List of people granted asylum
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This is a list of people granted political asylum for individual and publicly known reasons. They were persecuted because of their actions as individuals, not because they were members of a persecuted group. Individual reasons for persecution can be found in the notes column of the table.
People granted asylum
|Year||Name||Citizenship||Country which granted asylum||Occupation||Notes / References|
|1849||Karl Marx||Prussia||United Kingdom||German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist||In exile in London from 1849.|
|1929||Leon Trotsky||Soviet Union||Turkey||Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army||In exile in Turkey from 1929–1933, in France 1933–1935, in Norway 1935–1937, in Mexico 1937–1940.|
|1954||Peter Norwood Duberg||United States||Switzerland||United States citizen, United Nations official, employed in Paris at UNESCO||For reasons of his early adulthood membership in the Communist Party, Duberg, along with several other U.S. citizens working in international organizations, became the subject of U.S. official investigation in the early 1950s. This led to a loyalty investigation by the U.S. State Department in 1953, also his name being discussed in the U.S. Congress House Committee on un-American Activities. During 1953, Mr. Duberg refused to answer a series of loyalty-related questionnaires. This resulted in decisions taken which led to termination of his professional employment at the United Nations in 1954 and eventual need for political asylum, which was granted in Switzerland.|
|1956||József Mindszenty||Hungary||United States (embassy)||Cardinal of the Catholic Church as the Archbishop of Esztergom in Hungary|||
|1959||The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso||Tibet||India||Head monk of the Gelugpa lineage of Tibetan Buddhism (Dalai Lama)||In exile in India since 1959. Currently residing in McLeod Ganj, Dharamshala from where he established the Tibetan Government in Exile.|
|1964-1976||João Goulart||Brazil||Uruguay||24º President of Brazil, deposed by the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état.||He sent a letter requesting the right of asylum on April 3, 1964[a] and went in exile on April 4, 1964. On April 21 he was conceded the asylum and only waived it on November 9, 1976, with the goal of returning to his home country, but died on December 6.|
|1964-1979||Leonel Brizola||Brazil|| Uruguay
|Federal deputy from Guanabara (1963-1964).||Part of the opposition against the military dictatorship in Brazil, he had asylum from Uruguay from May 3, 1964 until his expulsion in 1977 and then had US asylum from 1977-1979.|
|1967||Svetlana Alliluyeva||Soviet Union||United States||Writer and lecturer; daughter of Joseph Stalin|||
|1979||Mohammad Reza Pahlavi||Iran||Egypt||Shah of Iran|||
|1979-1980||Anastasio Somoza Debayle||Nicaragua||Paraguay||President of Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza Debayle|||
|1984||Assata Shakur||United States||Cuba||United States citizen, African-American activist, member of the Black Panther Party (BPP) and Black Liberation Army (BLA)|||
|1986||Choi Eun-hee||South Korea||United States||South Korean actress|||
|1986||Shin Sang-ok||South Korea||United States||South Korean film producer and director|||
|1997||Christoph Meili||Switzerland||United States||National of Switzerland, bank-security guard and whistleblowers at the Union Bank of Switzerland (now UBS)||Mr. Meili was a security guard at UBS, where he witnessed the destruction of documents related to World War II accounts of Jews. He reported the destruction, and was subjected to prosecution, also death threats. The family fled to the United States and were granted political asylum via a private law passed specifically for the Meili family. Unhappy in the United States, Mr. Meili later returned to Switzerland safely.|
|1997/8||Nury Turkel||China||United States||Graduate student, later Commissioner on the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom|||
|1999–2004, 2007||Alex Konanykhin and his wife||Russia||United States||Russian entrepreneur, former banker|||
|2001||Mohamed El Ghanem||Egypt||Switzerland||Former officer of the Egyptian Ministry of Interior, lawyer, Doctor of Law and Professor.||Several years after receiving refugee status in Switzerland, Dr. El Ghanem later was arbitrarily detained without charge for refusing to collaborate with Geneva Police in a spying project on local Muslim community. He remained detained without trial for six years.|
|2001||Alexander Litvinenko||Russia||United Kingdom||Former officer who served in the Soviet KGB and its Russian successor, the Federal Security Service (FSB)|||
|2002||Pedro Carmona||Venezuela||Colombia||Venezuelan businessman, declared interim President of Venezuela during the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt|||
|2003||Akhmed Zakayev||Russia||United Kingdom||Former Deputy Prime Minister and the current Prime Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria|||
|2003||Boris Berezovsky||Russia||United Kingdom||Former Russian government official, businessman and mathematician, member of Russian Academy of Sciences|||
|2004||Ilyas Akhmadov||Russia||United States||Former politician and foreign minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria|||
|2005||Bobby Fischer||United States||Iceland||Chess Grandmaster and the 11th World Chess Champion, chess author|||
|2007||John Robles||United States||Russia||Leak site owner, English teacher, investigative journalist, writer, US foreign policy critic, publisher.||John Anthony Robles II is a Taino Indian born in Puerto Rico. In 2007 under false pretenses his US Passport was revoked and he was left stateless in Russia. John worked for the Russian Government and was granted asylum along with his two US born American children. John left the US in 1995 after attempting to expose CPS child trafficking and initiating the formation of a Grand Jury. On the day the Grand Jury was to convene with Robles providing testimony John was detained but not charged and accused of working for the KGB and the Russians. He was forced to leave the US with his children of whom he had full custody and to seek asylum. Robles was a correspondent, newsreader and political commentator for the Voice of Russia and quoted worldwide "Romney and his promise of 'Republican hell'". Foreign Policy.|
|2007||Irakli Okruashvili||Georgia||France||Georgian politician|||
|2008||Chere Lyn Tomayko||United States||Costa Rica||United States citizen||Chere Lyn Tomayko, wanted in the United States for parental kidnapping, was granted asylum in June 2008 by Costa Rica. Tomayko's claims that her actions were justified by domestic violence she suffered were taken into account by the Costa Rican authorities.|
|2008||Nixon Moreno||Venezuela||Holy See|||
|2009||Manuel Rosales||Venezuela||Peru||Venezuelan educator and politician|||
|2010||Virginia Vallejo||Colombia||United States||Colombian writer, journalist, columnist, media personality, television anchorwoman, and socialite||Biography of the political asylee|
|2011||Savva Terentyev||Russia||Estonia||Russian blogger and musician|||
|2011||Al-Saadi Gaddafi||Libya||Niger||Third son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi; Libyan former association football player|
|2012||Julian Assange||Australia||Ecuador (embassy)||Australian editor, activist, publisher and journalist||Until 11 April 2019, he was in the Ecuadorian embassy in London.|
|2012||Alexander Barankov||Belarus||Ecuador||Belarusian former policeman or army captain|||
|2012||Safia Farkash||Libya||Oman||Widow of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and former First Lady of Libya|
|2012||Muhammad Gaddafi||Libya||Oman||Eldest son of the former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi; chairman of the General Posts and Telecommunications Company|
|2012||Ayesha Gaddafi||Libya||Oman||Fifth child and only daughter of former Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi; Libyan mediator and military official, former UN Goodwill Ambassador, and lawyer|
|2012||Hannibal Muammar Gaddafi||Libya||Oman||Fifth son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi; first consultant to the Management Committee of the General National Maritime Transport Company (GNMTC) of Libya|
|2013||Edward Snowden||United States||Russia||United States citizen; CIA Officer. Former Booz Allen Hamilton employee worked as a system administrator under an NSA contract.||Granted temporary asylum in Russia.|
|2014||Denise Harvey||United States||Canada||United States citizen||Granted asylum in Canada after being sentenced to 30 years in prison by a Florida court for having consensual sex with a 16-year-old teenage boy. The crime she was convicted of is not a crime in Canada (i.e., consensual sex between a 16-year-old and an adult not in a position of authority with respect to the teen) and the Canadian Immigration and Review Board ruled that the 30-year sentence was "cruel and unusual punishment".|
|2014||Suren Gazaryan||Russia||Estonia||Russian citizen, Green activist||Goldman Prize recipient in 2014|
|2014||Ali Abd Jalil||Malaysia||Sweden||Malaysian citizen, Student activist||Granted asylum in Sweden after being detained by Royal Malaysia Police and served 22 days in prison for insulting royalty|
|2018||Nikola Gruevski||Macedonia||Hungary||Macedonian citizen, former Prime minister of Macedonia|||
|2019||Evo Morales||Bolivia||Mexico||Bolivian citizen, former President of Bolivia|||
|2020||Christopher Mark Doyon aka Commander X||United States||Mexico||US Citizen, Activist/Author||First US citizen in history to receive political asylum in Mexico. Granted refugee status for acts associated with Anonymous, and his support of Julian Assange & WikiLeaks.|
- "Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session–Eighty-fifth Congress, first session .."". Archive.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Dalai Lama Gets Asylum In India; Harried In Flight". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
- "List of presidents of Brazil". Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "João Goulart". Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Jorge Ferreira (2011). João Goulart (in Portuguese) (3 ed.). Civilização Brasileira. p. 538. ISBN 978-85-200-1056-3.
- Kenny Braga; João Borges de Souza; Cleber Dioni; Elmar Bones. Parlamentares Gaúchos: João Goulart (in Portuguese). p. 127. ISBN 978-85-66054-09-5. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Flávio Ilha (3 March 2014). "Para tentar voltar ao Brasil, Jango renunciou ao asilo político no Uruguai" [To try to return to Brazil, Jango renounced political asylum in Uruguay] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kenny Braga; João Borges de Souza; Cleber Dioni; Elmar Bones. Parlamentares Gaúchos: João Goulart (in Portuguese). p. 98. ISBN 978-85-66054-09-5. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Jorge Ferreira (2011). João Goulart (in Portuguese) (3 ed.). Civilização Brasileira. p. 544-545. ISBN 978-85-200-1056-3.
- Leite, Maria Cláudia Moraes (2019). "Leonel Brizola e os últimos anos de exílio" [Leonel Brizola and the last years of exile]. Tempo e Argumento (in Portuguese). 11 (26): 358. doi:10.5965/2175180311262019353. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Rocha, Glaciliano (22 August 2010). "Um gaúcho em NY" [A gaucho in NY]. Folha de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Brazil. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Thomson, Mike (5 March 2003). "Kidnapped by North Korea". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- U.S. Congress: Bill S. 768: A bill for the relief of Michel Christopher Meili, Giuseppina Meili, Mirjam Naomi Meili, and Davide Meili, private bill sponsored by New York Senator Alphonse D'Amato (R-NY), signed into Private Law 105-1 by President Bill Clinton on 29 July 1997; accessed 30 October 2006.
- Swiss parliament, Summer session 1997
- Question Schlüer
- Response of Federal Councillor Flavio Cotti, who claimed the United States was not granting the Meili family "asylum", but rather a facilitated fast-track immigration. Accessed 30 October 2006.
- "USCIRF Welcomes Appointment by Speaker Nancy Pelosi of Nury Turkel to U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Nury Turkel, Commissioner". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Retrieved 20 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Leigh Hartman (23 June 2020). "Once interned in China, Uyghur American fights for religious freedom". U.S. Embassy in Denmark. Retrieved 20 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "ICT welcomes Nury Turkel's appointment to US religious freedom commission". International Campaign for Tibet. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Venezuelan coup leader given asylum". BBC News. 27 May 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- U.S. Asylum for Chechen Draws Protest From Russia
- Lally, Kathy (19 July 2013). "Snowden could follow path of U.S. asylum-seekers who led unhappy lives in Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Wanted US woman freed in Costa Rica". USA Today. 26 July 2008.
- The Vatican grants asylum to Nixon Moreno
- on YouTube,
- "Biography of the political asylee Virginia Vallejo". Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- Estonia grants political asylum to Russian blogger
- Declaración del Gobierno de la República del Ecuador sobre la solicitud de asilo de Julian Assange (in Spanish) (Archived 16 August 2012 at WebCite)
- ""Платформа" папрасіла Эквадор не выдаваць Баранкова" (in Belarusian). Belsat TV. 26 June 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Corte analiza la extradición de bielorruso". Expreso (Ecuador). 15 August 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Küffner, Stephan; Megan Gibson (16 July 2012). "Assange's Special Asylum: Why Ecuador Isn't Nice to Anyone Else". Time. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Statement on Snowden's Successful Russian Asylum Bid". WikiLeaks. 1 August 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Florida sex offender granted asylum in Canada". cbc.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 May 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Clarke, Katrina (15 May 2014). "Florida sex-offender who had relations with 16-year-old granted refugee status in Canada". The National Post. National Post. Retrieved 6 September 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Merti, Steve. "Was Canada right to grant asylum to a U.S. sex offender?". Yahoo! News Canada. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 6 September 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Goldman Prize Recipient Suren Gazaryan". 29 May 2014.
- "Malaysia activist whose passport was revoked says he has been issued asylum card by Sweden". 9 December 2014.
- "Report: Hungary grants asylum to former Macedonian leader". 20 November 2018.
- "Report: Bolivia crisis: Evo Morales accepts political asylum in Mexico". 12 November 2019.
- Article in Dinero En Imagen