List of people considered a founder in a Humanities field

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Those known as the father, mother, or considered a founder in a Humanities field are those who have made important contributions to that field. In some fields several people are considered the founders, while in others the title of being the "father" is debatable. Some of the people who have humanity are given in REFERENCES.

Humanities fields[edit]


Subject Father / mother Reason
Anime Ōten Shimokawa
Jun'ichi Kōuchi
Seitaro Kitayama[1]
Danish painting Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard[2]
Modern fashion photography Norman Parkinson[3] For taking his models and photoshoots beyond the confines of the studio.
Gothic architecture Abbot Suger[4] Built the first Gothic church at the Abbey of St Dennis
Surrealism André Breton
Manga Osamu Tezuka[5]
Oil painting Jan van Eyck[6] For experimenting with the medium to remarkable effect
Photojournalism Mathew Brady[7]
Pop art Richard Hamilton[8]
Scottish country dancing Francis Peacock[9]
Stop-motion clay animation Art Clokey[citation needed]
Australian Studio pottery William Merric Boyd


Subject Father / mother Reason
Spam Gary Thuerk[10][11] Penned the first message that advertised the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[12]


Subject Father / mother Reason
American history Pocahontas[13]
Ecclesiastical history Eusebius of Caesarea[14] Because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church
French history André Duchesne[14]
Historiography Ibn Khaldun[15] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
History Herodotus[16]
The Histories
History of the Peloponnesian War
History of science George Sarton[17] Founded Isis (1912) and wrote Introduction to the History of Science (1927)
Modern history Leonardo Bruni[18]
Philosophy of history Ibn Khaldun[19] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
Public administration Woodrow Wilson[20] "The Study of Administration" in Political Science Quarterly, June 1887.


Subject Father / mother Reason
Criminal identification Alphonse Bertillon[21] Created a database for criminals
Fingerprinting Juan Vucetic[22]

Language and literature[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
American folklore Richard Dorson[23]
American literature Mark Twain[24]
English literature Geoffrey Chaucer[25]
English poetry Geoffrey Chaucer[14]
Epic poetry Homer[14]
Finnish written language Mikael Agricola[26]
German literature Gotthold Ephraim Lessing[14]
Grammar Pāṇini[27] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Greek tragedy Aeschylus[14]
Modern Hebrew language Eliezer Ben Yehuda[28]
Italian language Dante Alighieri[29]
Italian literature Dante Alighieri[29]
Indology Al-Biruni[30]
Letters (messages) Francis I of France[14]
Linguistics (early) Pāṇini[31] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Linguistics (modern)

Ferdinand de Saussure[32][33]
Noam Chomsky[34][35]

Modern fantasy literature J. R. R. Tolkien[36]
Novel Homer[37]
Science fiction Mary Shelley

Lucian of Samosata[38]

Jules Verne[39][40]

H. G. Wells[39][40]

Science fiction magazine Hugo Gernsback[41]
Spanish language Antonio de Nebrija[42]
Urdu Maulvi Abdul Haq[43]


Subject Father / mother Reason
Civil law Justinian I
European patent law Kurt Haertel[44][45]
International law Alberico Gentili[46]
Francisco de Vitoria
Hugo Grotius
For speculating on human rights and the proper relations that ought to exist between nations
Russian jurisprudence Semyon Efimovich Desnitsky[47] Russian social and political theorist (18th century)
United States Constitution James Madison[48] He played a large role in its drafting and ratification. One of the authors of The Federalist.[49] Also drafter of the Bill of Rights.


Subject Father / mother Reason
American music Stephen Foster[50] Recognized internationally for his compositions which are still being performed in various venues. His most notable works include Oh Susanna, Camptown Races and Old Folks at Home.
American piano manufacture Jonas Chickering[51]
Blues Ma Rainey[52]
Bluegrass music Bill Monroe[53]
Chicago blues / electric blues Muddy Waters[54]
Contemporary a cappella Deke Sharon[55][56]
Country music Jimmie Rodgers[57][58][59]
Death metal Chuck Schuldiner[60][61][62]
Disco Mel Cheren (Godfather)[63]
Giorgio Moroder[64]
English cathedral music Thomas Tallis[14]
Funk George Clinton ("Godfather")[65]
Gospel music Thomas A. Dorsey[66]
Gothic rock Peter Murphy ("Godfather")[67][68]
G-Funk Dr. Dre[citation needed]
Greek music Terpander[14]
Grunge Neil Young[69]
Heavy metal Ozzy Osbourne/Tony Iommi[70][71] Both are also known as "godfathers of heavy metal".
Italo disco Alexander Robotnick (Godfather)[72]
Punk rock Patti Smith (godmother)[73]
Jazz Buddy Bolden[74]
Jelly Roll Morton[75]
Theodore August Metz[76]
Modern jazz piano Earl "Fatha" Hines[77]
Reggae Frederick "Toots" Hibbert[citation needed]
Rock and roll Chuck Berry[78]
Rock music in China Cui Jian[79]
Soul music James Brown (godfather)[80]
Symphony and string quartet Joseph Haydn[81][82][83]
Thrash metal James Hetfield[84]

Performance art[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Kabuki Izumo no Okuni
Vogue Willi Ninja[85] Godfather[86][87]

Philosophy and religion[edit]

Subject Father / mother Reason
Anarchism Mikhail Bakunin[88]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon[89]

Behaviorism John B. Watson[90]
Comparative religion Al-Biruni and Ibn Hazm[91]
Conservatism Edmund Burke[92]
Cynicism (school of thought) Diogenes of Sinope[93]
Epicureanism Epicurus[93]
Epistemology Xenophanes[94]
Existentialism Søren Kierkegaard[95]
Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft[96][97]
Faith missions Anthony Norris Groves[98]
Humanism Petrarch[99][100]
Islamic logic Al-Farabi[101]
Liberalism John Locke[102][103][104]

Baruch Spinoza[105]

Logical positivism Moritz Schlick[106]
Methodism John Wesley[107]
Moral philosophy Thomas Aquinas[14]
Protestantism (Lutheranism) Martin Luther[108]
Scholasticism John Scotus Eriugena[109]

Lanfranc of Canterbury[109]
Anselm of Canterbury[109]
Peter Abelard[109]

Book: Sic et Non

Scholasticism (Protestant) Hugo Grotius[110]
Socialism Karl Marx[111]
Robert Owen[112]
Thomism Thomas Aquinas[14]
Zionism Theodor Herzl[113]


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  2. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abildgaard, Nikolaj Abraham" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 63.
  3. ^ Williams, Rob (2013-04-21). "Google Doodle honours Sir Norman Parkinson - one of Britain's most celebrated portrait and fashion photographers". The Independent. London.
  4. ^ Rose, Michael S. (2004). In Tiers of Glory: The Organic Development of Catholic Church Architecture. Mesa Folio Editions. p. 60. ISBN 0-9676371-2-0. One name, however, is well known to art historians: Abbot Suger, who is credited as being the father of Gothic architecture.
  5. ^ Patten, Fred (2004). Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. Stone Bridge Press. p. 198. ISBN 1-880656-92-2.
  6. ^ [1]. "that van Eyck—"the father of oil painting"—exploited the new medium and his own patient talent to paint Arnolfini by traditional methods."
  7. ^ Horan, James D. (1988-12-12). Mathew Brady: Historian With a Camera. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-517-00104-7.
  8. ^ The Washington Post Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  9. ^ "Commemorative Plaques Record Details". City of Aberdeen. Archived from the original on 2015-04-19. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  10. ^
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  12. ^ At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers.
  15. ^ S. Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-356-9.
  16. ^ Cicero, De legibus I,5.
  17. ^ Garfield, E. (2003). "The life and career of George Sarton: the father of the history of science". J Hist Behav Sci. 21 (2): 107–117. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(198504)21:2<107::aid-jhbs2300210202>;2-k.
  18. ^ James Hankins (ed.). History of the Florentine People, See "Editor Introduction".
  19. ^ Dr; Akhtar, S. W. (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge". Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture. 12: 3.
  20. ^ Bragdon (1967), Woodrow Wilson: The Academic Years
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  22. ^ FFS, Ed German, CLPE. "The History of Fingerprints". Retrieved 2016-10-13.
  23. ^ Nichols, Amber M. Richard M. Dorson Archived 2008-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. Minnesota State University, Mankato eMuseum. URL accessed April 21, 2006.
  24. ^ William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature". Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd.
  25. ^ Geoffrey Chaucer
  26. ^ A Great Man of Finland's History, at "Agricola 2007 Anniversary" Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback Machine site (in Finnish) of University of Turku, Finland
  27. ^ Grammar Development Process Archived 2007-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. Xambala: The Semantic Processing Company.
  28. ^ "Eliezer Ben Yehuda." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Retrieved July 04, 2010 from
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  30. ^ Regimes of Comparatis edited by Renaud Gagné, Simon Goldhill, Geoffrey Lloyd
  31. ^ Mark Brasher, PhD. Different language / different epistemology?, TransPacific Hawaii College.
  32. ^ "An outline of the history of linguistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-11. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
  33. ^ Ferdinand de Saussure
  34. ^ Thomas Tymoczko, Jim Henle, James M. Henle Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic, Birkhäuser, 2000, p. 101
  35. ^ Fox, Margalit (1998-12-05). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-24. … Noam Chomsky, father of modern linguistics and the field's most influential practitioner; …
  36. ^ Mitchell, Christopher. "J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature". "Let There Be Light" series. University of California Television. Archived from the original (Google Video) on 2006-07-28. Retrieved 2006-07-20. External link in |publisher= (help)
  37. ^ Homer (1999) [700 B.C.]. The Odyssey: The Story of Odysseus. Signet Classic. ISBN 0-451-52736-4. p. 1, introduction says T. E. Lawrence and W. H. D. Rouse (the translator) "found him the father of the modern novel."
  38. ^ Roberts, Adam (2006). The History of Science Fiction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-97022-5., p. 27: "The classical author most consistently cited as a 'father of science fiction' is Lucian..."
  39. ^ a b Adam Charles Roberts (2000), "The History of Science Fiction": Page 48 in Science Fiction, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19204-8
  40. ^ a b Magic Dragon Multimedia. Timeline of 19th Century Science Fiction.
  41. ^ Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 0-89370-174-2.
  42. ^ "Spanish Language Facts". Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  43. ^ [3] Archived 2008-05-08 at the Wayback Machine: "(Baba-e-Urdu) Maulvi Abdul Haq"
  44. ^ (in German) Munich's official internet site, Straßenneubenennung Kurt-Haertel-Passage. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  45. ^ (in German) Web site of the Kurt-Haertel-Institut für geistiges Eigentum an der FernUniversität in Hagen, Kurt Haertel Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  46. ^ Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, pp. 5–6. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  47. ^ Rothbard, Murray N. (2006). Economic thought before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought (PDF). Cheltnam, UK: Edward Elgar. p. 499. ISBN 0-945466-48-X.
  48. ^ "Who's the Father of the Constitution?". The LOC.GOV Wise Guide. Library of Congress. May 2005. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  49. ^ "The Federalist - Contents". Constitution Society. 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  50. ^ The Lyrics And Legacy Of Stephen Foster, National Public Radio, April 16, 2010.
  51. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-06-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  52. ^ Lieb, Sandra R. (1983). Mother of the Blues. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-8050-7459-7., p. 10, "Years later, as a Paramount recording star, Ma Rainey would be touted as 'the Mother of the Blues,' a title no doubt dreamed up by some press agent, but generally true in historical terms."
  53. ^ Country Music Hall of Fame article on Monroe. Archived 2007-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ "McKinley Morganfield a/k/a "Muddy Waters" was the 'Father of Chicago Blues'", "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2008-06-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  55. ^ "Rapkin, Mickey. "Pitch Perfect: The Quest for Collegiate A Cappella Glory", Gotham Books, 2008". Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  56. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
  57. ^ the official Jimmie Rodgers website Archived 2008-05-15 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Father of Country Music - (record)
  59. ^ Jimmie Rodgers: The Father of Country Music Archived 2008-01-13 at the Wayback Machine - Mississippi History Now
  60. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Death". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
  61. ^ Metal Rules Interview with Chuck Schuldiner
  62. ^ The Best Of NAMM 2008: Jimmy Page, Satriani Models Among The Highlights | News @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com
  63. ^ "The entrepreneur Mel Cheren, nicknamed "the Godfather of disco", played a crucial role in the evolution of dance music." Pierre Perrone (11 January 2008). "Mel Cheren: 'Godfather of disco'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  64. ^ Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". allmusic. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  65. ^ Johnson, Jeff. (2001). "Godfather of Funk still tears the roof off", Chicago Sun-Time, 01 July.
  66. ^ Thomas A. Dorsey: From "Barrelhouse Tommy" to the Father of Gospel Music. Honky Tonks, Hymns & The Blues. Retrieved on 2009-03-28.
  67. ^ Gill, Andy (2002-08-16). "Album: Peter Murphy". The Independent. London: Independent News & Media. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  68. ^ Theiner, Manny (2008-06-19). "Music Preview: Bauhaus frontman Peter Murphy tours with solo retrospective". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG Publishing Co. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  69. ^ Neil Young: Godfather of Grunge?
  70. ^ Gabriella (June 2008). "Ozzy Osbourne: The Godfather of Metal". NY ROCK. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
  71. ^ Tony Iommi: The Eternal Idol -
  72. ^ Dave Noonan (18 Feb 2006). "ES#2 with Ellen Allien & Alexander Robotnick, Dublin". Resident Advisor. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  73. ^ Chiu, David (2004-12-29). "Critics' Top Ten Lists". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  74. ^ Koster, Rick (2002). Louisiana Music: A Journey from R&B to Zydeco, Jazz to Country, Blues to Gospel, Cajun Music. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81003-4., p. 5: "Anyone seriously interested in the history of music will hear many times that Buddy Bolden was the father of jazz, or that Jelly Roll Morton claimed he was the father of jazz (in 1902, in fact)..." See also Theodore August Metz, Jelly Roll Morton
  75. ^ Groppa, Carlos C. (2002). The Tango in the United States: A History. McFarland and Company. ISBN 0-7864-1406-5., p.62: "Morton, a pool shark, composer, piano player and part-time pimp, called by many the Father of Jazz...". See also Buddy Bolden, Theodore August Metz.
  76. ^ "Theatrical Notes," The New York Times, April 26, 1932, p.25: "Theodore August Metz, who is often called the father of jazz and is the composer of the song 'There'll Be A Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight,' is scheduled to attend a reception backstage at Loew's State Theatre...'" See also Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton.
  77. ^ Pareles, Jon (1983): "Earl Hines Dead; Top Jazz Pianist—Redefined the Style in the 1920s Working with Armstrong—Later Led Major Band", The New York Times, April 23, 1983, p.10: "Earl (Fatha) Hines, the father of modern jazz piano, died yesterday in Oakland, Calif. after a heart attack."
  78. ^ Lewis, Randy (March 12, 2015). "After 'Blurred Lines' verdict, Brian Wilson talks Chuck Berry and 'Surfin' U.S.A.'". Los Angeles Times.
  79. ^ Gunde, Richard. [2002] (2002) Culture and Customs of China. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30876-4
  80. ^ Godfather of Soul Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine - website
  81. ^ Larsen, Jens Peter; Georg Fede (1950). The New Grove Haydn. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30359-4. p.79: "For years, the name 'Papa Haydn' has characterized the composer."
  82. ^ Schonberg, Harold C. (1997). The Lives of the Great Composers by Schonberg, Harold C. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03857-2. p.83: "It is not for nothing that he is called the Father of the Symphony. With equal justice he could be called the Father of the String Quartet, or the Father of Sonata Form."
  83. ^
  84. ^ "Megadeth".
  86. ^ "The History of Voguing - Tributes to Willi Ninja". Retrieved 2010-11-14.
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  88. ^ Masters, Anthony (1974). Bakunin, the Father of Anarchism. Saturday Review Press. ISBN 0-8415-0295-1.
  89. ^ Guerin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  90. ^ Wozniak, R. H. (1997). "Behaviorism," In Bringmann, W.G., Luck, H.E., Miller, R., & Early, C.E. (Eds.). A Pictorial History of Psychology. Chicago: Quintessence. "To later generations of psychologists... Watson would become known as the 'father of behaviorism'."
  91. ^ Ibn Hazm. The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love (Preface). Trans. A. J. Arberry. Luzac Oriental, 1997 ISBN 1-898942-02-1
  92. ^ F. P. Lock, Edmund Burke. Volume II: 1784–1797 (Clarendon Press, 2006), p. 585.
  93. ^ a b Rothbard, p 20
  94. ^
  95. ^ Bretall, Robert Ed. A Kierkegaard Anthology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973. p. xviii.
  96. ^ Wozniak, Jone Johnson Lewis "Women's History Guide."
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  98. ^ Dann, Robert Bernard (2004). Father of Faith Missions: The Life and Times of Anthony Norris Groves. Paternoster, Authentic Media. ISBN 1-884543-90-1.
  99. ^ Petrarch
  100. ^ Rereading the Renaissance: Petrarch, Augustine, and the Language of Humanism
  101. ^ "Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
  102. ^ Hirschmann, Nancy J., Gender, Class, and Freedom in Modern Political Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009. p. 79
  103. ^ Sharma, Urmila & Sharma, S.K., Western Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, Washington, 2006, p. 440
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  105. ^ Fradkin, Hillel (2002). "The "Separation" of Religion and Politics: The Paradoxes of Spinoza". The Review of Politics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame. 64 (4): 605. doi:10.1017/s0034670500041978.
  106. ^ Murzi, Mauro (2006). The Philosophy of Logical Positivism. Page 26. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
  107. ^ General Board of Discipleship of the United Methodist Church, A List of Books and Other Resources About John Wesley [4], "John Wesley, the Father of Methodism..."
  108. ^ Losch, Richard R. (2002). The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-0521-3., p. 93: "Martin Luther (1483–1546) is generally identified as the father of Protestantism. While he was not the first to confront the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, it was he who crystallized the growing unrest and began what is known as the Protestant Reformation."
  109. ^ a b c d Toman, Rolf (2007). The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. photography by Achim Bednorz. Tandem Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8331-4676-3. Abelard himself was… together with John Scotus Erigena (9th century), and Lanfranc and Anselm of Canterbury (both 11th century), one of the founders of scholasticism.
  110. ^ Rothbard, p 314
  111. ^ "Father of Socialism". Time. New York. May 13, 1929.
  112. ^ "Father of Socialism". Time. New York. September 29, 1924.
  113. ^ Binyamin Ze-ev (Theodor) Herzl - Father of Zionism