List of people considered father or mother of a field
The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western societies in a field, listed by category. In most non-science fields, the title of being the "father" is debatable.
|Cowboy sculpture||Frederic Remington||Created first bronze cowboy sculpture in 1895|
|3D gaming||Yu Suzuki
|Creator of Hang-On, Virtua Racing, Virtua Fighter and Shenmue |
Creator of Wolfenstein 3D and Doom
|Collectible Card Game||Richard Garfield||Creator of Magic:The Gathering|
|Miniature wargaming||H. G. Wells||Publication of Little Wars|
|Modern video game||Shigeru Miyamoto||Creator of Mario, Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, F-Zero, Pikmin, and Wii|
|Role-playing game||Gary Gygax||Creator of Dungeons & Dragons|
|Stealth game||Hideo Kojima||Creator of the Metal Gear stealth-action games|
|Video game||Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr.||Inventor of the first video game[dubious ]|
|Video game industry||Nolan Bushnell||Creator of Pong; founder of Atari and Chuck E. Cheese's|
|Wargaming||Charles S. Roberts||Designer of tactics|
|1:8 radio-controlled off-road buggy||Yuichi Kanai (godfather)||Kyosho's lead designer and lifelong employee; best known for the Inferno series of cars, credited for redefining the class from being unreliable and fragile to being tough and user friendlier that helped his employer to lead the 1/8 buggy renaissance from the 1990s, becoming one of the most dominant cars of all time.|
|American football||Walter Camp|
|American motocross||Edison Dye||Introduced motorcross to American riders|
|American road racing||Cameron Argetsinger||Introduced the first US auto race that was dedicated to road courses at Watkins Glen|
|American soccer||Steve Ross (godfather)||created the New York Cosmos soccer team and imported a number of well known international footballers to the team in an attempt to bring interest to soccer in the US|
|Angling||Izaak Walton||Author of The Compleat Angler|
|Argentine football||Alexander Watson Hutton|
|Argentine professional golf||José Jurado|
|Argentine winter sports||Otto Meiling|
|Association football||Ebenezer Cobb Morley|
|Australian rules football||Tom Wills|
|H. C. A. Harrison|
|Basketball||James Naismith||Created basketball|
|Black basketball||Edwin Henderson||Introduced the sport to the black community of Washington, D.C. in the first decade of the 20th century, and organized many early competitions for African Americans|
|Brazilian football||Charles William Miller|
|Camel Lights||Jim Downing||Built a racecar a season before it became the basis of a new lightweight prototype class in 1985|
|Canadian rodeo||O. Raymond Knight||Coined the rodeo term "stampede" and was world's first rodeo producer, rodeo stock contractor, and rodeo champion in 1902|
|Modern chess||Wilhelm Steinitz||First official world chess champion|
|Drag racing||Wally Parks||Founder of the NHRA and organized the first legitimate drag race|
|Don Garlits||Innovator of drag racing safety|
|Eddie Hill||Regarded as the "Four Father" of drag racing for being the first to break the 5-second barrier. AKA "First in the Fours."|
|Drifting||Kunimitsu Takahashi||Introduced an aggressive high speed cornering technique that became widely used for illicit purposes, which eventually became a sport|
|East Coast skateboarding||Vinny Raffa (godfather)|
|Florida skateboarding||Bruce Walker (godfather)|
|Modern football||Ebenezer Cobb Morley|
|Freestyle BMX||Bob Haro|
|Freestyle Motocross||Mike Metzger (godfather)||[why?]|
|Funny Car||Dick Landy|
|Modern gymnastic||Friedrich Ludwig Jahn|
|Modern Handball||Karl Schelenz|
|Ice hockey||James Creighton||Captained one of the two teams that participated in the first indoor hockey game on March 3, 1875 in Montreal|
|Import drag racing||Frank Choi||Hosted one of the first events specifically for import cars in the mid-1990s to keep drivers out of street racing that progressed into a professional category|
|Italian football||James Richardson Spensley||Associated with Genoa CFC; contributed to the modern day-variation of the game in Italy|
|William Garbutt||Laid the foundations of skilled coaching in Italian football|
|Japanese baseball||Horace Wilson||Credited with introducing baseball in Japan|
|Hiroshi Hiraoka||Credited with establishing the first baseball team|
|Jogging||Jim Fixx||Founding father[why?]|
|Kart racing||Art Ingels||Developed the world's first kart (1956)|
|Kenyan running||Colm O'Connell||Founded the first running camp in Kenya|
|Lacrosse||William George Beers||Codified the sport|
|Mexican taekwondo||Dai-won Moon||Credited with introducing the sport to Mexico; founded school that has trained tens of thousands in the sport|
|Mississippi rodeo||Earl W. Bascom
|Produced the first rodeo in Columbia, Mississippi in 1935|
|Mixed martial arts||Edward William Barton-Wright||Experimented 1898–1902 with Shinden Fudo Ryu jujutsu, Kodokan judo, British boxing, Swiss schwingen, French savate and a defensive la canne (stick fighting) style that had been developed by Pierre Vigny of Switzerland ,which led to the invention of Bartitsu|
|Model aviation||Joseph S. Ott||Chicago Tribune, in an obituary, referred him as the father mainly for his designs of thousands of model aircraft spanning from the 1920s up to his death in 1986.|
|Modern bodybuilding||Eugen Sandow|
|Harold Zinkin||Called so by Arnold Schwarzenegger during a press statement on his passing in 2004; inventor of modern exercise machines|
|Modern boxing||James Figg|
|James J. Corbett|
|Modern figure skating||Jackson Haines||"Jackson Haines - The Father of Figure Skating," according to Roy Blakey|
|Modern football in Japan||Dettmar Cramer|
|Modern Rodeo||Earl W. Bascom||Inventor of rodeo gear and equipment that made rodeo into a modern international sport|
|Modern tennis||Jack Kramer||Creator of the "Open"-era tournaments and the Association of Tennis Professionals|
|Para-equestrian dressage||Lee Pearson (godfather)||Most decorated para-equestrian rider of all time|
|Organized radio controlled racing||Ted Longshaw||Regarded as a grandfather of the sport; founded an organization for racing in the United Kingdom (1971); founded governing bodies for organized racing in Europe (1973), the far east (1980) and worldwide (1979)|
|Roger Curtis||Co-founder of Associated Electrics, one of the most significant R/C car brands; contributed to racing|
|Modern sabre fencing||Italo Santelli|
|Modern surfing||Duke Kahanamoku|
|Rodeo bareback bronc riding||Earl W. Bascom||Designed and made the first one-hand rigging in 1924|
|Rugby union||A. G. Guillemard|
|William Webb Ellis||"Who with a fine disregard for the rules of football as played in his time first took the ball in his arms and ran with it thus originating the distinctive feature of the rugby game".|
|Scuba diving||Jacques Cousteau||Developed the aqua-lung jointly with Émile Gagnan; popularized scuba diving as a research diver, writer, and film and television producer and personality|
|Skateboarding||Skip Engblom (godfather)|
|Tony Hawk (godfather)|
|Rodney Mullen (godfather)|
|Snooker||Neville Francis Fitzgerald Chamberlain||Adopted the name and framed the rules in Ooty, India|
|Snowboarding||Jake Burton Carpenter|
|Stock car racing||Bill France, Sr.||Founded the sanctioning body for stock car racing|
|Supercross||Mike Goodwin||Organized the first supercross race|
|Televised golf||Frank Chirkinian||Personally responsible for much of the production conventions of modern golf broadcasting|
|Aerodynamics (modern)||Sir George Cayley||Founding father of modern aerodynamics; first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust; modern airplane design is based on those discoveries|
|Architecture||Imhotep||Built the first pyramid|
|Aviation||Father Francesco Lana-Terzi||Wrote Prodromo alla Arte Maestra (1670); first to describe the geometry and physics of a flying vessel|
|British watchmaking||Thomas Tompion|
|Clinical trials||James Lind||Conducted the first controlled clinical trial in the modern era of medicine, an investigation on using citrus food as a treatment for scurvy aboard HMS Salisbury in 1747|
|Computing||Charles Babbage||Inventor of the analytical engine, which was never constructed in his lifetime|
|Gastrointestinal physiology||William Beaumont|
|Genetics||Gregor Johann Mendel||Founder of genetics|
|Green Revolution||Norman Borlaug|
|Modern bladesmithing||William F. Moran||Founder of the American Bladesmith Society|
|Modern kinematics||Ferdinand Freudenstein||Applied digital computation to the kinematic synthesis of mechanisms|
|Modern Knifemaking||Bob Loveless||Founder of the Knifemakers' Guild|
|Modern Linguistics||Noam Chomsky|
|Nanotechnology||Richard Smalley||Nobel Prize Biography|
William Henry Fox Talbot
|Robotics||Al-Jazari||Al-Jazari Invented the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206
The Bānu Musā brothers invented an automatic flute which may have been the first programmable machine
|C (programming language)||Dennis Ritchie|
|Compiler||John Backus||Credited as having introduced the first complete compiler in 1957, although rudimental compilers (linker) were created by Grace Hopper in 1952 and by J. Halcombe Laning and Neal Zerlier (Laning and Zierler system) in 1954|
|Computer||Charles Babbage||The concepts he pioneered in his analytical engine later formed the basis of modern computers.|
|Alan Turing||Secret code breaker during WWII; invented the Turing machine (1936)|
|John V. Atanasoff||Invented the digital computer in the 1930s|
|Konrad Zuse||Invented world's first functional program-controlled computer|
|John von Neumann||Became "intrigued" with Turing's universal machine and later emphasised the importance of the stored-program concept for electronic computing (1945), including the possibility of allowing the machine to modify its own program in useful ways while running. John von Neumann is also considered to be the inventor of flowchart.|
|John W. Mauchly
|Invented the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) in 1946. ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems.|
|Computer program||Ada Lovelace||Recognized by historians as the writer of the world's first computer program which was for the Charles Babbage Analytical Engine, but was never completed.|
||Co-invented Internet protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in 1973, the two original protocols of the Internet protocol suite.|
|Pentium microprocessor||Vinod Dham||The original Pentium (P5) was developed by a team of engineers, including John H. Crawford, chief architect of the original 386, and Donald Alpert, who managed the architectural team. Dror Avnon managed the design of the FPU. Dham was general manager of the P5 group. Some media sources have called him the "father of the Pentium".|
|Personal computer||Chuck Peddle||Developed the 6502 microprocessor, the KIM-1 and the Commodore PET|
|Henry Edward "Ed" Roberts
André Truong Trong Thi
|Programmable logic controller||Dick Morley|
|Search engine||Alan Emtage||Created Archie, a pre-Web search engine which pioneered many of the techniques used by subsequent search engines|
|World Wide Web||Tim Berners-Lee|
|Visual Basic||Alan Cooper|
|Airplane||Wright brothers||Invented the first successful powered fixed-wing aircraft, upon which further aircraft designs, methods of flight, and aircraft control systems were based.|
|Air conditioning||Willis Carrier|
|Battery||Alessandro Volta||Invented the first electrical battery, the Voltaic pile.|
|Chronograph||George Graham||Referred so by Bernard Humbert of the Horology School of Bienne on his 1990 book The Chronograph as Graham was the first to construct a horological mechanism|
|Color photography||Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky||A Russian chemist and photographer. He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia.|
|Compact Disc||Kees Immink|
|Ekranoplan||Rostislav Alexeev||Alexeyev revolutionised the shipbuilding industry (though in secrecy) by inventing craft that use ground effect, whereby a wing traveling close to the ground is provided with a better lift-drag ratio - thereby enabling a combination of greater aircraft weight for less power and/or enhanced fuel economy.|
|Modern firearms||John Moses Browning||Browning revolutionized the firearm industry with his automatic rifles that were manufactured by Winchester, Colt, Remington and Savage|
|Glow plug engine||Ray Arden||Invented the first glow plug for model engines|
|Helicopter||Igor Sikorsky||Invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based.|
|Instant noodle||Momofuku Ando||Inventor of the instant noodle, also founder of Nissin Foods to produce and market them.|
|Japanese television||Kenjiro Takayanagi|
|Jet engine||Frank Whittle|
|Karaoke||Daisuke Inoue||Inventor of the machine as a means of allowing people to sing without the need of a live back-up.|
|Laser||Charles Hard Townes|
|Lightning prediction system||Alexander Stepanovich Popov||The first lightning prediction system, the Lightning detector, was invented in 1894 by Alexander Stepanovich Popov.|
|Marine chronometer||John Harrison|
|Mobile phone||Martin Cooper|
|Periodic table||Dmitri Mendeleev||Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, arranged the elements in an order that we would now recognise. He realised that the physical and chemical properties of elements were related to their atomic mass in a 'periodic' way, and arranged them so that groups of elements with similar properties fell into vertical columns in his table.|
|Plastics||Leo Baekeland||Baekeland was responsible for the creation of Bakelite, an early marketable plastic, in 1907.|
Jagdish Chandra Bose
|The research of these pioneers led to the invention of radio|
|Radio (Radio broadcasting)||Reginald Fessenden
David Sarnoff
|Fessenden is credited as the first to broadcast radio signals on Christmas Eve, 1906. Sarnoff proposed a chain of radio stations to Marconi's associates in 1915.|
|Radio (FM radio)||Edwin H. Armstrong||Obtained the first Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license to operate an FM station in Alpine, New Jersey at approximately 50 megahertz (1939)|
|Spread spectrum||Paul Beard||Inventor of the spread spectrum, created Spektrum to promote its use.|
|Telephone||Johann Philipp Reis
Alexander Graham Bell
|See Invention of the telephone|
|Television||Philo T. Farnsworth||Co-Inventors of the Electronic Television. Farnsworth invented the Image dissector while Zworykin created the Iconoscope, both fully electronic forms of television. Logie Baird invented the world's first working television system, also the first electronic color television system.|
|Tube structure||Fazlur Rahman Khan||One of the greatest engineers of the 20th century. Invented the tube structural system and first employed it in his designs for the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, John Hancock Center and Sears Tower.|
Towns, cities, and regions
|British Columbia||James Douglas||Fur trader and manager for the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and first Governor of the Colony of British Columbia.|
|Lan Kwai Fong||Allan Zeman||Noted for turning a small square of streets in Central, into a thriving bar and night life districts in Hong Kong.|
|Miami, Florida||Henry Flagler||Builder of the Florida East Coast Railway|
|San Bernardino County, California||Jefferson Hunt||Captain in the Mormon Battalion (1846), California State Legislator (1852), Brigadier General of the California Militia (1855)|
|20th century American car industry||Henry Ford||Noted for introducing a simple and affordable car for the ordinary American masses.|
|American Interstate Highway System||Dwight D. Eisenhower||Proposed and signed the act which created the System|
|Automatic transmission||Oscar Banker|
|Flight simulator||Edwin Albert Link||Developed the Link Trainer|
|Full-suspension mountain bike||Jon Whyte||Used his suspension design expertise at Benetton Formula to design the first full-suspension mountain bike for Marin Bikes.|
|Electric Automobile (Flocken Elektrowagen)||Andreas Flocken|
|Gasoline Automobile (Benz Patent-Motorwagen)||Carl Benz|
|Gasoline Omnibus||Carl Benz|
|Gasoline Motorcycle (Daimler Reitwagen)||Gottlieb Daimler/Wilhelm Maybach|
|Gasoline Truck||Gottlieb Daimler (DMG Lastkraftwagen)/Carl Benz|
|High-performance VW industry||Gene Berg|
|Hot rod||Ed Winfield|
|Import car culture||RJ DeVera||Influential for popularizing the import car scene in the mid-1990s.|
|Kustom Kulture||Von Dutch|
|Monster truck||Bob Chandler||Famed for building Bigfoot, which was the first to be capable of driving over cars and subsequently became one of the most famous monster truck in history|
|Mountain bike||Gary Fisher|
|Rock Crawling||Marlin Czajkowski||In 1994, Marlin made final drive ratios of 200:1 and lower possible in typical off road vehicles (primarily Toyota Hilux trucks) and changed the way people access remote off-roading destinations.|
|Rotary engine||Felix Wankel|
|Route 66||Cyrus Avery|
|Traffic safety||William Phelps Eno|
|Trolleybus (Electromote)||Werner von Siemens|
|Turbocharged engine||Paul Rosche||A lifetime employee of BMW, he evolutionized the turbocharged engine into automobile use. He also developed the first European turbocharged car, the racing 1969 BMW 2002 TiK that evolved into the production 1972 2002 Turbo.|
|Yellow school bus||Frank W. Cyr|
- "First Rodeo Cowboy in Canada's Sports Hall of Fame". Eliteequestrian.us. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- The Miniatures Page. The World of Miniatures - An Overview.
- "Nintendo's Shigeru Miyamoto, 'The Father of Modern Video Games,' Receives The Jim". Reuters. 2009-01-15. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10.
- Rausch, Allen (August 15, 2004). "Gary Gygax Interview - Part I". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2005-01-03.
- "Hideo Kojima 'GDC 2009 Keynote' video Part 2 of 4". 1UP.com. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
- "Alanemrich.com". Alanemrich.com. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07.
- "Oswald Boelcke (1891 - 1916) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Lichello, R. (1971). Enrico Fermi: Father of the Atomic Bomb. SamHar Press. ISBN 978-0-87157-011-6.
- Jennifer Rosenberg. "J Robert Oppenheimer Biography of Manhattan Project Director". About.com Education. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Bernstein, Barton J: "Introduction" to The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories (expanded edition), by Leo Szilard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992, p. 5: "Its author, Leo Szilard, now dead nearly three decades, was a Hungarian émigré scientist and one of many putative fathers of the A-bomb."
- Chris Trueman. "Heinz Guderian". Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- Chris Shimp (March 1, 2001). "General Heinz Guderian: The Father of Blitzkrieg". Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- "'Father of H-Bomb' Agrees to Rally Scientific Talent." The New York Times, December 31, 1965, p. 19. Story opens: "Albany, December 30—Governor Rockefeller will make an intensified attack on air pollution with the help of Dr. Edward Teller, the 'father of the hydrogen bomb.'"
- Jeffries, John (2001). Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Fordham Univ Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-8232-2110-3.
'Admiral Rickover', said Powell, '"father of the atomic submarine", is a great naval officer... It is not equally clear that he is a careful and thorough student of American education.'
- "Submarine Range Called Unlimited; Rickover Says Atomic Craft Can Cruise Under Ice To North Pole and Beyond," The New York Times, December 6, 1957, p. 33: "The admiral, who is often called the 'Father of the Atomic Submarine'..."
- Galantin, I. J. (1997). Submarine Admiral: From Battlewagons to Ballistic Missiles. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06675-7., p. 217: "Chet Holifield... member of the JCAE... said 'Of all the men I dealt with in public service, at least one will go down in history: Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the father of the nuclear Navy.'"
- Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7.
- Lanning, Col. Michael Lee (October 29, 2002). Blood Warriors: American Military Elites. New York: Ballantine. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-345-44891-0.
- Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2010-02-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Westminster Abbey » Hugh Trenchard". Westminster-abbey.org. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights". Center for the History of Physics. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- "General William C. Lee: Father of the Airborne". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- Yale Richmond (1995). From Da to Yes: understanding the East Europeans. Intercultural Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-877864-30-8.
- "Bent's Old Fort - Cowboys and Indians Magazine". 21 July 2014.
- Hermann, Edward (2005). "George Washington to James Monroe: 1789-1825". The Presidents: The Lives and Legacies of the 43 Leaders of the United States. History.
- John Barry Kelly. "Commodore Barry". Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
- "Revolutionary America! Where Did We Go From There? The Continental Navy--John Paul Jones". Hoover.archives.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Worlds '12 Feature: Who's Here". NeoBuggy.net. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
- "Behind the Scenes with Kyosho's Yuichi Kanai". NeoBuggy.net. Archived from the original on 2016-10-13. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
- Walter Camp at the College Football Hall of Fame
- "Motorcycle Hall of Fame: Edison Dye". Archived from the original on 2005-07-06. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-11-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "ESPN.com - E-Ticket: When Soccer Ruled The USA". Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers.
- "32". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Arnoldo Pencliffe Watson Hutton (20.8.1886-29.7.1951), popularly known as "El Fantástico", was the son of Scotsman Alexander (Alejandro) Watson Hutton, who was a football pioneer and is considered the father of Argentine football.
- "Pro Shop & Clubhouse". Algodon Wine Estates. InvestProperty Group, LLC. Archived from the original on 2013-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Only at our pro shop can you find unique AWE merchandise, as well as memorabilia of the legends who inspire us; José Jurado, "The Father of Argentine Professional Golf", and José Luis Clerc ("Batata"), one of the most important Argentine tennis players in history.
- Mirodan, Seamus (February 14, 2004). "Nazis' Argentine village hide-out pulls in tourists". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Across the road from Priebke's delicatessen is the Club Andino Bariloche, a mountaineering association set up in 1931 by Otto Meiling, the father of Argentine winter sports and a former member of the Hitler Youth.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-21. Retrieved 2009-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Henry Chadwick, Chad, The Father of Base Ball [sic]"; National Baseball Hall of Fame bio,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-04-21. Retrieved 2006-04-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Not a player, but a journalist and organizer, the Hall of Fame credits him as "inventor of the box score" and "author of the first rule-book."
- Spalding's Baseball Guide and Official League Book for 1889, ed. Henry Chadwick at Project Gutenberg: "Henry Chadwick, the veteran journalist, upon whom the honored sobriquet of 'Father of Base Ball[sic]' rests so happily and well, appears in portraiture, and so well preserved in his physical manhood that his sixty-three years rest lightly upon his well timed life."
- "Matty" at Harvard; The New York Times, February 16, 1909, p. 7: "Charles H. Ebbets, Chairman of the Chadwick Monument Committee, has announced that the contract has been awarded for a suitable monument to be placed on the plot in Greenwood[sic] Cemetery where the remains of the late Henry Chadwick, 'the Father of Baseball,' repose."
- Collins, Glen (2004): "Ground as Hallowed as Cooperstown," The New York Times, April 1, 2004. (Article on baseball notables interred in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn) "Among the nearly 600,000 people buried there are no less than four pioneers who were accorded the title 'Father of Baseball' in the popular press: Henry Chadwick, Duncan Curry, William Tucker and William Wheaton....The memorial for Henry Chadwick bears a 'Father of Base Ball' inscription.... [Duncan] Curry, first president of the Knickerbocker Baseball Club, is immortalized with a monument that proudly dubs him 'Father of Baseball' because he headed the club that scholars say first codified many of the game's rules...."
- "Edwin Bancroft Henderson". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- BMXUltra.com (6 August 2007). "Scot Breithaupt, Founding Father of BMX". Citra Cycling Club. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Hamilton, Aidan (1998). An Entirely Different Game, The British Influence on Brazilian Football. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84018-041-1.
- Goudinoff, Connie (1992). Mazda Motorsports: 20 Victorious Years in America. Motorbooks International. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-87938-582-8.
- Hicken, J.O. Ed. "Raymond Roundup 1902–1967". Lethbridge, Alberta Canada: The Lethbridge Herald Company, Ltd., 1967. pp. 243, 519.
- "Parks, Wally - Drag Racing - 1993". Mshf.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Drag racing legend back at Kingdon". Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Denver Eddie Hill Sunday Report". Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "The History of Drifting". Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Skateboarding Video and Skateboarding Movies - Skate DVD and Skateboard Video Downloads". Boarding.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2009-07-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Welcome - Bondholders - Marketing The Humber" (PDF). Hull.co.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Haro signs Cody Warren and Kyle Strait". Pinkbike. 2003-04-09. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "* HARO BMX COMPANY @ 23MAG BMX". 23mag.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2011-05-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2009-10-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Frank Choi, the father of import drag racing, has done it again..." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2009-09-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "English Players in Italy". RSSSF.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Target : Expect More. Pay Less". Target.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "The Social Impact of Japanese Baseball". Archived from the original on 2013-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- Klein, Christopher (2006-10-01). "A passion for the Sox in Kyoto's Fenway Park". The Boston Globe.
- "Fathers (and mothers) of invention: ultimate victims of their own success". The Independent. London. 2004-02-12. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "Art Ingels". Vintagekarts.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Finn, Adharanand (2012-08-08). "Kenya's David Rudisha is favourite for 800m, thanks to an Irish Brother". The Guardian. London.
- "STX - Home". Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Contact Support". Archived from the original on 23 February 2002. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "The Rules of Lacrosse. History And Origins Of Lacrosse". Collegesportsscholarships.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Aboriginal Innovations in Arts, Science and Technology Handbook". Lakehead University. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Moon Dai-won: father of Mexican taekwondo". Korea Times. 2013-07-19. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Wil Nunnery (24 September 2014). "On this day in history - September 24th, 1935". Toledonewsnow.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- The Bartitsu Compendium Volumes 1 and 2
- "Joseph Ott, Designer Of Model Planes". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2009-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Governor Schwarzenegger Issues Statement on Death of Harold Zinkin, Father of Modern Bodybuilding - Press Release by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger". Archived from the original on 2008-10-26.
- "James Figg: Father of Modern Boxing". Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Jackson Haines - The Father of Figure Skating". Roy Blakey's Icestage Archive. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "The football professor: a profile of Dettmar Cramer". World Soccer. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Cowboy legend Earl Bascom was a rodeo pioneer and Western artist". Sbsun.com. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- JA Allen. "King of the Court "Jack" Kramer: The Father of Modern Tennis". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Jacob Waring. "Puroresu: Why I Believe It's the Best Pro-Wrestling Style Internationally". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- CNN, Ollie Williams and Olivia Yasukawa. "Lee Pearson: Out of two closets, into Paralympic glory". CNN. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
- "Detail News". News.efra.ws. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "RC Car Action honors Roger Curtis with RC Hall of Fame Induction". RC Car Action. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Santelli bio including several references backing up the statement, including a quote from Dr. William Gaugler December 1997: "I am, in fact, only two generations removed from the 'father of modern sabre' [referring to Santelli]".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2009-02-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Elgin, Fran, et al. Editors. "Mohahve VI, A Collection of Histories", Hesperia, California, USA: Mohahve Historical Society, 2011. pp. 77.
- "Blogger". Basicbloganomics.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- File:WWEplaque 700.jpg
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2011-10-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "The Godfather of skateboarding". Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- [permanent dead link]
- "History of Snooker including how snooker was invented, how snooker was named and how snooker has developed over the years". Snookerclubs.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "NESCAFÉ 3in1 & Burton in an expectedly good snowboard combination". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "The Hall dinner and ceremony that also would include induction of William H.G. France, the father of stock car racing" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2011-12-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Times Daily - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Driving Today: Who Killed Mickey Thompson?". Drivingtoday.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Dolch, Craig (March 4, 2011). "Chirkinian's impact on televised golf can't be overstated". PGATOUR.com. Archived from the original on 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Bringing sounds to golf is just part of the reason why Chirkinian — who is considered "the father of televised golf" — was elected February 9 into the World Golf Hall of Fame on an emergency vote.
- Goldstein, Richard (March 5, 2011). "Frank Chirkinian, the Father of Televised Golf, Dies at 84". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Frank is universally regarded as the father of golf television,” Jim Nantz, CBS’s longtime lead golf announcer, told the PGA Tour Web site this year. “He invented it. He took a sport that no one knew how to televise and made it interesting. He brought the Masters tournament to life.
- "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)". Britannica. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft.
- "The Pioneers: Aviation and Airmodelling". Retrieved 2009-07-26.
Sir George Cayley, is sometimes called the 'Father of Aviation'. A pioneer in his field, he is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight. He was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust—and their relationship and also the first to build a successful human carrying glider.
- Albert Gallatin Mackey, The Builder Magazine, December 1922, Volume VIII, Number 12, Part XVI.
- "Tsiolkovskiy". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Korolev". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2002. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Goddard". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Oberth". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 36. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
- "The Man Behind the Brand: George Graham". Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Twyman, Richard (22 September 2004). "A brief history of clinical trials". The Human Genome. Wellcome Trust. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Lee, J.A.N. (1995). International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 978-1-884964-47-3.
- Belzer, Belzer (1977). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 7 - Curve Fitting to Early Development... Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-262-73009-9., p. 55: "It is probably not an accident that the 'father of cybernetics,' Norbert Wiener, …"
- Wiener, Norbert (1965) . Cybernetics, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-2257-9. (Wiener is credited with coining the term in its common modern usage)
- "William Beaumont Papers". oculus.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
- Bowler, Peter J. (2003). Evolution: the history of an idea. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23693-6.
- Roth, Bernard (2007). "Ferdinand Freudenstein (1926–2006)". Life and career of Ferdinand Freudenstein. History of Mechanism and Machine Science. 1. pp. 151–181. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6366-4_7. ISBN 978-1-4020-6365-7.
- "Richard E. Smalley - Biographical". Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8018-6458-2. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Louis Jacques Monde Daguerre: The second father of photography is Daguerre...
- Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8018-6458-2. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
The first father of photography was Nicéphore Niépce....
- Ellis, Roger (2001). Who's Who in Victorian Britain. Stackpole Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8117-1640-6. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
cites book title: "A. H. Booth: William Henry Fox Talbot: father of photography, 1965"
- Booth, Martin (1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Robert Hall, the divine, was addicted [to opium], as was Thomas Wedgwood, the father of photography.
- Marco Ceccarelli, ed. (2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies, Part 2. Springer. p. 13. ISBN 9789048123452. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
Other chapters of Al-Jazari's work describe fountains and musical automata which are of interest mainly because the flow of water in them alternated from one large tank to another at hourly or half-hourly intervals. Several ingenious devices for hydraulic switching were used to achieve this operation (Rosheim 1994). These revolutionary machines owed him the title of the father of robotics (Chapius and Droz 1958; Nocks 2007).
- Diana Darke (2010). Syria, 2nd. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 98. ISBN 9781841623146. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind was the crankshaft, invented by the Muslim engineer Al-Jazari. He devised it to raise water for irrigation. He also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, and was the father of robotics.
- Koetsier, Teun (2001), "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Elsevier, 36 (5): 589–603, doi:10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2
- Marco Ceccarelli, ed. (2009). "Al-Jazari". Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies, Part 2. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 9789048123452. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
Others gave amusement and aesthetic pleasure to the members of royal circles, which led him to invent the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties (Margaret 2006; Franchi and Güzeldere 2005).
- Pigott 1995.
- BPB Publications. My Big Book of Computers 6. Ratna Sagar. p. 7. ISBN 9788170708827. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
Charles Babbage is called the Father of Computers, because the concepts he pioneered in his engine later formed the basis of modern computers.
Gray, Paul (1999-03-29). "Alan Turing - Time 100 People of the Century". Time. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine
- 'Father of the computer' honoured - BBC News, Monday, 7 June 2004
- Bruner, Jeffrey. "Atanasoff, father of the computer, dies at 91". Rebuilding the ABC. Ames Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2006-08-28. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- Konrad Zuse's versus John von Neumann's Computer Concepts Archived November 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- The Modern History of Computing - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- "Inventor Profile: John Mauchly". Invent Now - Hall of Fame. North Canton, OH, USA: National Inventors Hall of Fame. March 29, 2004. Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Inventor Profile: J. Presper Eckert". Invent Now - Hall of Fame. North Canton, OH, USA: National Inventors Hall of Fame. March 29, 2004. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- Making Televised Emergency Information Accessible from the Gallaudet University website
- Although it's a title he objects to (see Interview with Vinton Cerf Archived June 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the Internet's fathers, citing Bob Kahn in particularly as being someone with whom he should share that title.
- Kahn do, No (2007). " Father of internet warns against Net Neutrality", The Register, Thursday 18 January
- "Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973". The Great Idea Finder.
- "RPI Alumni Hall of Fame: Marcian E. Hoff". Rpi.edu. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Kosaku Inagaki's Home Page". Kyoto University. Archived from the original on 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
- The Technology Trailblazer: Vinod Dham. University of Cincinnati.
- Priya Ganapati at Techfest 99, IIT Bombay. Rediff.com.
- p. 54, "Intel Turns 35: Now What?", David L. Margulius, InfoWorld, July 21, 2003, ISSN 0199-6649.
- p. 21, "Architecture of the Pentium microprocessor", D. Alpert and D. Avnon, IEEE Micro, 13, #3 (June 1993), pp. 11–21, doi:10.1109/40.216745.
- p. 90, "Inside Intel", Business Week, #3268, June 1, 1992.
- "commodore.ca - History - Chuck Peddle Inventor of the Personal Computer". Commodore.ca. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Microsoft founders lead tributes to 'father of the PC'". BBC News. April 2, 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- A Talk with the Father of Computing Archived March 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Wired Magazine
- "The Fathers of Computing". Eweek.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "History of the Internet". Computerhope.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Casmer, Jeff. "History of the Search Engine - What Came Before Google?". Evancarmichael.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "XML for Newcomers and Managers - Part I". 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Three loud cheers for the father of the web, 28 January 2005, Telegraph.co.uk
- Cooper, Alan, Why I am called "the Father of Visual Basic" "Mitchell Waite called me the "father of Visual Basic" in the foreword to what I believe was the first book ever published for VB, called the Visual Basic How-To (now in its second edition, published by The Waite Group Press). I thought the appellation was an appropriate one, and frequently use the quoted phrase as my one-line biography."
- Edd Dumbill (29 February 2000). "XML.com". Xml.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Mary Ann. Johnson (September 28, 2001). "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories Symposium Papers". Following in the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- "Flying through the ages". BBC News. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- "The Father of Cool - Willis Haviland Carrier and Air Conditioning". About.com Inventors. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Milestones:Volta's Electrical Battery Invention, 1799". Ieeeghn.org. IEEE Global History Network. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "thetimetv.com - Brawn GP Announces New Team Partnership with Graham-London". Thetimetv.com. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Photographer to the Tsar - The Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated: The Empire That Was Russia - Exhibitions - Library of Congress". Loc.gov. 2001-04-17. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- [dead link]
- "In search of the Caspian Sea Monster". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Gun designer John Browning is born - Jan 21, 1855". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Model Engine Builders—Ray Arden". Craftsmanshipmuseum.com/. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Igor Sikorsky is considered to be the "father" of helicopters not because he invented the first. He is called that because he invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based, an article from inventors.About.com by Mary Bellis
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-12-28. Retrieved 2009-10-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television". NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories. Archived from the original on 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Kenjiro Takayanagi, Electrical Engineer, 91 (obituary)". New York Times. 1990-07-25. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Sculpture to jet engine inventor". BBC News. 2005-10-20. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "AIRCRAFT ENGINE". Thaitechnics.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Greimel, Hans (2003-01-19). "In Missing a Beat, Father of Karaoke Lost Out on Fortune". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "John Harrison (1693-1776)". Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Meet the man who invented the mobile phone". BBC News. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "Mendeleev's periodic table". BBC - GCSE Bitesize. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- "御神輿を担ぐ！！". Marconiusa.org. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Sen, A. K. (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science". Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. Denver, CO: IEEE. pp. 557–560. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854. ISBN 0-7803-3814-6.
- McLuhan, Marshall; Barrington Nevitt (1972). Take Today; the Executive as Dropout. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-187830-7. "Fessenden, the Forgotten Father of 'Wireless' Telephony" (section heading)
- Zuill, William S. (2001): The Forgotten Father of Radio", American Heritage of Science and Technology, 17(1)40–47, as cited in Silverman, Steve (2003). Lindbergh's Artificial Heart: More Fascinating True Stories From Einstein's Refrigerator. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-3340-6. p. 160
- "Untitled Page" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-20. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- Van Meggelen, Jim; Jared Smith; Leif Madsen (2005). Asterisk: The Future of Telephony. O'Reilly. ISBN 978-0-596-00962-5., p. 190: "Although Alexander Graham Bell is most famously remembered as the father of the telephone, the reality is that during the latter half of the 1800s dozens of minds were at work on the project of carrying voice over telegraph lines."
- "Philo Farnsworth". Society of Television Engineers. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Isn't it about time that Philo Farnsworth gets some credit???
- "Zworykin at IEEE Global History Network". Retrieved 2008-03-03.
the oft-called Father of Television Vladimir Zworykin
- "Zworykin at Museum.TV". Retrieved 2008-03-03.
inventor Vladimir Zworykin is often described as "the father of television".
"John Logie Baird: TV Inventor". Retrieved 2009-07-26.
John Logie Baird invented Television in 1926. His initial TV system was electro-mechanical. He (later) embraced electronic TV and developed the world's first color television system.
- "The World's First High Definition Color Television System". Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Weingardt, Richard (2005). Engineering Legends. ASCE Publications. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7844-0801-8.
- "BC Archives: Sir James Douglas". Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2009-10-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Beasley, Adam H. (February 4, 2012). "Henry Flagler, his town, and the fire". Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved 2012-08-05.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Jefferson Hunt – The Father Of San Bernardino County - SBCSentinel". sbcsentinel.com.
- "Henry Ford: Father of 20th century American industry". Trendsupdates.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "Oscar H. Banker Asadour Sarafian" (PDF). Armenian Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Mouradian, George (1995). Armenian infotext (1st ed.). Southgate, Mich.: Bookshelf Publishers. ISBN 9780963450920.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-04-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Jon Whyte leaves ATB Sales - Bike Magic". Bikemagic.com. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- VW Trends - TEN: The Enthusiast Network (26 March 2009). "Who's Who of Volkswagen". VW Trends. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Ed Winfield". Hemmings.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-09-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "A Tribute to a Founding Father of Kustom Kulture". Hot Rod. 1 December 2000. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- [permanent dead link]
- "Gary Fisher's busy day". Archived from the original on 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "About". Marlincrawler.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-23. Retrieved 2010-09-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Steil, Tim (2000). Route 66. MBI Publishing Company. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7603-0747-2.
Avery, though dubbed the 'Father of Route 66' by some, was a political appointee who also left office the next year.
- Real NASCAR: White Lightning, Red Clay, and Big Bill France. Univ of North Carolina Press. 2010. p. 360. ISBN 9780807895726. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- McCosh, Dan (2003-03-07). "DRIVING; Most Cars Are Born As Models of Clay". The New York Times.
- "This website is currently unavailable". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- "William Phelps Eno". Eno Transportation Foundation. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "BMW congratulates Paul Rosche: The "father" of the Formula One World Championship engine turns 80 today". BMW Group. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- Watson, Rollin J. (2002). The School As a Safe Haven. Bergen Garvey/Greenwood. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-89789-900-0.
The modern school bus began in a conference in 1939 called by Frank W. Cyr, the 'Father of the Yellow School' bus, who was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. At that meeting, Cyr urged the standardization of the school bus. Participants came up with the standard yellow color and some basic construction standards. Cyr had... found that children were riding in all sorts of vehicles—one district, he found, was painting their buses red, white, and blue to instill patriotism.