibian National Nationhood Programme, a consortium of NGOs working in the areas of education and agro-ecology."[41]
Nicaraguan education Josefa Toledo de Aguerri[42] (1866–1962) "[F]or her work as a teacher of

generations," educating Pinolero children as the "future citizens...[of] tomorrow who will integrate the collectivity of the nation.”[42]

Paraguayan education Rosa Peña Guanes[43] (1843–1899) For founding twenty-four girl's schools and the National Asylum in Paraguay.[44]
Early education in Peru Emilia Barcia Boniffatti[45] (1904–1986) For founding the first preschool in the Peruvian Amazonia.[45]
Puerto Rican education Jaime Benítez Rexach[46]

Celestina Cordero[47][48]
Rafael Cordero[47][49]

(1908–2001)

(1787–1862) (1790–1868)

Benítez: Called as such by Herman Badillo for "there [being] no man in this country who has done more to bring up the level of educational opportunities to poor people than [him]."

Celestina: For founding the first school for girls in Puerto Rico.

Rafael: For providing free schooling to the children, regardless of race or social standing.

Saudi Arabian education Iffat bint Mohammad Al Thunayan[50] (1916– 2000) For founding "the Taif model school and the first girl's college in Saudi Arabia."
Tampa education Electa Lee[51] (1808–1870) For "[opening] what is believed to be the first local school," in Tampa.[51]
Washington D. C. education Myrtilla Miner[52] (1815–1864) For "providing a quality education for all children in the District of Columbia regardless of race, creed or class," through her Normal School for Colored Girls, which later became the University of the District of Columbia.[52]
Western Cape education Helen Zille[53] Still living For her "hands-on approach" tenure as Western Cape MEC for Education.[53]

History[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
African-American history Arturo Alfonso Schomburg[54] For his "[research and raising] awareness of the great contributions that Afro-Latin Americans and African Americans have made to society,...[being] an important intellectual figure in the Harlem Renaissance [and, over] the years, [collecting] literature, art, slave narratives, and other materials of African history, which were purchased to become the basis of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, named in his honor, at the New York Public Library (NYPL) branch in Harlem.
American history Pocahontas[55]
Ecclesiastical history Eusebius of Caesarea[56] Because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church
French history André Duchesne[56]
Historiography Ibn Khaldun[57] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
History Herodotus[58]
Thucydides
The Histories
History of the Peloponnesian War
History of science George Sarton[59] Founded Isis (1912) and wrote Introduction to the History of Science (1927)
Modern history Leonardo Bruni[60]
Philosophy of history Ibn Khaldun[61] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
Public administration Woodrow Wilson[62] "The Study of Administration" in Political Science Quarterly, June 1887.
Puerto Rican history Salvador Brau[63]

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera[64][65]

Justice[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Criminal identification Alphonse Bertillon[66] Created a database for criminals
Fingerprinting Juan Vucetic[67]

Language and literature[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Modern African literature Flora Nwapa[68] For "[setting] the stage for the emergence of female writers in Nigeria and other African countries," by being "the first African woman to publish a book in English."[68]
American folklore Richard Dorson[69]
American literature Mark Twain[70]
American novel Susanna Rowson[71] For writing one of the "best-selling novels of the time...Charlotte, A Tale of Truth."[71]
Canadian Indigenous literature E. Pauline Johnson[72][73] For "her impact of Indigenous writers"[72] due in part to "[writing] a critique of the treatment of First Nations women in her article: "A Strong Race Opinion: the Indian Girl in Modern Fiction," in which she protested the obvious racism in the novels about First Nations women."[73]
Canadian literature Margaret Atwood[74]

Margaret Laurence[75]

Atwood: For "[seeming] capable of embracing and exposing the truth of the darkness that lurks in the shadows of our world[, s]he and her work are as relevant as ever."[74]

Laurence: For "having given eloquent voice to the Manitoba prairie in her “Manawaka” series, [as well as speaking] for the tribes of all humankind—women, the old, and the oppressed everywhere."[75]

Canadian poetry Isabella Valancy Crawford[76] For being the first to attempt the "arduous intellectual journey," that "her verse [must trek the wide] distance to be traversed from the servile copy to the work which, though it may originate in a fertile hint of method or suggestion of thought in some foreign source, is still the authentic utterance of a single mind."[76]
Costa Rican poetry Eunice Odio[77][78] For being "the country’s most significant international literary presence."[77]
English literature Geoffrey Chaucer[79]

Frances Burney[80]

Chaucer: For writing The Canterbury Tales.[79]

Burney: For being considered as such by Virginia Woolf, in part "for advancing the popularity of the courtship novel and the possibility of women being considered as novelists of worth."[80]

English poetry Geoffrey Chaucer[56]
Epic poetry Homer[56]
American film criticism Pauline Kael[81] For being "probably the most qualified critic in the world," per Jerry Lewis.[81]
Finnish written language Mikael Agricola[82]
German literature Gotthold Ephraim Lessing[56]
Grammar Pāṇini[83] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Greek tragedy Aeschylus[56]
Harlem Renaissance Alta Douglas (née Sawyer)[84]

Jessie Redmon Fauset[85][86]

Zora Neale Hurston[87]

Douglas: For her "death had a special meaning… Alta and Aaron Douglas had formed the warm human center of a group of gifted black young men and women who had come together for the first time in New York… her passing marked definitely 'the closing of the ring' on the Harlem Renaissance," as considered by Arnold Rampersad.[84]

Fuaset: For being "a teacher, the Literary Editor of The Crisis, and the author the celebrated There is Confusion, Fauset showed serious promise as a leading and impactful voice,"[85] as well as "selecting the works of...Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Arna Bontemps, Claude McKay, Georgia Douglas Johnson, Mary Effie Lee and Jean Toomer for publication."[86]

Modern Hebrew language Eliezer Ben Yehuda[88]
Horror Mary Shelley[89] Wrote Frankenstein[89]
Italian language Dante Alighieri[90]
Italian literature Dante Alighieri[90]
Indology Al-Biruni[91]
Letters (messages) Francis I of France[56]
Linguistics (early) Pāṇini[92] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Linguistics (modern)

Ferdinand de Saussure[93][94]
Noam Chomsky[95][96]

Modern fantasy literature J. R. R. Tolkien[97]
Modernist literature Gertrude Stein[98] For the "[incorporation of the] stream-of-consciousness and experimental narrative techniques," into her work.[98]
Novel Homer[99]
Nuyorican literature Esmeralda Santiago For writing When I Was Puerto Rican, considered by Oprah's Book Club as "one of the “Best Memoirs of a Generation”."[100][101]
Puerto Rican literature Concha Meléndez[102]

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera[64][103]

Science fiction Octavia E. Butler[b][104]

Ursula K. Le Guin[c][105]

Mary Shelley

Lucian of Samosata[106]

Jules Verne[107][108]

H. G. Wells[107][108]

Science fiction magazine Hugo Gernsback[109]
Spanish language Antonio de Nebrija[110]
Spanish literature Carmen Balcells[111]

Miguel de Cervantes[112]

Balcells: For being the literary agent of Spanish-language authors from Spain and Latin America, including six Nobel Prize–winning authors and one of the main promoters of the Latin American Boom.

Cervantes: For writing Don Quixote.[112]

Spanish travel literature Egeria[113] For writing Itinerarium Egeriae ("Travels of Egeria"), the first record of a Christian pilgrimage in the 4th century.[113]
Urdu Maulvi Abdul Haq[114]
Venezuelan literature José Antonio Ramos Sucre[115]
Venezuelan poetry José Antonio Ramos Sucre[115]

Law[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Civil law Justinian I
Legal writing education Marjorie D. Rombauer[116][117] For "[writing] the first legal writing textbook, Legal Problem Solving: Analysis, Research, and Writing in 1970,"[116] and through her "[teaching] at the University of Washington School of Law for over thirty years [as] the first non-librarian, tenured female faculty member,"[116] her "works on legal problem solving, research, writing, and analysis informed generations of law students."[117]
European patent law Kurt Haertel[118][119]
International law Alberico Gentili[120]
Francisco de Vitoria
Hugo Grotius
For speculating on human rights and the proper relations that ought to exist between nations
Russian jurisprudence Semyon Efimovich Desnitsky[121] Russian social and political theorist (18th century)
United States Constitution James Madison[122] He played a large role in its drafting and ratification. One of the authors of The Federalist.[123] Also drafter of the Bill of Rights.

Music[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
American music Stephen Foster[124] Recognized internationally for his compositions which are still being performed in various venues. His most notable works include Oh Susanna, Camptown Races and Old Folks at Home.
American piano manufacture Jonas Chickering[125]
Blues Ma Rainey[126]
Bluegrass music Bill Monroe[127]
Chicago blues / electric blues Muddy Waters[128]
Contemporary a cappella Deke Sharon[129][130]
Country music Jimmie Rodgers[131][132][133]
Death metal Chuck Schuldiner[134][135][136]
Disco Mel Cheren (Godfather)[137]
Giorgio Moroder[138]
English cathedral music Thomas Tallis[56]
Funk George Clinton ("Godfather")[139]
Gospel music Thomas A. Dorsey[140]
Gothic rock Peter Murphy ("Godfather")[141][142]
G-Funk Dr. Dre[citation needed]
Greek music Terpander[56]
Grunge Neil Young[143]
Heavy metal Ozzy Osbourne/Tony Iommi[144][145] Both are also known as "godfathers of heavy metal".
Italo disco Alexander Robotnick (Godfather)[146]
Punk rock Patti Smith (godmother)[147]
Jazz Buddy Bolden[148]
Jelly Roll Morton[149]
Theodore August Metz[150]
Modern jazz piano Earl "Fatha" Hines[151]
Puerto Rican music Manuel Gregorio Tavárez[152][153]
Reggae Frederick "Toots" Hibbert[citation needed]
Rock and roll Chuck Berry[154]
Rock music in China Cui Jian[155]
Soul music James Brown (godfather)[156]
Symphony and string quartet Joseph Haydn[157][158][159]
Thrash metal James Hetfield[160]
Venezuelan music Simón Díaz[161]

Antonio Lauro[162]

Vicente Emilio Sojo[163]

Performance art[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Kabuki Izumo no Okuni
Vogue Willi Ninja[164] Godfather[165][166]

Philosophy and religion[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Alt-right Michelle Malkin[d][167]
Anarchism Mikhail Bakunin[168]

Emma Goldman[169]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon[170]

Antifeminism Phyllis Schlafly[171]
Asceticism Syncletica of Alexandria[172]
Authoritarianism Indira Gandhi[173] For her declaration of The Emergency.
Behaviorism John B. Watson[174]
Chinese democracy Wei Jingsheng[175]
Comparative religion Al-Biruni and Ibn Hazm[176]
Conservatism Edmund Burke[177]
Cynicism (school of thought) Diogenes of Sinope[178]
Epicureanism Epicurus[178]
Epistemology Xenophanes[179]
Existentialism Simone de Beauvoir[180]

Søren Kierkegaard[181]

Fascism Margherita Sarfatti[e][182][183] For being "Benito Mussolini's mistress, [becoming] his ideological companion, [planning] the 'March on Rome' with him, [writing] articles in his name, [editing] the Fascist Party organ and [writing] his first official biography."[182]
Faith missions Anthony Norris Groves[184]
Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft[185][186]
Humanism Petrarch[187][188]
Islamic logic Al-Farabi[189]
Liberalism John Locke[190][191][192]

Baruch Spinoza[193]

American libertarianism Rose Wilder Lane[194]

Isabel Paterson[195]

Ayn Rand[195]

Lane: For "reigniting a passion for liberal ideas in her numerous columns alongside her masterwork, The Discovery of Freedom."[194]

Paterson: For "[opposing] most of the New Deal programs being instituted by Franklin D. Roosevelt[, advocating] for less government involvement in social and fiscal issues[, and going] on to write "The God of the Machine," a defense of individualism as the source of social and political progress.[195]

Rand: For claiming the "Libertarians as "plagiarists of [her] ideas.""[195]

Logical positivism Moritz Schlick[196]
Methodism John Wesley[197]
Moral philosophy Thomas Aquinas[56]
Objectivism Ayn Rand[198]
Positivism Clotilde de Vaux[199]
Protestantism (Lutheranism) Martin Luther[200]Katharina Zell[201] Zell: For her "prolific work [been considered] as some of the Reformation period’s exemplary writings."[201]
Religious tolerance Anne Hutchinson[202]
Scholasticism John Scotus Eriugena[203]

Lanfranc of Canterbury[203]
Anselm of Canterbury[203]
Peter Abelard[203]

Book: Sic et Non

Scholasticism (Protestant) Hugo Grotius[204]
Socialism Karl Marx[205]
Robert Owen[206]Christa Wolf[f][207]
Thomism Thomas Aquinas[56]
Transcendentalism Mary Moody Emerson[208]

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Margaret Fuller[209]

Anne Hutchinson[210]

Henry David Thoreau

Moody Emerson: for instilling in her nephew to "look within, reflect, but [to] do it with much reading, study."[208]

Fuller: For living "her entire life [with] courageous and intellectually brilliant forays into finding better answers, answers tempered by both triumphs and travails."[209]

Hutchinson: For being "a healer and a preacher of a gentle, optimistic religion of the heart...[which] culminated in a cultural revolt."[210]

Zionism Theodor Herzl[211]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Referred to as the "Godmother".
  2. ^ Referred to as the "Queen Mother".
  3. ^ Referred to as the "Queen Mother".
  4. ^ Referred to as the "Den Mother".
  5. ^ Referred to as the "Jewish Mother".
  6. ^ Referred to "as a kind of "supermother"."

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kenney, Nancy (October 18, 2018). "Hilma af Klint, the 'mother of abstraction', gets first major US show". The Art Newspaper. ISSN 0960-6556. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Lotte Reiniger, the mother of animation". Design is fine. History is mine. Archived from the original on June 18, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Ballard, Joel (November 17, 2018). "The women of Disney: author aims to highlight female animators' contributions". CBC News. Archived from the original on July 29, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  4. ^ Reporting by Linda Sieg (March 27, 2008). "Japan finds films by early "anime" pioneers". reuters.com. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  5. ^ Wills, Matthew (March 13, 2019). "Hollywood Froze Out the Founding Mother of Cinema". JSTOR. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  6. ^ a b Fernandez, Toniann (December 7, 2018). "The Forgotten Mother of Cinema". The Paris Review. ISSN 0031-2037. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  7. ^ a b "The life and times of Beatrice Wood, mother of Dadaism and female extraordinaire". Janes Street Clayworks. June 15, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Fabulous! Portraits by Michele Mattei: Beatrice Wood". National Museum of Women in the Arts. October 12, 2012. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abildgaard, Nikolaj Abraham" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 63.
  10. ^ a b "Gabrielle Coco Chanel – Mother of Fashion". PRVNNC. April 2, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  11. ^ a b Darcella, Aria; Galopin, Benjamin (May 7, 2019). "CR Muse: Jeanne Lanvin, Mother of Fashion". CR Fashion Book. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Vivienne Westwood: Disgracefully yours, the Queen Mother of Fashion". The Independent. June 2, 2002. ISSN 0951-9467. Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  13. ^ Williams, Rob (April 21, 2013). "Google Doodle honours Sir Norman Parkinson - one of Britain's most celebrated portrait and fashion photographers". The Independent. London.
  14. ^ a b Reid, Deborah (August 12, 2016). "A Name You Should Know: Eugénie Brazier". Eater. Vox Media. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  15. ^ a b McCafferty, Hugo (March 8, 2019). "Remembering the 'Mother of French Cooking' Eugénie Brazier". Fine Dining Lovers. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Robinson, Matthew (March 29, 2019). "Agnès Varda, mother of French New Wave cinema, dead aged 90". CNN. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  17. ^ Rose, Michael S. (2004). In Tiers of Glory: The Organic Development of Catholic Church Architecture. Mesa Folio Editions. p. 60. ISBN 0-9676371-2-0. One name, however, is well known to art historians: Abbot Suger, who is credited as being the father of Gothic architecture.
  18. ^ a b "Mother Of Harlem Renaissance". Viral9. March 6, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  19. ^ Patten, Fred (2004). Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. Stone Bridge Press. p. 198. ISBN 1-880656-92-2.
  20. ^ http://webexhibits.org/hockneyoptics/post/stork8.html . "that van Eyck—"the father of oil painting"—exploited the new medium and his own patient talent to paint Arnolfini by traditional methods."
  21. ^ Horan, James D. (December 12, 1988). Mathew Brady: Historian With a Camera. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-517-00104-7.
  22. ^ The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/british-artist-richard-hamilton-the-father-of-pop-art-dies-at-age-89/2011/09/13/gIQAMa9ZPK_story.html. {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  23. ^ a b Solís Escudero, Yaira (November 13, 2016). "Muere el padre de la nueva cocina puertorriqueña: Alfredo Ayala" [The father of the new Puerto Rican cuisine dies: Alfredo Ayala]. El Vocero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  24. ^ a b Santiago Túa, Lynet (March 20, 2019). "Celebran herencia culinaria de un gigante de la cocina puertorriqueña" [Celebrating Culinary Heritage of a Giant of Puerto Rican cuisine]. Metro PR (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  25. ^ "Commemorative Plaques Record Details". City of Aberdeen. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  26. ^ a b Rotolo, Tia (November 1, 2019). "The Unlikely Godmother of Spanish Cooking". TASTE Cooking. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  27. ^ a b "The Mother of Spanish Cuisine". Doc Land. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  28. ^ "Dorothea Tanning: The Mother of Surrealism". Barnebys. July 2, 2017. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  29. ^ "Unsung innovators: Gary Thuerk, the father of spam". December 3, 2007.
  30. ^ "Father of Spam Speaks Out on His Legacy - www.esecurityplanet.com". www.esecurityplanet.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2009.
  31. ^ At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr
  32. ^ a b "Afghanistan's 'mother of education' shares her vision". Radio New Zealand. December 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  33. ^ a b Sarvi, Adrienne (May 2, 2018). "Mayesville remembers the 'mother of education'". The Sumter Item. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  34. ^ Carleton, David (2009). "Horace Mann". The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Middle Tennessee State University. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  35. ^ a b "Mother Mary Lange Catholic School - Opening September 2021". Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  36. ^ Swift, Tim (October 22, 2019). "How Mother Mary Lange Catholic School got its name". The Catholic Review. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  37. ^ a b c Freijo, María Florencia (January 29, 2021). "La mala educación de las mujeres" [The bad education of women]. Rebelion.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original on February 5, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  38. ^ a b Cambronero Arguedas, Javier Francisco (April 8, 2020). "Tio Conejo: tan corrongo y pochotón" [Uncle Rabbit: so cute and pochotón]. Delfino.cr (in Spanish). Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  39. ^ a b Castillo, John Henry (October 20, 2009). "Salomé Ureña: madre de la educación en el país". Listín Diario. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  40. ^ a b Hirotsugu, Aida (February 3, 2009). "Romania's Japan education 'mother' going strong". The Japan Times. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  41. ^ a b Abrahams, Yvette (July 4, 2018). "Tribute to 'Mother of Education'". The Namibian. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  42. ^ a b "Unidad I Enfoques Actuales de la Educación Inicial" [Unit I Current Approaches to Early Childhood Education]. Módulo de pedagogía infantil [Children's pedagogy module] (PDF) (in Spanish). Managua: Ministerio de Educación de la República de Nicaragua. 2018. pp. 27–28. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2019.
  43. ^ "Historia de la educación, condensada en un libro" [History of education, condensed in a book]. ABC Color (in Spanish). May 15, 2011. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  44. ^ "Rosa Peña de González, laboriosa educadora paraguaya, fallecía un día como hoy" [Rosa Peña de González, a hardworking Paraguayan educator, passed away on a day like today]. Radio 1000 AM (in Spanish). March 8, 2016. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  45. ^ a b Barcia, Tato (October 11, 2019). "Emilia Barcia Bonifatti: Maestra revolucionaria de la educación inicial en Perú" [Emilia Barcia Boniffatti: Revolutionary teacher of initial education in Peru]. Diario Pro & Contra (in Spanish). Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  46. ^ "Our Mutual Commitments to Culebra" (PDF). Congressional Record. United States Congress. January 30, 1973. p. 2566. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  47. ^ a b Arroyo Pizarro, Yolanda (January 28, 2019). "Celestina Cordero: una maestra negra puertorriqueña en la época de la esclavitud" [Celestina Cordero: a Puerto Rican black teacher in the days of slavery]. Afroféminas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  48. ^ Méndez Panedas, Rosario (February 21, 2019). "Celestina Cordero: A Black Puerto Rican Educator During the Era of Slavery". Center for Puerto Rican Studies. City University of New York. Archived from the original on March 23, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  49. ^ Alberti Cayro, Silvia María (November 18, 2020). "A 230 años de su nacimiento: ¿Quién fue el Maestro Rafael Cordero Molina?" [230 Years After His Birth: Who was Maestro Rafael Cordero Molina?]. El Adoquín Times (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  50. ^ "Queen Effat Legacy". Effat University. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  51. ^ a b Green, Laura (April 13, 2013). "Lee was city's mother of public education". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Gannett. ISSN 2641-4503. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  52. ^ a b ""Myrtilla Miner: Celebrating a Legacy of Excellence in Education"". University of the District of Columbia. November 18, 2016. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  53. ^ a b "The Cape's mother of education". Mail & Guardian. May 26, 2000. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  54. ^ "One Of The Fathers Of Black History Was Afro-Puerto Rican". NPR. June 30, 2017. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  55. ^ "Pocahontas". www.powhatanmuseum.com.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers.
  57. ^ S. Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-356-9.
  58. ^ Cicero, De legibus I,5.
  59. ^ Garfield, E. (2003). "The life and career of George Sarton: the father of the history of science". J Hist Behav Sci. 21 (2): 107–117. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(198504)21:2<107::aid-jhbs2300210202>3.0.co;2-k. PMID 11608761.
  60. ^ James Hankins (ed.). History of the Florentine People, See "Editor Introduction".
  61. ^ Dr; Akhtar, S. W. (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge". Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture. 12: 3.
  62. ^ Bragdon (1967), Woodrow Wilson: The Academic Years
  63. ^ Cancel, Mario R. "San Germán en la historia nacional puertorriqueña: una aproximación teórica" [San Germán in Puerto Rican National History: A Theoretical Approach]. Oocities.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  64. ^ a b Cancel Sepúlveda, Mario R. "La política en la historiografíapuertorriqueña del siglo XIX: entre integristas y separatistas: la biografía laudatoria y el fenómeno Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (Segunda parte)" [Politics in 19th century Puerto Rican historiography: between fundamentalists and separatists: the laudatory biography and the Alejandro Tapia y Rivera phenomenon (Part Two)]. Issuu (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  65. ^ Rosario Lozada, Miguel Ángel (2017). "La idea del progreso y la modernidad: Breve Análisis Historiográfico" [The idea of progress and modernity: Brief Historiographic Analysis]. Puerto Rico: una nueva mirada a su historia: Colección de ensayos [Puerto Rico: a new look at its history: Collection of essays] (in Spanish). Lulu.com. p. 31. ISBN 9781326934293.
  66. ^ http://jimfisher.edinboro.edu/forensics/bertillon1.html[dead link]
  67. ^ FFS, Ed German, CLPE. "The History of Fingerprints". onin.com. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
  68. ^ a b "Flora Nwapa: Mother of modern African literature". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  69. ^ Nichols, Amber M. Richard M. Dorson Archived 2008-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. Minnesota State University, Mankato eMuseum. URL accessed April 21, 2006.
  70. ^ William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature". Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd.
  71. ^ a b Williams, Misty (August 3, 2009). "Textual Editing Project of Trials of the Human Heart by Susanna Haswell Rowson". Docsity. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  72. ^ a b Weingarten, Jeffrey Aaron (2019). Sharing the Past: The Reinvention of History in Canadian Poetry since 1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 274. ISBN 9781487501044.
  73. ^ a b Maracle, Lee (2009). "Toward a National Literature: "A Body of Writing"". In Depasquale, Paul; Eigenbrod, Renate; Larocque, Emma (eds.). Across Cultures / Across Borders: Canadian Aboriginal and Native American Literatures. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781770480162.
  74. ^ a b "Margaret Atwood: A Word after a Word after a Word is Power. The Handmaid's Tale Season 4". Eat Sleep Pop. April 30, 2021. Archived from the original on June 18, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  75. ^ a b Meyer, Roy W. (Spring 1989). "Review of A Ruth Suckow Omnibus by Ruth Suckow". Western American Literature. The Western Literature Association. 24 (1): 77. doi:10.1353/wal.1989.0123. S2CID 165953320. Archived from the original on June 2, 2018 – via Project MUSE.
  76. ^ a b Edgar, Pelham. "Canadian Poetry Critical Introduction". In Ward, Thomas Humphry (ed.). The English poets. Vol. V. New York City: Macmillan Publishers. p. 581.
  77. ^ a b "Territory of Dawn". Creative Writing Program. Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  78. ^ "Eunice Odio". Asheville Poetry Review. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  79. ^ a b "Geoffrey Chaucer". www.middle-ages.org.uk.
  80. ^ a b O'Connor, Kate. "Frances Burney: the "Mother of English Fiction"". Great Writers Inspire. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  81. ^ a b Mondello, Bob (November 29, 2019). "Holiday Movie Preview: What's Coming To Theaters Before The End Of The Year". NPR. Archived from the original on March 5, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  82. ^ A Great Man of Finland's History, at "Agricola 2007 Anniversary" Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback Machine site (in Finnish) of University of Turku, Finland
  83. ^ Grammar Development Process Archived 2007-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. Xambala: The Semantic Processing Company.
  84. ^ a b "Simple Takes a Wife". Bauman Rare Books. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  85. ^ a b "The Overshadowed Life of Jessie Fauset". KnightLab. Northwestern University. Archived from the original on June 18, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  86. ^ a b Sabir, Wanda (June 18, 2007). "Women of the Harlem Renaissance. – book reviews". Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  87. ^ "Rediscovering an American Playwright". Wise Guide. Library of Congress. January 2004. January 2004. Archived from the original on January 22, 2020.
  88. ^ "Eliezer Ben Yehuda." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Retrieved July 04, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404700591.html
  89. ^ a b "How A Teenage Girl Became the Mother of Horror". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. October 26, 2017. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  90. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/151164/Dante Encyclopædia Britannica
  91. ^ Regimes of Comparatis edited by Renaud Gagné, Simon Goldhill, Geoffrey Lloyd
  92. ^ Mark Brasher, PhD. Different language / different epistemology?, TransPacific Hawaii College.
  93. ^ "An outline of the history of linguistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  94. ^ "Example Research: Ferdinand de Saussure - All About Linguistics - original". sites.google.com.
  95. ^ Thomas Tymoczko, Jim Henle, James M. Henle Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic, Birkhäuser, 2000, p. 101
  96. ^ Fox, Margalit (December 5, 1998). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2007. … Noam Chomsky, father of modern linguistics and the field's most influential practitioner; …
  97. ^ Mitchell, Christopher. "J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature". "Let There Be Light" series. University of California Television. Archived from the original (Google Video) on July 28, 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2006. {{cite web}}: External link in |publisher= (help)
  98. ^ a b "Modernist Literature Guide: Understanding Literary Modernism". MasterClass. April 16, 2021. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  99. ^ Homer (1999) [700 B.C.]. The Odyssey: The Story of Odysseus. Signet Classic. ISBN 0-451-52736-4. p. 1, introduction says T. E. Lawrence and W. H. D. Rouse (the translator) "found him the father of the modern novel."
  100. ^ Donahue, Joe (February 21, 2019). "The Creative Life: Esmeralda Santiago". WAMC. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  101. ^ "The Creative Life Series: Esmeralda Santiago". NYS Writers Institute. University at Albany, SUNY. Archived from the original on March 22, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  102. ^ "Casa Dra. Concha Meléndez Ramírez San Juan, Puerto Rico". National Park Service. Archived from the original on April 2, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  103. ^ Valentín González, Harry (January 16, 2015). Celebración de la Fiesta de la Lengua en Homenaje a Alejandro Tapia y Rivera [Celebration of the Language Festival in Tribute to Alejandro Tapia y Rivera] (PDF) (in Spanish). San Juan, Puerto Rico: Puerto Rico Department of Education. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2021.
  104. ^ Loadholt, Tre L. (February 20, 2020). "Black Firsts: Octavia Butler". Medium. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  105. ^ Baker, Jeff (February 27, 2010). "Northwest Writers at Work: Ursula K. Le Guin is 80 and taking on Google". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  106. ^ Roberts, Adam (2006). The History of Science Fiction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-97022-5., p. 27: "The classical author most consistently cited as a 'father of science fiction' is Lucian..."
  107. ^ a b Adam Charles Roberts (2000), "The History of Science Fiction": Page 48 in Science Fiction, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19204-8
  108. ^ a b Magic Dragon Multimedia. Timeline of 19th Century Science Fiction.
  109. ^ Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 0-89370-174-2.
  110. ^ "Spanish Language Facts". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  111. ^ López-Guitián, Antonio (September 22, 2017). "España enloquecida" [Crazed Spain]. Gurb (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  112. ^ a b Horowicz, Alejandro; Katz, Alejandro (December 26, 2016). "Homenaje a Miguel de Cervantes, padre de la literatura española" [Tribute to Miguel de Cervantes, father of Spanish literature]. LRA Radio Nacional (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  113. ^ a b Prádanos, Arantza (May 3, 2010). "Exploradores S. A." [Explorers, Inc.]. El Diario Montañés (in Spanish). Grupo Vocento. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  114. ^ http://www.pakpost.gov.pk/philately/stamps2004/maulvi_abdul_haq.html Archived 2008-05-08 at the Wayback Machine: "(Baba-e-Urdu) Maulvi Abdul Haq"
  115. ^ a b Castro, Laleska (January 3, 2018). "Comentario sobre "Cansancio" de José Antonio Ramos Sucre" [Comment on "Cansancio" by José Antonio Ramos Sucre]. Steemit (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  116. ^ a b c "Mary Beth Beazley: 2017 Marjorie Rombauer Award". Association of Legal Writing Directors. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  117. ^ a b "Marjorie Rombauer, the "Founding Mother" of the Field of Legal Writing Education, has Died". Legal Writing Prof Blog. Typepad. September 26, 2016. Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  118. ^ (in German) Munich's official internet site, Straßenneubenennung Kurt-Haertel-Passage. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  119. ^ (in German) Web site of the Kurt-Haertel-Institut für geistiges Eigentum an der FernUniversität in Hagen, Kurt Haertel Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  120. ^ Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, pp. 5–6. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  121. ^ Rothbard, Murray N. (2006). Economic thought before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought (PDF). Cheltnam, UK: Edward Elgar. p. 499. ISBN 0-945466-48-X.
  122. ^ "Who's the Father of the Constitution?". The LOC.GOV Wise Guide. Library of Congress. May 2005. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  123. ^ "The Federalist - Contents". Constitution Society. 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  124. ^ The Lyrics And Legacy Of Stephen Foster, National Public Radio, April 16, 2010.
  125. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  126. ^ Lieb, Sandra R. (1983). Mother of the Blues. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-8050-7459-7., p. 10, "Years later, as a Paramount recording star, Ma Rainey would be touted as 'the Mother of the Blues,' a title no doubt dreamed up by some press agent, but generally true in historical terms."
  127. ^ "Country Music Hall of Fame article on Monroe". Archived from the original on January 4, 2007.
  128. ^ "McKinley Morganfield a/k/a "Muddy Waters" was the 'Father of Chicago Blues'", "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  129. ^ "Rapkin, Mickey. "Pitch Perfect: The Quest for Collegiate A Cappella Glory", Gotham Books, 2008". Pitchperfect-thebook.com. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  130. ^ http://insidemovies.ew.com/2012/09/20/pitch-perfect-bruno-mars-nelly-song/. {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  131. ^ "the official Jimmie Rodgers website". Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
  132. ^ Father of Country Music - Amazon.com (record)
  133. ^ Jimmie Rodgers: The Father of Country Music Archived 2008-01-13 at the Wayback Machine - Mississippi History Now
  134. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Death". Allmusic. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  135. ^ Metal Rules Interview with Chuck Schuldiner
  136. ^ "The Best Of NAMM 2008: Jimmy Page, Satriani Models Among The Highlights". www.ultimate-guitar.com.
  137. ^ "The entrepreneur Mel Cheren, nicknamed "the Godfather of disco", played a crucial role in the evolution of dance music." Pierre Perrone (January 11, 2008). "Mel Cheren: 'Godfather of disco'". The Independent. London. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  138. ^ Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". allmusic. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  139. ^ Johnson, Jeff. (2001). "Godfather of Funk still tears the roof off", Chicago Sun-Time, 01 July.
  140. ^ Thomas A. Dorsey: From "Barrelhouse Tommy" to the Father of Gospel Music. Honky Tonks, Hymns & The Blues. Retrieved on 2009-03-28.
  141. ^ Gill, Andy (August 16, 2002). "Album: Peter Murphy". The Independent. London: Independent News & Media. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  142. ^ Theiner, Manny (June 19, 2008). "Music Preview: Bauhaus frontman Peter Murphy tours with solo retrospective". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG Publishing Co. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  143. ^ "Neil Young Godfather of Grunge". www.thrasherswheat.org.
  144. ^ Gabriella (June 2008). "Ozzy Osbourne: The Godfather of Metal". NY ROCK. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  145. ^ Tony Iommi: The Eternal Idol - http://www.guitarworld.com/tony-iommi-eternal-idol
  146. ^ Dave Noonan (February 18, 2006). "ES#2 with Ellen Allien & Alexander Robotnick, Dublin". Resident Advisor. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  147. ^ Chiu, David (December 29, 2004). "Critics' Top Ten Lists". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 4, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  148. ^ Koster, Rick (2002). Louisiana Music: A Journey from R&B to Zydeco, Jazz to Country, Blues to Gospel, Cajun Music. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81003-4., p. 5: "Anyone seriously interested in the history of music will hear many times that Buddy Bolden was the father of jazz, or that Jelly Roll Morton claimed he was the father of jazz (in 1902, in fact)..." See also Theodore August Metz, Jelly Roll Morton
  149. ^ Groppa, Carlos C. (2002). The Tango in the United States: A History. McFarland and Company. ISBN 0-7864-1406-5., p.62: "Morton, a pool shark, composer, piano player and part-time pimp, called by many the Father of Jazz...". See also Buddy Bolden, Theodore August Metz.
  150. ^ "Theatrical Notes," The New York Times, April 26, 1932, p.25: "Theodore August Metz, who is often called the father of jazz and is the composer of the song 'There'll Be A Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight,' is scheduled to attend a reception backstage at Loew's State Theatre...'" See also Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton.
  151. ^ Pareles, Jon (1983): "Earl Hines Dead; Top Jazz Pianist—Redefined the Style in the 1920s Working with Armstrong—Later Led Major Band", The New York Times, April 23, 1983, p.10: "Earl (Fatha) Hines, the father of modern jazz piano, died yesterday in Oakland, Calif. after a heart attack."
  152. ^ Rúa de Mauret, Milton (May 8, 2021). "Manuel Gregorio Tavárez: El Padre de la Danza Puertorriqueña" [Manuel Gregorio Tavárez: The Father of Puerto Rican Dance]. El Adoquín Times (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  153. ^ Mattos Pardo, María Alejandra (2014). "3.1.2.2. La edición 1612. Aparición de Seva" [3.1.2.2. The 1612 edition. Appearance of Seva]. Puerto Rico y su sueño heróico: estudio de la recepción del cuento Seva, de Luis López Nieves [Puerto Rico and its heroic dream: study of the reception of the story Seva, by Luis López Nieves] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá: Pontifical Xavierian University. pp. 81–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2021.
  154. ^ Lewis, Randy (March 12, 2015). "After 'Blurred Lines' verdict, Brian Wilson talks Chuck Berry and 'Surfin' U.S.A.'". Los Angeles Times.
  155. ^ Gunde, Richard. [2002] (2002) Culture and Customs of China. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30876-4
  156. ^ Godfather of Soul Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine - website
  157. ^ Larsen, Jens Peter; Georg Fede (1950). The New Grove Haydn. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30359-4. p.79: "For years, the name 'Papa Haydn' has characterized the composer."
  158. ^ Schonberg, Harold C. (1997). The Lives of the Great Composers by Schonberg, Harold C. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03857-2. p.83: "It is not for nothing that he is called the Father of the Symphony. With equal justice he could be called the Father of the String Quartet, or the Father of Sonata Form."
  159. ^
  160. ^ Concepts, Lucid Design. "Megadeth". Megadeth.
  161. ^ Revista FyA Informa 6toB. Calaméo. 2014. p. 11.
  162. ^ Villasmil, Henry (April 28, 2017). "Regionales: Barbosa Lima, Colina y Quintero tocaron el corazón de los zulianos" [Regionals: Barbosa Lima, Colina and Quintero touched the hearts of the Zulianos]. Digital 85 (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  163. ^ Avello, Ramón (May 22, 2008). "El sueño de Abreu" [Abreu's Dream]. El Comercio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  164. ^ "CD Baby Music Store". store.cdbaby.com.
  165. ^ "The History of Voguing - Tributes to Willi Ninja". UKBlackout.com. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  166. ^ "Willi Ninja, godfather of 'voguing,' dies at 45". MSN.com. September 7, 2008. Archived from the original on September 22, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  167. ^ "Why Michelle Malkin Is Den Mother of the Alt-Right Dipsh*ts". The Daily Beast. May 19, 2020. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  168. ^ Masters, Anthony (1974). Bakunin, the Father of Anarchism. Saturday Review Press. ISBN 0-8415-0295-1.
  169. ^ Gornick, Vivian; Johnson, David V. (October 17, 2011). "What Would Emma Do?". Boston Review. MIT Press. ISSN 0734-2306. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  170. ^ Guerin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  171. ^ Heyward, Carter (January 1, 1998). "Commentary: Religious right targeting "bad" women". Religion News Service. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  172. ^ Hanna, Trevena Adeeb Eskandar (2020). "The Power of Coptic Women Saints: Historical and Analytical Study of Coptic Women Saints as Spiritual Models for Coptic Women in the USA and Egypt". CGU Theses & Dissertations. Claremont Colleges. 194: 39. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021.
  173. ^ Raman, P. (November 16, 1999). "UP's long shadow on BJP". The Tribune. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  174. ^ Wozniak, R. H. (1997). "Behaviorism," In Bringmann, W.G., Luck, H.E., Miller, R., & Early, C.E. (Eds.). A Pictorial History of Psychology. Chicago: Quintessence. "To later generations of psychologists... Watson would become known as the 'father of behaviorism'."
  175. ^ Schmetzer, Uli (May 17, 1994). "Wei Jingsheng, the father of China's democracy..." Chicago Tribune. ISSN 2165-171X. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  176. ^ Ibn Hazm. The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love (Preface). Trans. A. J. Arberry. Luzac Oriental, 1997 ISBN 1-898942-02-1
  177. ^ F. P. Lock, Edmund Burke. Volume II: 1784–1797 (Clarendon Press, 2006), p. 585.
  178. ^ a b Rothbard, p 20
  179. ^ http://cloudchronicler.net/2010/06/21/xenophanes-father-of-epistemology/[dead link]
  180. ^ O'Brien, Wendy; Embree, Lester (2013). "Simone De Beauvoir & Existential Phenomenology: A Bibliography" (PDF). The Existential Phenomenology of Simone de Beauvoir. Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media. p. 242. ISBN 9789401597531.
  181. ^ Bretall, Robert Ed. A Kierkegaard Anthology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973. p. xviii.
  182. ^ a b Mane, Saviona (July 5, 2006). "The Jewish Mother of Fascism". Haaretz. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  183. ^ Canavan, Emily (July 11, 2018). "How I Became A Jewish Mother of Fascism (Show Preview)". DC Metro Theater Arts. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  184. ^ Dann, Robert Bernard (2004). Father of Faith Missions: The Life and Times of Anthony Norris Groves. Paternoster, Authentic Media. ISBN 1-884543-90-1.
  185. ^ Wozniak, Jone Johnson Lewis "Women's History Guide."
  186. ^ Cork Multitext Project, The History Department, University College Cork Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine "Movements for Political & Social Reform, 1870–1914."
  187. ^ "Evolution of the Medieval Book". rmc.library.cornell.edu.
  188. ^ Quillen, Carol E. (1998). Rereading the Renaissance. ISBN 9780472107353 – via www.press.umich.edu.
  189. ^ "Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 7, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  190. ^ Hirschmann, Nancy J., Gender, Class, and Freedom in Modern Political Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009. p. 79
  191. ^ Sharma, Urmila & Sharma, S.K., Western Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, Washington, 2006, p. 440
  192. ^ Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, A History of Political Philosophy: From Thucydides to Locke, Global Scholarly Publications, New York, 2010, p. 291
  193. ^ Fradkin, Hillel (2002). "The "Separation" of Religion and Politics: The Paradoxes of Spinoza". The Review of Politics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame. 64 (4): 605. doi:10.1017/s0034670500041978.
  194. ^ a b "The Mother of Libertarianism: Rose Wilder Lane". Libertarianism.org. December 3, 2020. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  195. ^ a b c d Pietrucha, Audrey (March 28, 2010). "Remembering the ladies". Bennington Banner. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  196. ^ Murzi, Mauro (2006). The Philosophy of Logical Positivism. Page 26. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
  197. ^ General Board of Discipleship of the United Methodist Church, A List of Books and Other Resources About John Wesley [1], "John Wesley, the Father of Methodism..."
  198. ^ Khazan, Olga (June 13, 2015). "Ayn Rand: In Love, Be Selfish". The Atlantic. ISSN 2151-9463. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  199. ^ Sarton, George (March 1940). "Hoefer and Chevereul (With an Excursus on Creative Centenarians)". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins University Press. 8 (3): 419–445. ISSN 0007-5140. JSTOR 44440524 – via JSTOR.
  200. ^ Losch, Richard R. (2002). The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-0521-3., p. 93: "Martin Luther (1483–1546) is generally identified as the father of Protestantism. While he was not the first to confront the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, it was he who crystallized the growing unrest and began what is known as the Protestant Reformation."
  201. ^ a b Wiltshire, Michael (March 18, 2015). "More Than Footnotes Part 3: Women in The Reformation Era". The Junia Project. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  202. ^ Zilian, Fred (April 19, 2019). "Anne Hutchinson, Founding Mother of Religious Tolerance". Small State Big History. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  203. ^ a b c d Toman, Rolf (2007). The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. photography by Achim Bednorz. Tandem Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8331-4676-3. Abelard himself was… together with John Scotus Erigena (9th century), and Lanfranc and Anselm of Canterbury (both 11th century), one of the founders of scholasticism.
  204. ^ Rothbard, p 314
  205. ^ "Father of Socialism". Time. New York. May 13, 1929. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012.
  206. ^ "Father of Socialism". Time. New York. September 29, 1924. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008.
  207. ^ Frölich, Margrit (1998). "Thomas Brussig' Thomas Brussig's Satir s Satire of Contempor e of Contemporary History". GDR Bulletin. New Prairie Press. 25 (1 Spring): 28. doi:10.4148/gdrb.v25i0.1245. ISSN 2159-5941. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  208. ^ a b Francis, Charles (2011). "The Hammer of Mediocrity". Discover Maine Magazine. 8 (4): 21–23.
  209. ^ a b Weir, Zach (April 14, 2012). "Myriad lives of Margaret Fuller explored in new biography". The Post and Courier. ISSN 1061-5105. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  210. ^ a b Spark, Clare (September 29, 2009). "Anne Hutchinson's Red Regiment and the Cultural Historians, part two". The Clare Spark Blog. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  211. ^ "Binyamin Ze-ev (Theodor) Herzl - Father of Zionism". Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.