List of people from Madrid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Born in
- 1.1 Architecture and urban planning
- 1.2 Army
- 1.3 Art music
- 1.4 Bullfighting
- 1.5 Engineering
- 1.6 Finances
- 1.7 Formal sciences
- 1.8 Literature
- 1.9 Media and entertainment
- 1.10 Natural sciences
- 1.11 Philosophy
- 1.12 Politics
- 1.13 Popular music
- 1.14 Religion
- 1.15 Scenic arts
- 1.16 Social sciences
- 1.17 Sports
- 1.18 Visual arts
- 1.19 Others
- 2 Other influential people who have lived in Madrid
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Architecture and urban planning
- Teodoro Ardemans (1664–1726): Spanish architect.
- José Benito de Churriguera (1665–1725) and Churriguera family: Spanish Baroque architects and sculptors. The highly decorated Churrigueresque style of architectural construction is named after the family.
- Juan de Villanueva (1739–1811): Spanish architect of Neoclassicism.
- Arturo Soria (1844–1920): Spanish urban planner, well known for his concept of the linear city.
- Antonio González Echarte (1864–1943): Spanish civil engineer. One of the creators of the Metro de Madrid.
- Carlos Mendoza y Sáez de Argandoña (1872–1950): Spanish civil engineer. One of the creators of the Metro de Madrid.
- Eduardo Torroja (1899–1961) : Spanish structural engineer and architect.
- Pedro de Heredia (1505 – c. 1554): Spanish conquistador and founder of Cartagena de Indias.
- Alonso de Contreras (1582–1648): Spanish privateer, a friend of Lope de Vega.
- Dionisio Aguado y García (1784-1849): Spanish classical guitarist and composer.
- Francisco Asenjo Barbieri (1823–1894): Spanish composer of the popular Spanish opera form, the zarzuela.
- Federico Chueca (1846–1908): Spanish composer of zarzuelas.
- Conrado del Campo (1878–1953): Composer, violinist and professor at the Madrid Conservatory.
- Teresa Berganza (1935): Spanish mezzo-soprano.
- Plácido Domingo (1941): International tenor and conductor.
- Miguel Álvarez-Fernández (1979): Spanish sound artist, composer, theorist and curator.
- Luis Miguel Dominguín (1926–1996): Spanish bullfighter, a lover of Ava Gardner.
- Julián López Escobar, El "Juli" (1982): Spanish bullfighter.
- Rafael del Pino (1920–2008): Founder of the construction company Ferrovial.
- Pedro Duque (1963): Spanish astronaut and aeronautical engineer.
- Esther Koplowitz (1953): Spanish noble and businesswoman
- Juan Villalonga (1953): Spanish businessman.
- Alicia Koplowitz (1954): Spanish noble and businesswoman.
- Pablo Isla (1964): Current Chairman and CEO of Inditex.
- Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682): Spanish Catholic scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic, mathematician and writer.
- Alonso de Ercilla (1533–1594): Spanish soldier and poet.
- Félix Lope de Vega (1562–1635): Spanish Baroque playwrighter and poet. He renewed the Spanish theatre at a time when it was starting to become a mass cultural phenomenon.
- Tirso de Molina (1579–1648): Spanish Baroque playwrighter, poet and Roman Catholic monk, universally known as the creator of Don Juan.
- Francisco de Quevedo (1580–1645): Spanish nobleman, politician and Baroque writer. His style is characterized by what was called conceptismo.
- Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600–1681): Spanish Baroque playwrighter and poet. His work being regarded as the culmination of the Spanish Baroque theatre.
- Leandro Fernández de Moratín (1760–1828): Spanish playwrighter and poet.
- Ramón de Mesonero Romanos (1803–1882): Spanish prose-writer, author of Guía de Madrid (Madrid guide).
- Mariano José de Larra (1809–1837): Spanish Romantic writer and journalist.
- José Echegaray (1832–1916): Spanish engineer, mathematician and dramatist; Nobel prize in Literature 1904.
- Jacinto Benavente (1866–1954): Spanish dramatist, Nobel prize in Literature 1922.
- Pedro Salinas (1891–1951): Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27.
- Dámaso Alonso (1898–1990): Spanish poet, philologist and literary critic.
- Enrique Jardiel Poncela (1901–1952): Spanish playwright and novelist who wrote mostly humorous works.
- Liboria o "Borita Casas" Casas Regueiro (1911-1999): Journalist, playwright and author known for inventing the character, "Antoñita la Fantastica" (Fantastic Antonia).
- Francisco Umbral (1932–2007): Spanish novelist, journalist, essayist and biographer.
Media and entertainment
- Jesús Álvarez (1926–1970): Spanish journalist and first anchorman of Telediario.
- Jesús de Polanco (1929–2007): Businessman from Spain and founder of El País and Cadena SER.
- Matías Prats Luque (1952): Spanish sports and news journalist.
- El Gran Wyoming (1955): Spanish humourist and actor.
- Ana Rosa Quintana (1956): Spanish journalist and TV presenter.
- David Cantolla (1967): Founder of companies engaged in the technology and entertainment, and one of the creators of Pocoyo.
- Belén Esteban (1973): Spanish television personality.
- Ana Pastor (1977): Spanish journalist and anchorwoman.
- Guillermo García Carsí (1974): Director and creator of Pocoyo.
- Maslama al-Majriti (10th century – 1007 or 1008): Muslim astronomer.
- Andrés Manuel del Río (1764–1849): Spanish-Mexican scientist and naturalist.
- Ignacio Bolívar (1850–1944): Spanish naturalist and entomologist.
- Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora (1886–1971): Important Spanish neurologist.
- Gregorio Marañón (1887–1960): Spanish physician, scientist, historian, writer and philosopher.
- Carlos Jiménez Díaz (1898–1967): Spanish physician.
- Manuel Díaz Rubio (1908–1976): Spanish physician. He made important contributions in the field of liver and digestive diseases.
- Francisco J. Ayala (1934): Spanish-American biologist and philosopher at the University of California, Irvine.
- Antonio García-Bellido (1936): Spanish Developmental biologist. His ideas and new approaches to the problem of development have been followed and pursued by many researchers worldwide.
- Mariano Barbacid (1949): Internationally avowed molecular biologist.
- José Bermúdez de Castro (1952): Spanish anthropologist, a member of the Research Team investigating Pleistocene deposits in the Atapuerca Mountains.
- Juan Luis Arsuaga (1954): Spanish anthropologist, a member of the Research Team investigating Pleistocene deposits in the Atapuerca Mountains.
- Ignacio Martínez Mendizábal (1961): Spanish anthropologist, a member of the Research Team investigating Pleistocene deposits in the Atapuerca Mountains.
- José Ortega y Gasset (1883–1955): Internationally avowed Spanish liberal philosopher.
- Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (1370–1412): Castilian ambassador to the court of Timur.
- Joanna la Beltraneja (1462–1530): Queen of Portugal and claimant to the throne of Castile.
- Maria of Spain (1528–1603): Spouse of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- Antonio Perez (1540–1611): Secretary of Philip II of Spain.
- Philip III of Spain (1578–1621): Spanish Habsburg monarch.
- Ferdinand VI of Spain (1713–1759): King of Spain.
- Charles III of Spain (1716–1788): King of Spain, Naples (as Charles VII) and Sicily (as Charles V).
- Isabella II of Spain (1830–1904): Queen of Spain.
- José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903–1936): Spanish lawyer, nobleman and politician, founder of Falange Española.
- Enrique Tierno Galván (1918–1986): Mayor of Madrid from 1978 to 1986.
- Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo (1926–2008): Spanish political figure and prime minister during the period of transition after the end of Francisco Franco's regime.
- Javier Solana (1942): Spanish politician. He was appointed the High Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of European Union and the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union.
- Rodrigo Rato (1949): Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from 2004 to 2007.
- Esperanza Aguirre (1952): 3rd President of Madrid (2003–2012) and former president of the Spanish Senate (1999–2012).
- José María Aznar (1952): Prime minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004.
- Alberto Ruiz Gallardón (1958): Current Minister of Justice and former Mayor of Madrid (2003–2011).
- Philip VI of Spain (1968): Current king of Spain.
- Pablo Iglesias Turrión (1978): Spanish political scientist and leader of Podemos.
- Rafael Guitart, Senior President of the Moon (1996-alive)
- María Dolores Pradera (1924): Spanish singer and actress.
- Fina de Calderón (1927–2010): Spanish writer, poet, songwriter and musician.
- Julio Iglesias (1943): Spanish singer and songwriter who has sold over 300 million records worldwide.
- Rocío Durcal (1944–2006): Spanish singer and actress.
- Massiel (1947): Spanish pop singer. She won the Eurovision Song Contest 1968.
- Antonio Vega (1957–2007): Spanish pop singer-songwriter. A member of Nacha Pop.
- Antonio Flores (1961–1995): Spanish singer-songwriter and actor.
- Alejandro Sanz (1968): Spanish singer-songwriter and musician.
- Los Chichos (1973–1995, 1990–2008): Spanish rumba band.
- Enrique Iglesias (1975): Spanish singer-songwriter, model, and actor.
- Barón Rojo (1980): Spanish heavy metal band.
- Mecano (1981–1992): Spanish pop band.
- Hombres G (1982–1992; 2002–present): Spanish pop-rock band.
- Mägo de Oz (1988): Spanish rock and folk/heavy metal band.
- Belinda (1989): Mexican singer, songwriter and actress.
- Ska-P (1994): Ska-punk band formed in the neighbourghood of Vallecas (Madrid).
- Saint Isidro Labrador (1070–1130): Catholic patron saint of farmers and Madrid.
- Juan Eusebio Nieremberg (1595–1658): Spanish Jesuit and mystic.
- Álvaro del Portillo (1914–1992): Former prelate of the Opus Dei.
- María Calderón, "La Calderona" (1611–1646): Spanish theatre actress and lover of Philip IV of Spain.
- María Guerrero (1867–1928): Spanish theatre actress, producer and director.
- Edgar Neville (1899–1967): Spanish playwright and film director, a member of the Generation of '27.
- Antonio Castillo (1908–1984): Academy Award winning costume designer.
- Juan Antonio Bardem (1922–2002): Spanish screen writer and film director.
- César Fernández Ardavín (1923–2012): Spanish film director and screenwriter. He won the Golden Bear at the 10th Berlin International Film Festival.
- José Luis Garci (1944): Spanish director, who won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1982.
- Carmen Maura (1945): Spanish actress. She has collaborated with Pedro Almodóvar in several times.
- Emilio Martínez Lázaro (1945): Spanish film director. He shared a Golden Bear at the 28th Berlin International Film Festival.
- Fernando Trueba (1955): Spanish director, who won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1994.
- Belén Rueda (1962): Spanish actress, known for her roles as Julia in The Sea Inside (2004) and as Laura in The Orphanage(2007).
- Santiago Segura (1965): Spanish film actor, screenwriter, producer and director.
- Maribel Verdú (1970): Spanish actress.
- Penélope Cruz (1974): First Spanish actress in history to receive an Academy Award and the first Spanish actress to receive a star at the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- Nathalia Ramos (1992): Spanish and American actress. Born/lived in Madrid for 2 years.
- Juan Lopez de Hoyos (1511–1583): Spanish schoolmaster and Miguel de Cervantes' teacher.
- Claudio Sánchez Albornoz (1893–1984): Spanish historian.
- Manuel Tuñón de Lara (1915–1987): Spanish historian.
- Pio Filippani Ronconi (1920–2010): Italian orientalist.
- Ramón Tamames (1933): Spanish economist and politician.
- Jesús Huerta de Soto (1956): Internationally avowed economist.
- José Navarro Morenes (1897–1974): Spanish horse rider.
- Luis Aragonés (1938): Former Spanish footballer and national coach.
- Manolo Santana (1938): Former amateur tennis champion.
- Florentino Pérez (1957): Spanish businessman, civil engineer, former politician and current president of Real Madrid C.F., as well as Grupo ACS.
- Carlos Sainz (1962): Spanish rally driver.
- Fernando Martín Espina (1962–1989): One of the best Spanish basketball players ever.
- Emilio Butragueño (1963): Spanish retired footballer.
- Luis Vidal (1968): Spanish professional bodybuilder.
- Pedro García Aguado (1968): Former water polo player and current psychologist.
- Jesús Ángel García (1969): Spanish race walker.
- Rafael Pascual, "El Toro" (1970): Spanish volleyball player.
- Raúl González (1977): Professional football player.
- Estela Giménez (1979): Retired rhythmic gymnast.
- Fernando Verdasco (1983): Professional tennis player.
- Fernando Torres (1984): Professional football player.
- David De Gea (1990): Professional football player.
- Iker Casillas (1981): Professional football player.
- Sebastián Herrera Barnuevo (1611–1616): Spanish painter, architect and sculptor.
- Francisco Camilo (1615–1673): Spanish Baroque painter.
- Francisco Rizi (1608–1615): Spanish Baroque painter
- Francisco de Solís (1620–1645): Spanish Baroque painter.
- Claudio Coello (1642–1693): Spanish Baroque painter.
- Eduardo Rosales (1836–1873): Spanish realist painter.
- José Gutiérrez Solana (1886–1945): Spanish expressionist painter and printmaker.
- Juan Gris (1887–1927): International artist of Cubism.
- Lucio Muñoz (1929–1998): Spanish abstract painter and engraver.
- Eduardo Arroyo (1937): Spanish painter and graphic artist.
- Juan Muñoz (1953–2001): Spanish sculptor, working primarily in papier-mâché, resin and bronze.
- Ouka Leele (1957): Spanish photographer.
- Chema Madoz (1958): Spanish photographer, best known for his black and white surrealist photographies.
- Muelle (1966–1995): Spanish graffiti pioneer.
- María Cayetana de Silva (1762–1802): 13th Duchess of Alba.
- Manuela Malasaña (1791–1808): One of the townspeople who lost their lives during the Dos de Mayo Uprising against the troops of Napoleon I of France during the Peninsular War.
- Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (1960): Spanish designer.
Other influential people who have lived in Madrid
Architecture and urban planning
- Juan de Herrera (1530–1597): Spanish architect, mathematician and geometrician.
- Filippo Juvarra (1678–1736): Italian architect and stage set designer.
- Ventura Rodríguez (1717–1785): Spanish architect and artist.
- Francesco Sabatini (1722–1897): Italian architect.
- Antonio Palacios (1872–1945): Spanish architect.
- Miguel Otamendi (1878–1958): Spanish civil engineer known for being one of the creators of the Metro de Madrid.
- Don John of Austria (1545–1578): Illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, best known for his victory at the Battle of Lepanto.
- Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (1852–1936): Spanish civil engineer and mathematician.
- Ramón Areces Rodríguez (1905–1989): Spanish businessman and founder of El Corte Inglés.
- Emilio Botín (1634–2014): Spanish banker. Former Executive Chairman of Spain's Grupo Santander.
- Grégoire de Saint-Vincent (1584–1667): Flemish Jesuit mathematician.
- Jean-Charles de la Faille (1597–1652): Flemish Jesuit mathematician.
- Johann Baptist Cysat (1587–1657): Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer.
- Hugh Sempill (between 1589 and 1596 – 1654): Scottish Jesuit mathematician and linguist.
- Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616): Famous Spanish novelist, poet and playwrighter and soldier. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, is the first modern European novel.
- Luis de Góngora (1561–1627): Spanish Baroque lyric poet.
- Manuel de Faria e Sousa (1590–1649): Portuguese poet and historian.
- Miguel Unamuno (1864–1936): Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, and Greek professor and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
- Pío Baroja (1872–1956): Spanish Basque writer, one of the key novelists of the Generation of '98.
- Vicente Aleixandre (1889–1984): Spanish poet, Nobel Prize in Literature 1977.
- Federico García Lorca (1898–1936): Spanish poet, dramatist and theatre director.
- Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961): American author and journalist.
- Camilo José Cela (1916–2002): Spanish novelist and short story, Nobel Prize in Literature 1989.
- Mario Vargas Llosa (1936): Peruvian-Spanish writer, politician, journalist, essayist, and recipient of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Media and entertainment
- Torcuato Luca de Tena (1861–1929): Spanish journalist, founder of the ABC (newspaper).
- Matías Prats Cañete (1913–2004): Spanish radio and television journalist.
- Domenico Scarlatti (1685–1757): Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.
- Luigi Boccherini (1743–1805): Italian classical era composer.
- Tomás Bretón (1850–1923): Spanish musician and composer of zarzuelas.
- Lola Flores (1923–1995): Spanish singer, dancer and actress.
- Joaquín Sabina (1949): Spanish singer, songwriter, and poet.
- Nacho Canut (1957): bass player and one of the main composers (along with Alaska) of the bands Alaska y los Pegamoides, Alaska y Dinarama and Fangoria.
- Loquillo (1960): Spanish rock singer and founder of Loquillo y Trogloditas.
- Alaska (1963): Spanish-Mexican singer, DJ, and TV personality. She was of the main characters in the so-called Movida.
- Shakira (1977): Colombian singer-songwriter, dancer and model.
- Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593–1653): Polish Jesuit astronomer and maker of astronomical instruments.
- Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934): Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate (1906).
- Severo Ochoa (1905–1933): Spanish–American Doctor of Medicine and Biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Baltasar Gracián (1601–1658): Spanish Jesuit and baroque prose writer and philosopher. His proto-existentialist writings were lauded by Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.
- María Zambrano (1904–1991): Spanish essayist and philosopher.
- Philip II of Spain (1527–1598): Habsburg King of Spain and Portugal.During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power.
- Count-Duke of Olivares (1587–1645): Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister.
- Philip IV of Spain (1605–1665): King of Spain and Portugal (as Philip III).
- Philip V of Spain (1683–1743): The first Spanish King of the House of Bourbon.
- Elizabeth Farnese (1692–1766): Queen of Spain as the wife of King Philip V, and de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746.
- Joseph Bonaparte (1768–1844): Elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte,King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
- Simón Bolivar (1783–1830): Venezuelan military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Hispanic America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire.
- Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784–1833): Spanish monarch.
- Baldomero Espartero (1793–1879): Spanish general and political figure. He was associated with the radical (or progressive) wing of Spanish liberalism and would become their symbol and champion after taking credit for the victory over the Carlists in 1839.
- Leopoldo O'Donnell (1808–1867): Spanish general and statesman.
- Francisco Pi y Margall (1824–1901): Liberal Spanish statesman and romanticist writer. He was briefly president of the short-lived First Spanish Republic in 1873.
- Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1825–1903): Prime Minister of Spain during the Spanish–American War of 1898 (during which time Spain lost its remaining colonies), and founder of the Liberal Party.
- Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (1828–1807): Spanish politician and historian known principally for serving 6 terms as Spanish Prime Minister.
- Emilio Castelar y Ripoll (1832–1899): Spanish republican politician, and a president of the First Spanish Republic.
- Amadeo I of Spain (1845–1890): The only King of Spain from the House of Savoy.
- José Rizal (1861–1896): Filipino nationalist and revolutionary.
- Francisco Franco (1892–1975): Spanish dictator from 1939 to 1975.
- Pablo Iglesias (1887–1927): Spanish socialist and labour leader, founder of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and the Spanish General Worker's Union (UGT).
- Manuel Azaña (1880–1940): First Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933).
- Santiago Carrillo (1915–2012): General secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1981.
- Manuel Fraga Iribarne (1922–2012): Spanish People's Party politician.
- Adolfo Suárez (1930): Spain's first democratically elected prime minister after the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, and the key figure in the country's transition to democracy.
- Simeon II of Bulgaria (1937): Important political and royal figure in Bulgaria.
- Juan Carlos I of Spain (1938): King of Spain from 1975 to 2014.
- Queen Sofía of Spain (1938): Queen consort and wife of King Juan Carlos I of Spain.
- Felipe González (1942): Prime Minister of Spain, after having served four successive mandates from 1982 to 1996.
- Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida (1952): Minister of Governance and Institutional Relations of the Generalitat de Catalunya.
- Mariano Rajoy (1955): Current Prime Minister of Spain, elected on 21 December 2011.
- José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (1960): Prime minister of Spain from 2004 to 2011.
- Luis Buñuel (1900–1983): Aragonese filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
- Fernando Fernán Gómez (1921–2007): Spanish actor, screenwiter, film director, theater director and member of tphe Royal Spanish Academy.
- Sara Montiel (1928–2013): Spanish singer and actress.
- Alfredo Landa (1933–2013): Spanish actor. Best Actor Award (Cannes Film Festival 1984).
- Pedro Almodóvar (1949): Spanish film director, screenwriter and producer. Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2001.
- Javier Bardem (1969): Spanish actor. In 2007, he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
- Alejandro Amenábar (1972): Chilean-Spanish film director, screenwriter and composer.He won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film (2005).
- Beatriz Galindo, "La Latina" (1465?–1534): Spanish physician and educator. She was a writer, humanist and a teacher of Queen Isabella of Castile and her children.
- Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1839-1915): Spanish philosopher, educator and one of the most influential Spanish intellectuals at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
- Ramón Menéndez Pidal (1869–1968): Spanish philologist and historian.
- Santiago Bernabéu Yeste (1895–1978): Former president of Real Madrid C.F..
- Vicente Calderón (1913–1987): Spanish businessman and president of Atlético Madrid for twenty years.
- Vincenzo Carducci (1598–1638): Italian painter.
- Francisco de Zurbarán (1598–1664): Famous Spanish Baroque painter.
- Diego Velázquez (1599–1660): Famous Spanish Baroque painter, important as a portrait artist.
- Giambattista Tiepolo (1696–1770): Italian painter and printmaker.
- Anton Raphael Mengs (1728–1779): German painter.
- Francisco Goya (1746–1828): Famous Spanish Romantic painter and printmaker, regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
- Federico de Madrazo (1815–1894): Spanish realist painter.
- Juan Luna (1857–1899): Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution.
- Pablo Picasso (1881–1973): Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of his adult life in France.
- Salvador Dalí (1904–1989): Prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter.
- Francis Bacon (1909–1992): Irish-born British figurative painter.
- Fernando Botero (1932): Colombian figurative artist and sculptor. He is considered the most recognized and quoted living artist from Latin America.
- Antonio López García (1936): Spanish painter and sculptor.
- Carmen Cervera (1943): Spanish philanthropist, socialite and art dealer and collector.
- "Antonio González Echarte".
- "Carlos Mendoza y Sáez de Arganzoña".!
- "David Cantolla".
- "Guillermo García Carsí".
- "Manuel Díaz Rubio Lurueña".
- "Manuel Díaz Rubio Lurueña (obituary)".
- "José Bermúdez de Castro".
- "Ignacio Martínez Mendizábal".
- "Ramón Tamames".
- "Luis Vidal".
- "Francisco de Solís".
- [http://www.museoreinasofia.es/exposiciones/2004/gutierrez- solana.html "José Gutiérrez Solana"].
- "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
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