List of people executed for homosexuality in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death. The following individuals received the death penalty for it.

Executed individuals[edit]


Name Date Notes
John de Wettre 8 September 1292 A "maker of small knives" condemned at Ghent and burned at the pillory next to St. Peter's[3]: 17 
Willem Case 1373 Executed in Antwerp[4]
Jan van Aersdone
Two unknowns 1375 Executed in Ypres[4]
Unknown 1391 One of 17 defendants (including 2 women) at a mass trial in Mechelen; only one to confess[4]
Unknown 1601 Jesuit; burned in Antwerp[4]
Unknown 1654 Sculptor executed in Ghent[5][6]


Name Date Notes
Robert de Peronne 1317 Burned in Laon[7][8]
Pierre Poirer 1334 Burned in Dorche[8]
Unknown 1344 Burned at Dorche, Savoy[7]
Unknown 1372 Burned at Reims[7]
Johannes Rorer 1400 Strasbourg bathhouse owner; his partner, carpenter Heinzmann Hiltebrant, fled the city[9]
Isaach Salamó 1403 Jew, burned in Perpignan[10]
Jerome 1506 A bottlemaker and Jerome, burned in Strasbourg[9]
Dominique Phinot 1556 Composer of the Renaissance[11]
Philippe Basse 1720 Also convicted of blasphemy[7]
Bernard Mocmanesse
Benjamin Deschauffours 1726 Procurer
Two unknowns 1745 These men were former associates of the bandit Raffiat, who was broken on the wheel in 1742. They were pierced in their tongues, hanged and burned; they were also charged with blasphemy.[5]
Jean Diot 6 July 1750 The last two to be executed for sodomy in France
Bruno Lenoir


Name Date Notes
Heinrich Schreiber 1378 Convicted by a Munich civil court; probably executed[9]
Br. Hans Storzl 1381 A peasant, 2 monks, and 2 Beghards burned in Augsburg for "having committed heresy with one another"[9]
Br. Eberhard of St. Lienhart
Three unknowns
Ulrich Frey 1408[9] or 1409 From Augsburg; one burned, other 4 (all ecclesiastics) bound hand and foot in a wooden cage to starve[7]
Jacob Kyss
Two unknowns
Two unknowns 1418 Clerics, convicted to burn in Konstanz; probably executed[9]
Br. Conradt 1464 Burned in Konstanz[9]
Ulrich Vischer
Georg Semler 1471 Decapitated in Regensburg[9]
Fritz Rottel
Stefan Karl
Andre Vetter
Katherina Hetzeldorfer 1477 German cross-dressing lesbian executed for heresy against nature after having used a dildo on two female partners.
Cristan Schriber 1488 Burned in Konstanz[9]
Jacob Miller 1532 Decapitated in Augsburg[9]
Berlin Wagner
Michel Will
Franz von Alsten 1536 or 1537 Decapitated in Munster[9]
Catharina Margaretha Linck 1721 Prussian cross-dressing lesbian executed for sodomy; her execution was the last for lesbian sexual activity in Europe.


Name Date Notes
Niger de Pulis 1287 Burned in Parma[12]
Adenolfo IV 13 July 1293 Count of Acerra; executed by impalement in Perugia by Charles II of Anjou[13]
Nicoleto Marmagna 3 October 1357 Venetian boatman and his servant; burned by the Lords of Night[14]
Giovanni Braganza
Giovanni di Giovanni 7 May 1365 15-year-old Italian boy charged with being "a public and notorious passive sodomite"[15][16]
Francesco Guglielimi 1422 Burned in Piazza del Mercato, Bologna[17]
Stefano da Prato
Francesco Mancini 1 December 1423 Sicilian law professor/"executor of justice" and his servant; beheaded in the city square of Bologna[18]
Antonio Micileto
Padano d'Otranto 1474 2 of 6 tried by the Council of Ten; beheaded at Piazza San Marco and burned[19]
Marino Alegeti
Marco Baffo 11 September 1476 Both hanged by the Council of Ten[20]
Francesco Toniuti
Giovanni di Piero Masini August 25, 1514 Baker's boy hanged and burned in the courtyard of the Bargello[21]
Jacopo Bonfadio 1550 Humanist and historian[22]
Francesco Calcagno 1550 Venetian Franciscan friar.[23]
Crazia di Negroponte 15 June 1553 Turkish groom; strangled and burned in Pratello[24]
Two unknowns June 1586 Priest and "boy", both burned even though they had both voluntarily confessed[7]
Allegro (Paolo) Orsini 1593 A Jew and a member of a senatorial family; both beheaded, Allegro's body displayed in Piazza Maggiore[25]
Ottaviano Bargellini
Gabriele Thomaein 17 February 1559 German from Augsburg; burned in Rome with 3 heretics[26]
Battista August 1578[27][28] Albanian boatman
Antonio de Velez Catalan
Francisco Hererra From Toledo
Bernardino de Alfar From Seville
Alfonso de Robles From Madrid
Marcos Pinto From Viana do Alentejo
Jeromino de Paz From Toledo
Gaspar de Martin From Vitoria
Petro Scudero 4 June 1602 Spanish soldier and a Turk; both hanged[29]
Mustafa Giorgio
Soliman Moro 26 August 1628 Turkish slave; hanged, body burned[29]
Alessandro Borromeo 3 June 1668 20-year-old Paduan noble, son of Girolamo Borromeo; beheaded by the Council of Ten[20]
Paolo Cricetti 10 December 1668 19-year-old, friend of Borromeo (see above)[20]


Name Date Notes
Two unknowns March 1616 Spanish soldier (or sailor[30]) and a local Maltese teenager, both burned; execution described by William Lithgow[31]


Name Date Notes
Gooswyn de Wilde 1447[32] President of the States of Holland; beheaded[33]
Jan Backer 12 June 1730 Backer was house servant hiring middleman; hanged and burned[34]
Jan Schut
Frans Verheyden Occupation unknown, milkman, coat embroiderer, occupation unknown, and servant; hanged and thrown into the sea at Scheveningen with 50-pound weights[34]
Cornelius Wassermaar
Pieter Styn
Dirk van Royen
Herman Mouillant
Pieter Marteyn Janes Sohn 24 June 1730 Keep was a decorator; strangled and burned[34]
Johannes Keep
Maurits van Eeden House servant and Johannes Keep's servant, age 18; both drowned in a barrel[34]
Cornelius Boes
Pieter van der Hal 21 July 1730 Grain carrier, glove launderer, agent, and tavern keeper; hanged and thrown into the sea at Scheveningen with 100-pound weights[34]
Adriaen Kuyleman
David Munstlager
Willem la Feber
Antonie Byweegen Fishmonger, hanged and burned to ashes[34]
Laurens Hospuijn 16 September 1730 Chief of detectives in the Navy, strangled and thrown in water with a 100-pound weight[34]
Jan van der Lelie 24 September 1731 Hanged and thrown into the sea[34]
Abraham Feijs 1772 19-year-old tailor in Leiden, declared in interrogation he had never slept with a woman and had committed sodomy "hundreds of times"; last execution in Leiden[33]
Jillis Bruggeman 9 March 1803 Last person executed for sodomy in Netherlands[35]


Name Date Notes
Marcin Gołek 9 November 1633 Executed by burning[36]
Wojciech ze Sromotki


Name Date Notes
Two unknowns 1621 Effeminate dancers[3]
Santos de Almeida 1645 66-year-old royal chaplain[3]
Unknown 1671 Priest[3]


Name Date Notes
Unknown 1290 Moor burned at Arguedas "for lying with others"[7]
Juce Abolfaça 1345 Jews, burned together at Olite[7]
Simuel Nahamán
Pascoal de Rojas 1346 Burned at Tudela for "heresy with his body"[7]
Unknown 1373 Servant burned in Olite[7]
Antoni 1395 Slave of Francesc Peres in Barcelona, burned[10]
Mahoma Mofari 1458 Muslim potters in Lleida sentenced to burn for mutual same-sex relations as well as heterosexual relations with Christian prostitutes. Mahoma converted to Christianity and adopted the name Pere Cirera before the execution, so he was drowned before being burned.[10]
Margarida Borràs 1460 Cross-dressing transgender woman
Joan de Llobera 28 May 1464 Llobera, a councilor of Barcelona in 1463, and Polo, an "immoral hermit", were strangled and burnt in La Rambla.[10]
Bartomeu Polo
Gaspar Rajadell 21 July 1464 Rajadell and Sori, a scribe, were drowned in a wine bucket and then burnt in La Rambla.[10]
Joan Sori
Six unknowns 1495 Italians, seen hanged upside down by a German traveler in Almeria[5]
Two unknowns 1501–1600[a] Two nuns burned for using "material instruments", recorded by Antonio Gomez[37]
Unknown 1546 Layman burned in a Saragossa auto da fe[7]
Unknown 1551 Castilian soldier executed awaiting a public auto da fe[5]
Four unknowns 1558 A Castilian jurist/lawyer, 2 priests, and a French shepherd boy; burned in a Saragossa auto da fe [7][5]
Three unknowns 1571 Burned in a Saragossa auto da fe with 9 men convicted of bestiality along with their animals[7]
Two unknowns 1573 Trinitarian monks executed in Valencia[7]
Miguel Salvador de Morales 25 June 1574 Morales, a Trinitarian monk, and Tafolla had known each other since childhood, even sleeping in the same room. Tafolla had just returned from traveling in Italy and went to Morales's monastery in Valencia, where they were caught; both were burned.[7]
Baptista Tafolla
Unknown 1581 Neapolitan, burned for a "habit of Italy" in Seville[38]
Diego Maldonado 1585 Group ringleader[38]
Muyuca 1585 African, may have been a procurer[38]
Gaspar Arrimen 1588 Moriscos in Valencia, both age 20; both burned[7]
Pedro Alache
Two unknowns 1588 Both French, burned in Seville[38]
Jose Estravagante 1607 Galley prisoners, 31 and 20, respectively; Teixidor had been convicted of sodomy and Estravagente of another crime. Fellow prisoners denounced they were having an affair and they were subsequently burned by the Inquisition.[7]
Bartolomeo Teixidor
Two unknowns 1616 Colored; names not recorded[38]
Nicolas Gonzales 1625 Prostitute in Orihuela, age 20[3][6]
Unknown 40-year-old Turkish slave[3]
Two unknowns 1626 Executed outside of Valencia's inquisition palace "without making a noise"[7]
Unknown 1647 Burned in a Barcelona auto da fe[7]


Name Date Notes
Lisbetha Olsdotter November 1679


Name Date Notes
Lord Haspisperch 1277 German-Swiss aristocrat, burned by Rudolph I in Basel; unknown if politically motivated[7]
Friedrich 1399 Cook, burned in Basel; his partner, Schregelin, was banished[9]
Hermann von Hohenlandberg 1431 Burgher and noble, accused of robbing travelers outside of Zurich in 1419; executed for multiple relationships with male adolescents[9]
Two unknowns 1444 Bishop of Geneva's personal chef, a Greek, and his Genevan partner; both hanged [38]
Two unknowns 1464 Sexton of a pilgrimage church in Einsiedeln and a "boy"; both burned[9]
Eighteen unknowns 1474 Captured Lombard mercenaries burned in Basel[9]
Richard Puller von Hohenburg 24 September 1482 Swiss nobleman and knight
Hans Zogg 1489 Burned in Lucerne[9]
Uli im Tann
Hans Waldmann (mayor) 6 April 1489 Executed for multiple crimes, including sodomy
Jehan Ruaulx 1493 Pastry chef in Fribourg, returned from France with an ear and his penis missing for attempted sodomy in Sisteron; confessed to relations with men, including a cleric, in Lausanne and Fribourg[9]
Heinrich Baltschmid 1506 Burned in Lucerne[9]
Felix Bluntschli
Caspar Noll
Hans Honegger
Jacob von Schloss 1515 Burned in Zurich[9]
Andres von Tschafel 1519 Broken on the wheel and burned in Lucerne[9]
Blasius Hipold 1519 Burned in Lucerne[9]
Bonifaz Dorn 27 January 1519 Decapitated in Lucerne[9]
Johannes Nusser 1520 Broken on the wheel in Lucerne[9]
Hans Propstli 1525 Decapitated and burned; first execution in Solothurn[9]
Hans Fritschi 1530 Monastery laborer in Schaffhausen, decapitated[9]
Balthasar Bar 1532 Drowned in Lucerne[9]
Conrat Mulibach 1533 Burned in St. Gallen[9]
Marx Anthon 1537 Burned in Zurich[9]
Jorg Sigler 1537 Burned in Lucerne[9]
Bonifacius Amerbach 1538 Burned in Schaffhausen[9]
Uli Rugger 1540 Decapitated in Zurich[9]
Hans Blatter 1540 Burned in Zurich[9]
Jacob Muller 1545 Decapitated and burned in Zurich[9]
Jean Fontaine 1554 or 1555 Was involved with a Branlard who was later put on trial with a youth named Ramel[39]
Five unknowns 1560 At war with Savoy, Genevan forces captured a fort with ~30 Turkish galley slaves inside. 3 of these Turks admitted to having same-sex relations, and they were burned along with 2 French Catholics they implicated.[7]
Guillaume Brancard 1561 Drowned[40]
Thoni Ruttiman 1561 Hanged in Zurich[9]
Pierre Jobert 1562 Had a long-standing relationship; both drowned[39]
Thibaud Lespligny
Rudolf Bachmann 1567 Decapitated and burned in Zurich[9]
Uli Frei
Francoise-Jeanne Morel 1568 Itinerant plague worker accused of molesting a woman she was sharing a bed with, Morel had admitted to fornication with a male 5 years earlier. She initially used this to deny the charge but later retracted this, and subsequently admitted her guilt under torture, and admitted to having relations with both men and women (she had never taken money for sex). She was subsequently drowned.[38][41]
Wilhelm von Muhlhausen 1579 Burned in Zurich[9]
Unknown 28 May 1586 Burned between Lenzburg and Aarau[42]
Two unknowns 1590 French soldier, age 25, and his valet (also French), age 18; both burned[38]
Jean Chaffrey February 1590 Two Europeans (Chaffrey, age 20, from Dauphine; Chappuis, age 15, Genevan) and 3 Muslim converts to Calvinism (Mohamet, age 35, from Martara; Assan, age 20, from Turkey; and Arnaud, age 34, from Rumania) executed following a group trial in Geneva. A 3rd European was acquitted.[41]
Etienne Chappuis
Tatare Mohamet
Ali Arnaud
Pierre Dufour 13 November 1600 Genevan citizen and his partner, a local peasant. Brelat, a cowherd, openly boasted about their relationship due to Dufour's high social standing, but Brelat claimed Dufour was a bugger (but not of buggery itself) after a violent fistfight.[39] Both were subsequently drowned.[38][43]
Pierre Brelat
Pierre Canal 2 February 1610[44] Burned; arrested for treason and homicide, confessed under torture[38]
Jean de la Rue 1617 Age 80, arrested for making a pass in an inn. Openly admitted to having had relations with many people in Geneva and elsewhere "for pleasure, for grain, and for poverty".[39] Burned[41] after this single interrogation.[39]
Unknown 1662 Italian gentleman burned in Calvinist Geneva, committed sodomy with his valet (valet's fate unknown);[5] last execution for sodomy in Geneva.[34]

United Kingdom[edit]

The details of the accusation are often not given in contemporary sources, with euphemisms such as "unnatural offence" used. However, such terms were also used to describe bestiality, non-consensual acts, and crimes against minors. Due to this, sources discussing and listing capital offences for homosexuality, including the table below, may inadvertently include men executed for such offences.

Name Date Notes
James Hunt 25 August 1743 Hunt was a barge builder aged 37 and Collins was 57, a former weaver and soldier. They were accused of sodomy together in a toilet at Pepper Alley in Southwark, near London Bridge, which they each denied though their accounts differed. Their trial was at Surrey assizes 4 August and they were hanged at Kennington Common.[45][46]
Thomas Collins
Richard Arnold 15 September 1753 Arnold was around 60 and the landlord of the Lamb and Flag and Critchard was a footman aged around 20. They were convicted 31 August 1753 of felony and buggery for an act witnessed in the Swan Inn, Broad Street, Bristol. They were hanged together at St. Michael's Hill; they declined to implicate anyone else and Arnold was reported to have kissed Critchard's hand before the cart was pulled from under them.[47][48][49][50]
William Critchard[51]
Joseph Wright 15 August 1755 Trial at Coventry assizes.[52] Hanged on Whitley Common. Wright admitted that he had been guilty of sodomy, but never with Grimes, while Grimes said that he had never committed any such offence. Wright was also found guilty of killing Mr. Warner of Winhall.[53]
Thomas Grimes
Richard Whatley[54] 23 March 1776 Trial at Hampshire assizes 5 March. Whatley, aged 41 and also known as Richard Churchill, was convicted of sodomy against Benjamin Dupre, a coachman employed by Lovell Stanhope. He admitted that he had attempted the offence (which took place at Avington), but had not actually committed it.[55]
Benjamin Loveday 12 October 1781 Trial at Bristol assizes.[56] Hanged on St Michael's Hill. Loveday worked as a waiter before keeping a public house on Tower Street, Bristol while Burke was a midshipman, and they were accused of sexual activity together that they denied. Loveday was also accused by James Morgan. Joseph Giles and James Lane were also accused with Loveday, but were only sentenced for misdemeanours, and William Ward was acquitted. Loveday may have been running a molly house.[57][58]
John Burke
John Lad or Ladd[59] (one source says Thomas)[45] 10 April 1786 A Methodist preacher, he was tried at Surrey assizes on 22 March and taken from New Gaol to be hanged on Peckham Common.
Thomas Crispin[60][61] 17 August 1787 Trial at Devon assizes 30 July. Hanged at Heavitree gallows near Exeter. Crispin, aged 45, was a potter from Pilton who had been living in a workhouse for seven years. His co-accused Hugh Gribble was reprieved owing to mental incapacity. Crispin acknowledged his guilt but showed no remorse.
John Southwell 3 April 1790 Trial at Suffolk assizes in Bury 17 March. Hanged at Rushmere Heath.[62][63]
John Smith
William Powell[62] 30 August 1797 Powell was a pauper at Melford workhouse. His trial was at Suffolk assizes on 9 August. He was hanged at Bury St Edmunds at the age of 70, but he did not confess.[64][65]
Joseph Bird[66] 26 August 1803 Trial at Warwickshire assizes, executed in Warwick. Bird was a Methodist, convicted on the testimony of John Privett. Privett withdrew his statement, only to then say this was because Bird's son bribed him.
Mathuselah Spalding aka Methuselah.[67][68][69] 8 February 1804 His trial was at the Old Bailey in November, where he was convicted of having "a venereal affair" with James Hankinson. He was hanged at Newgate. He was hanged with a forger, Ann Hurle - they were led out of Debtor's Door and rather than the New Drop they were hanged by a cart being driven from under them.
David Robertson[70][71][72] 13 August 1806 Trial at the Old Bailey and executed at Newgate after attempting suicide. Robertson was 48 years old and said to keep a brothel at Charles Street, Covent Garden. He was convicted of an offence with 17-year-old George Foulston.
James Stockton aka Samuel Stockton[71][73][74][75][76][77] 13 September 1806 Known as the Remarkable Trials, twenty seven men aged 17 to 84 from in and around Warrington, Manchester, and Liverpool were arrested in May 1806 for sodomy and nine were tried by John Borron and Richard Gwillym at the Lancaster assizes. Harry Cocks notes that the arrests came amid concerns post-1789 about Jacobins and other men meeting in private. Men of different social classes, they met among other places on Mondays and Fridays at Hitchin's house in Great Sankey, Cheshire, and were said by the press to be Freemasons and call each other "brother". Holland was a rich pawnbroker and there were rumours that members of the gentry were involved with the group, even members of Parliament. Those hanged were convicted on the testimonies of John Knight and Thomas Taylor, members of the group who gave evidence to avoid being hanged themselves. Rix also testified that sodomy was widespread and considered normal in Warrington, Manchester, and Liverpool, describing casual encounters in the street, but the magistrate refused a deal, while Hitchin denied the charges. Stockton, Holland and Powell were hanged at Lancaster castle on 13 September, and Hitchin and Rix later that month after they were further interrogated to find other conspirators. Joshua Newsom and George Ellis were found guilty of lesser offences and the rest were acquitted. The magistrates attempted to investigate further, but were stopped by the Home Office.
Joseph Holland
John Powell
Isaac Hitchin[71][73] 27 September 1806 Part of the "Remarkable Trials"
Thomas Rix
William Billey[78][79] 31 March 1808 Aged 45, he was accused of an offence against Thomas Douglas of Crayford and for attempted offences against others. His trial was at Kent Lent Assizes in Maidstone, and he was hanged on Penenden Heath. He had no family and the Kentish Gazette said he "appeared a perfect idiot".
Richard Neighbour[78][80][81] 24 November 1808 Neighbour of Gresse Street, Rathbone Place, aged 26, was convicted of a crime against the body of Joshua Archer, aged 17 or 18, an apprentice to an engraver. Attempts were made to bribe Archer to leave the country. Neighbour was sentenced to hang at the Old Bailey in October 1808, but he poisoned himself with arsenic at Newgate the next month, less than a week before his execution was due.
James Bartlett[82] 4 April 1809 Trial at Surrey Assizes, executed at Horsemonger Lane Gaol. He was buried at Limehouse and left £1,500 to his daughter.
Samuel Mounser[83] 31 August 1810 Trial at the Chelmsford Summer Assizes, from Stanford-le-Hope
Thomas White 7 March 1811 Ensign John Newball Hepburn, in his forties, and Drummer Thomas White, 16, tried at the Old Bailey and hanged in front of Newgate Prison, London[84][85]
John Hepburn
David Thompson Myers[86][87][88] 4 May 1812 Myers was a draper of Stamford, accused by Thomas Crow (or Crowe), an 18-year-old apprentice to a tailor, Mr. Horden of Stamford. Myers was acquitted in Lincolnshire due to Crow being suspected of lying, but he was then convicted at trial at Peterborough accused again by Crow of offences at Burghley Park. Myers was hanged at Fengate, Peterborough, the last man to be publicly executed in the city.
George Godfrey[89][90] 1 April 1813 Godfrey was a butler in the house of Mr. Atkinson at Lee, who was indicted for "unnatural offences" with a footman, Henry Greenhurst, from May to December 1812. The latter was "unconscious of the heinous character of the offence" and told another servant, who informed Mr. Atkinson. Godfrey was hanged at Penenden Heath.
Henry Youens[91][92] 18 August 1814 Trial at the Kent Assizes in Maidstone, hanged at Penenden Heath. Ottaway, 33, and Youens, 21, were soldiers.
John Ottaway (spelled variously Ottoway, Otooway, Ottway, and Otway)
Abraham Adams[93][94][95] 26 July 1815 Trial at the Old Bailey, hanged aged 51 at Newgate alongside Elizabeth Fenning
George Siggins[96] 21 August 1817 Trial at Kent Assizes in Maidstone for a crime in Chatham, executed on Penenden Heath
Joseph Charlton[97][98][99] 14 April 1819 A watchmaker aged 26 who was tried at the Guildhall, Newcastle and hanged at Morpeth. His funeral was attended by 2000 people.
John Markham[99][100][101][102] 29 December 1819 A pauper aged 26 who was an inmate at St. Giles's workhouse, his hanging was heard by John Cam Hobhouse, who was being held at Newgate. Hobhouse noted in his diary, "Tis dreadful hanging a man for this practice".
Thomas Foster[103][104][105] 3 May 1820 Trial at Kent Assizes and hanged at Penenden Heath. Convicted of an offence with John Whyneard (charged as an accomplice, but not hanged) at the Isle of Sheppey.
John Holland[106][107] 25 November 1822 Aged 42 and 32 respectively, tried at the Old Bailey and executed at Newgate.
William King[106][107]
William Arden[108][109][110][111] 21 March 1823 Respectively a gentleman and half-pay officer aged 35, a valet to the Duke of Newcastle aged 36, and a cabinet maker aged 35, they were tried at Lincoln Assizes by Mr. Justice Park and convicted on the evidence of a 19-year-old apprentice draper named Henry Hackett. A love letter from Hackett to Candler had been addressed to the Duke to save on postage: the Duke received and read the letter and had Hackett confronted, upon which he also implicated Doughty and Arden, who had associated with each other in Grantham in summer 1822. They were part of a group of up to 36 men led by Arden, who went on hunger strike in jail. The convicted men were hanged at Lincoln Castle.
Benjamin Candler
John Doughty
Charles Clutton[112][113] 13 August 1824 Aged 25, he was charged in June 1824 with Charles Paul, aged 17, for an offence at Weedon Bec barracks in May 1823 - they were both privates in the 53rd regiment. He was sentenced by Mr. Justice Holroyd and hanged at the New Drop, Northamptonshire
Joseph Bennett[114] 20 April 1825 Aged about 30 and from Witney and aged 22 and from Radstock, respectively, they were hanged at Ilchester Gaol in Somerset
George Maggs
Captain Henry Nicholl (also reported as Nichol and Nicholls) 12 August 1833 A 50-year-old veteran of the Peninsular War, Nicholl was hanged at Horsemonger Lane Gaol in Southwark, London. He was renounced by his prominent family, and his body was handed over to a hospital for dissection as they refused to accept it for burial.[115][116]
George Cropper[117][118] 26 December 1833 A 26-year-old soldier, he was convicted of an offence at Deptford with a fellow soldier, Charles Pike, who was aged 18, but Pike was acquitted. Cropper was hanged at New Sessions House in Maidstone, the same day as a rapist.
John Spershott (also reported as John Sparshott and John Sparsholt)[119][120][121] 22 August 1835 A labourer aged 19, he was convicted of an offence with George Howard (who was not charged) at Mid Lavant and hanged at Horsham, Surrey, alongside a burglar. "Spershott's hanging was perhaps the last occasion at which was performed the folk ritual of the hangman passing the dead man's hands over the neck and bosoms of young women as a cure for glandular enlargements."
John Smith 27 November 1835 The last two men to be hanged for homosexuality in England
John Pratt


See also[edit]


  1. ^ 16th century; exact date unknown
  1. ^ Herrup, Cynthia B. (1999). A House in Gross Disorder: Sex, Law, and the 2nd Earl of Castlehaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195125184.
  2. ^ Norris, David (2009-05-17). "Changing Attitudes". Public Address at the service to mark international day against homophobia in Christ Church Cathedral. David Norris. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Crompton, Louis (1981). Salvatore J. Licata; Robert P. Petersen (eds.). Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality. Haworth Press. ISBN 9780917724275.
  4. ^ a b c d Dynes, Wayne R. (2016-03-22). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality: Volume I. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-36815-1.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Dynes, Wayne R.; Donaldson, Stephen (1992). History of Homosexuality in Europe and America. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-0550-7.
  6. ^ a b Monter, E. William (2003-11-13). Frontiers of Heresy: The Spanish Inquisition from the Basque Lands to Sicily. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52259-5.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Crompton, Louis (July 2009). Homosexuality and Civilization. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03006-0.
  8. ^ a b Kibler, William W.; Zinn, Grover A. (2017-07-05). Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-66565-0.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Puff, Helmut (2003). Sodomy in Reformation Germany and Switzerland, 1400-1600. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-68505-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  10. ^ a b c d e Sabaté, Flocel (2019-09-03). The Death Penalty in Late-Medieval Catalonia: Evidence and Significations. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-58174-8.
  11. ^ Jacob, Roger "Dominique Phinot", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed January 1, 2006), (subscription access)
  12. ^ Elliott, Dyan (2020-11-27). The Corrupter of Boys: Sodomy, Scandal, and the Medieval Clergy. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-9748-5.
  13. ^ "Testi di storia gay - Il primo processo ad un sodomita in Italia - Cronica fiorentina anonima, 1293". Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  14. ^ Ruggiero, Guido (1988). I confini dell'Eros: crimini sessuali e sessualità nella Venezia del Rinascimento (in Italian). Marsilio. ISBN 978-88-317-5079-0.
  15. ^ Rocke, Michael (1996). Forbidden Friendships, Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence. Oxford University Press. pp. 24, 227, 356, 360. ISBN 0-19-512292-5.
  16. ^ Meyer, Michael J (2000). Literature and Homosexuality. Rodopi. p. 206. ISBN 90-420-0519-X.
  17. ^ "1833 - Mazzoni-Toselli, Ottavio - Dizionario Gallo-italico (1833). Voce Bardassa e sodomia a Bologna". Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  18. ^ Rodolico, Thus N. (1895). Sicilians in Bologna Study in the Middle Ages (in Italian). p. 161.
  19. ^ Ruggiero, Guido (1988). The borders of Eros: crimes and sexuality in the Venice of the Renaissance (in Italian). Marsilio. p. 202.
  20. ^ a b c AB. "Elenco delle condanne capitali eseguite a Venezia, dalle origini della Repubblica alla sua caduta | Conoscere Venezia" (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-02-26.
  21. ^ Ciabani, Roberto (1994). Tortured hanged quartered. Capital punishment in Florence from 1423 to 1759 (in Italian). Florence: Bonechi. p. 77.
  22. ^ Official website commemorating 500 years since Bonfadio's birth Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Tucker, Scott (1997). The Queer Question: Essays on Desire and Democracy. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-577-0. p. 46.
  24. ^ Sieni, Stefano (2002). The dirty history of Florence (in Italian). The Letters.
  25. ^ Casanova, Cesarina. "Dimensioni e problemi della ricerca storica".
  26. ^ Grossi, Oreste (1997). The executioner of Rome. Rome: Newton Compton.
  27. ^ Mutinelli, Fabio (1855). Storia arcana ed aneddotica d'Italia, raccontata dai veneti ambasciatori annotata ed ed. da F. Mutinelli (in Italian).
  28. ^ Marcocci, Giuseppe (2010). "Homosexual marriages in the Rome of the late sixteenth century". Quaderni Storico. XLV: 131.
  29. ^ a b Tartamella, Enzo (2006). Rapito di Lussuria Improvvisa (in Italian). Trapani: Maroda.
  30. ^ Knowles, Jon (2019-06-28). How Sex Got Screwed Up: The Ghosts that Haunt Our Sexual Pleasure - Book One: From the Stone Age to the Enlightenment. Vernon Press. ISBN 978-1-62273-583-9.
  31. ^ "" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  32. ^ Hemert, Johan Maurits van (1749). Korte levensbeschryving der Hollandsche graven (in Dutch). by Nicolaas Goetzee.
  33. ^ a b Tucker, Scott (1997). The Queer Question: Essays on Desire and Democracy. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-577-0.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fensham, Charles (2019-11-01). Misguided Love: Christians and the Rupture of LGBTQI2+ People. Journal of Pastoral Care Publications. ISBN 978-1-7325655-3-1.
  35. ^ "Schiedam herdenkt geëxecuteerde sodomist". Rijnmond. 7 March 2015.
  36. ^ "Polscy homoseksualiści spaleni na stosie?". 27 July 2020.
  37. ^ Licala, S. J.; Peterson, R. P. (2014-06-03). The Gay Past: A Collection of Historical Essays. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-95970-0.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fone, Byrne (2001-11-03). Homophobia: A History. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-42030-7.
  39. ^ a b c d e Bergin, Joseph; Betteridge, Tom; Roberts, Penny; Naphy, William G. (2002-10-11). Sodomy in Early Modern Europe. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6115-8.
  40. ^ Crime, Histoire et Sociétés, 2009/1 et 2009/2 (in French). Librairie Droz. ISBN 978-2-600-01295-9.
  41. ^ a b c Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700: The trial in history, volume I. Manchester University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7190-6342-8. JSTOR j.ctt155jbq3.
  42. ^ Retrieved 2022-02-24. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ Rappaz, Sonia Vernhes (2009-03-01). "La noyade judiciaire dans la République de Genève (1558-1619)". Crime, Histoire & Sociétés / Crime, History & Societies (in French). 13 (1): 5–23. doi:10.4000/chs.686. ISSN 1422-0857. S2CID 159549663.
  44. ^ " » 1610: Pierre Canal, Geneva sodomite". Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  45. ^ a b Surrey Assizes 1735-1799
  46. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "The Execution of Hunt and Collins, 1743", Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook. 24 March 2012
  47. ^ "Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: Bristol Gaol Delivery Fiats". Retrieved 2020-07-08.
  48. ^ "Homosexuality in 18th-cent. England: Newspaper Reports, 1752". Retrieved 2020-07-08.
  49. ^ "Homosexuality in 18th-cent. England: Newspaper Reports, 1753". Retrieved 2020-07-08.
  50. ^ "Map". OutStories Bristol. 2016-06-22. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  51. ^ Also reported as William Critichett (alternative spelling given by Bristol Gaol delivery fiats), William Pritchard (newspaper reports, 1752) and William Crutchard (newspaper reports, 1753)
  52. ^ Coventry Assizes 1735-1799
  53. ^ "Homosexuality in 18th-cent. England: Newspaper Reports, 1755".
  54. ^ Hampshire Assizes 1735-1799
  55. ^ "Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: Newspaper Reports, 1776".
  56. ^ Bristol Assizes 1735-1799
  57. ^ "Homosexuality in 18th-cent. England: Newspaper Reports, 1780-1781".
  58. ^ Mills, Steve (12 July 2018). "Not so long ago in Bristol you could be hanged for love". The Bristol Cable.
  59. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1786", Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 16 September 2014, updated 30 July 2018
  60. ^ Devon Assizes 1735-1799
  61. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1787", Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 14 May 2010, enlarged 16 September 2014 <
  62. ^ a b Suffolk Assizes 1735-1799
  63. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1790", Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 29 September 2014
  64. ^ "Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: Newspaper Reports, 1797".
  65. ^ Durston, Gregory J (2016). "Sexual offences". Fields, Fens and Felonies: Crime and Justice in Eighteenth-Century East Anglia. Waterside Press. p. 578. ISBN 9781909976115.
  66. ^ "Catalogue description Report of Giles Rooke on Joseph Bird, convicted at the 'last' Warwickshire Assizes for..." August 21, 1803 – via National Archive of the UK.
  67. ^ "Methuselah Spalding | The Digital Panopticon".
  68. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1804", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 20 April 2008; enlarged 20 October 2014
  69. ^ Clifford, Naomi (2017). Women and the Gallows, 1797–1837: Unfortunate Wretches. Pen and Sword. p. 154. ISBN 9781473863361.
  70. ^ Robertson, David, "The trial of David Robertson ... for an unnatural crime with George Foulston : tried before Sir Robert Graham ... on Saturday, May 24, 1806, at Justice-Hall, in the Old Bailey : with his remarkable address to the court, praying arrest of judgment : embellished with a striking likeness of the prisoner" (1806). British Trials. 2.
  71. ^ a b c Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1806", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 5 May 2008, updated 17 February 2013, enlarged 19 January 2016
  72. ^ "Search :: Capital Convictions at the Old Bailey".
  73. ^ a b Rictor Norton (Ed.), "A Sodomite Club in Warrington, 1806", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 5 May 2008
  74. ^ "The "Remarkable Trials" at Lancaster 1806, in Song". 7 November 2014.
  75. ^ Remarkable Trials at the Lancashire Assizes, Held August 1806, at Lancaster, By Valentine Jackson
  76. ^ Baggoley, Martin (2010). "The Warrington Sodomites 1806". Hanged in Lancashire. Grub Street Publishers. ISBN 9781781598788.
  77. ^ Cocks, Harry (2006). "Safeguarding Civility: Sodomy, Class and Moral Reform in Early Nineteenth-Century England". Past & Present. 190: 121–146. doi:10.1093/pastj/gtj004.
  78. ^ a b Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1808", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 5 May 2008; enlarged 25 Oct. 2014, 9 Jan. 2016
  79. ^ Canterbury, April 1. Kentish Gazette, 1 April 1808
  80. ^ OLD BAILEY, Oct 26. Saint James's Chronicle, London, 27 October 1808
  81. ^ Sun (London), 22 October 1808
  82. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1809", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 5 May 2008, updated 19 January 2012, enlarged 26 January 2016
  83. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1810", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 13 January 2016, updated 3 December 2019
  84. ^ Davenport, Guy (2003), "Wos Es War, Soll Ich Werden" in The Death of Picasso, Shoemaker & Hoard, Washington, D.C., p. 334.
  85. ^ "The London Chronicle". J. Wilkie. September 6, 1810 – via Google Books.
  86. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Lord, Remember Me!", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, enlarged 7 Dec. 2014
  87. ^ "DT Myers - Peterborough Execution (1812)". October 15, 2015.
  88. ^ Peterborough Sessions. Statesman (London), 14 April 1812
  89. ^ "Homosexuality in 19th-cent. England: Newspaper Reports, 1813".
  90. ^ Kent Assizes. Kentish Chronicle, 23 March 1813
  91. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1814", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 7 November 2014
  92. ^ Saunders's News-Letter, 26 August 1814, Dublin
  93. ^ "Abraham Adams | The Digital Panopticon".
  94. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1815", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 12 November 2014
  95. ^ "Search :: Capital Convictions at the Old Bailey".
  96. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1817", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 17 November 2014, updateed 18 April 2020
  97. ^ John Sykes, Local records; or, Historical register of remarkable events, which have occurred in Northumberland and Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and Berwick-upon-Tweed, Volume 2, p. 118, 1866
  98. ^ "The last dying words of Joseph Charlton ; of North-Shields, watch-maker who was executed at Morpeth, on the 14th of April 1819, for an unnatural offence". English Crime and Execution Broadsides - CURIOSity Digital Collections.
  99. ^ a b Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1819", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 11 December 2014, updated 2 March 2015
  100. ^ "Browse - Central Criminal Court".
  101. ^ " » 1819: John Markham, abominable offence".
  102. ^ "Search :: Capital Convictions at the Old Bailey".
  103. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1820", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 17 December 2014, enlarged 12 Jan. 2016
  104. ^ Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal, 17 March 1820
  105. ^ Kentish Weekly Post or Canterbury Journal, 11 January 1820
  106. ^ a b Old Bailey Proceedings Online (, version 8.0, 27 March 2021), September 1822 (18220911).
  107. ^ a b Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1822", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 29 December 2014, updated 19 Feb, 2918
  108. ^ The Trial of Arden, Candler and Doughty, The Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford Mercury, etc. 1823, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, via British Library
  109. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1823", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 29 December 2014; expanded 19 August 2016
  110. ^ A Doleful Dirge on the Wicked Men, 1823, Newark, Nottinghamshire, via British Library
  111. ^ Harry Cocks (January 15, 2016), The Execution of Benjamin Candler, Valet to the Duke of Newcastle, 1823, History Past and Present, University of Nottingham
  112. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1824", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 7 February 2015, updated 11 Sept. 2020
  113. ^ The Cork Morning Post, Cork, August 6, 1824, Unnatural Crime Northampton July 27
  114. ^ Before 1837 – Dying for love : pleasures, perils and punishments, OutStories Bristol
  115. ^ "EXECUTION OF CAPTAIN NICHOLLS.—THIS MORNING". London. 1833-08-12. pp. The Standard.
  116. ^ "Trial & execution of Capt. Henry Nichols ; Trial and execution of Capt. Henry Nichols ; Trial and execution of Captain Henry Nichols ; who suffered this morning at Horse Monger Lane, Prison, Boro". English Crime and Execution Broadsides - CURIOSity Digital Collections. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  117. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Newspaper Reports, 1833", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 5 Feb. 2016; updated 31 May 2019, 15 April 2020
  118. ^ The trials and behaviour of George Cropper, and William Allen ; who were executed this morning, December 26, 1833, in front of the New Sessions House, Maidstone, Kent
  119. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "Execution of John Spershott, 1835", Homosexuality in Nineteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook, 29 April 2020
  120. ^ Harvard University - Harvard Law School Library / Sheppard, Richard. Full particulars of the trials and execution of Richard Sheppard and John Sparshott, who were executed at Horsham, on Saturday, Aug. 22nd, 1835. [Brighton, England] : Phillips and Co., Printers, Brighton., [1835].
  121. ^ "Unnatural" act of being gay saw teen lad hanged, West Sussex County Times, 6th July 2017,
  122. ^ "Capital Punishment UK homepage".

External links[edit]