List of people known as "the Great"

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This is a list of people known as "the Great", or the equivalent, in their own language. Other languages have their own suffixes, such as Persian e Bozorg and Urdu e azam.

In Persia, the title "the Great" at first seems to have been a colloquial version of the Old Persian title "Great King". It was first used by Cyrus II of Persia.[1] The title was inherited by Alexander III when he conquered the Persian Empire, and the epithet eventually became personally associated with him. The first reference to this is in a comedy by Plautus,[2] in which it is assumed that everyone knew who "Alexander the Great" was; however, there is no evidence that he was called "the Great" before this. The early Seleucid kings, who succeeded Alexander in Persia, used "Great King" in local documents, but the title was most notably used for Antiochus the Great. Once the term gained currency, it was broadened to include persons in other fields, such as the philosopher Albert the Great.

Later rulers and commanders were given the epithet during their lifetime, for example the Roman general Pompey. Others received the title posthumously, such as the Carthaginian Hanno and the Indian emperor Ashoka. As there are no objective criteria for "greatness", the persistence of the designation varies greatly. For example, Louis XIV of France was often referred to as "the Great" in his lifetime, but is rarely called such nowadays. German Emperor Wilhelm I was often called "the Great" in the time of his grandson Wilhelm II, but rarely before or after.

Monarchs[edit]

Name Description Dates Sources
Abbas the Great Fifth Shahanshah of Persia Safavid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 1571 - 1629 [3]
Sultan Agung of Mataram Ruler of Mataram Sultanate (present day, Yogyakarta and most of Java island, Indonesia) from 1613 to 1645 1593 - 1645
Akbar Mughal emperor (India) 1542 - 1605 [4]
Alexander I of Georgia King of Georgia 1386 - 1446
Alexander the Great King of Macedonia and Persia. Pharaoh of Egypt. 356 BC - 323 BC
Alfonso III of Asturias King of León, Galicia and Asturias 848 - 910
Alfred the Great King of Wessex and the Anglo-Saxons 848/849 - 899
Antiochus III the Great Ruler of the Seleucid Empire 241 BC - 187 BC
Ashoka Indian emperor of the Maurya dynasty 304 BC - 232 BC [5]
Askia Mohammad I Ruler of the Songhai Empire 1442 - 1538 [6]
Bhumibol Adulyadej King of Thailand 1927 - 2016
Bolesław I the Brave First king of Poland 967 - 1025 [7]
Casimir III the Great King of Poland (1333–1370) 1310 - 1370
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 1729 - 1796
Charlemagne

("Charles the Great")

King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans 800 - 814
Chlothar II King of Neustria and King of the Franks 584 - 629
Chulalongkorn King of Siam (In present-day: Thailand) 1853 - 1910
Constantine the Great Roman emperor 272 - 337
Cnut the Great King of England (1016–1035), Denmark (1018–1035) and Norway (1028–1035). 985 or 995 - 1035
Cyrus the Great Founder and First Shahanshah of Persia Achaemenid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 600 BC or 576 BC - 530 BC
Darius The Great Third Shahanshah of Persia Achaemenid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 550 BC - 486 BC
Eucratides I Ruler of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom 170 BC - 145 BC [8]
Ewuare (1440–1473) Founder and Oba (king) of the Benin Empire (in present-day Nigeria) 1440 - 1473
Farrukhan the Great Ispahbadh of Tabaristan 712 - 728 [9]
Ferdinand I of León King of León and Count of Castile 1015 - 1065
Frederick the Great King of Prussia 1712 - 1786
Genghis Khan Founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire 1162 - 1227
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden King of Sweden (1611–1632), founder of the Swedish Empire, and noted military leader 1594 - 1632
Gwanggaeto the Great King of Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea 374 - 413 [10]
Hanno the Great Three different Carthaginian leaders, of the 4th, 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, respectively Multiple
Henry IV of France King of France and King of Navarre 1553 - 1610
Herod the Great King of Judea 73 BC/74 BC - 4 BC
Hugh Magnus Co-King of France 1007 - 1025
Ivan III of Russia Grand Prince of Moscow 1440 - 1505
John I of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarve 1358 - 1433
John II of Aragon and Navarre King of Aragon and, through his wife, King of Navarre 1398 - 1479
Justinian I Roman Emperor (Eastern) 483 - 565
Kamehameha I First king of Hawaii 1758 - 1819
Kangxi Emperor Emperor of Qing China 1654 - 1722
Kanishka Ruler of the Kushan Empire in Central Asia and parts of India ? - 127
Kvirike III of Kakheti King of Kakheti in eastern Georgia 1010 - 1029
Kublai Khan Mongol ruler in the 13th century and Emperor of China; founder of the Yuan Dynasty 1215 - 1294
Llywelyn the Great King of Gwynedd and de facto ruler of most of Wales 1172 - 1240
Louis I of Hungary King of Hungary, Croatia and Poland 1326 - 1382
Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarre 1638 - 1715
Manuel I Komnenos Byzantine Emperor 1118 - 1180
Emperor Meiji Emperor of Japan 1852 - 1912
Mircea I of Wallachia Ruler of Wallachia 1355 - 1418
Mithridates II of Parthia Ninth Shahanshah of Persia Parthian Empire, (in present-day Iran) 121 BC - 91 BC
Mithridates VI of Pontus Ruler of Pontus and the Bosporan Kingdom 134 BC - 63 BC
Mubarak Al-Sabah (1840–1915) Ruler of Kuwait 1840 - 1915
Mstislav I of Kiev Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' 1076 - 1132
Narai King of Ayutthaya Kingdom (in present-day Thailand) 1633 - 1688
Naresuan King of Ayutthaya Kingdom (in present-day Thailand) 1590 - 1605
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor 912 - 973
K'inich Janaab' Pakal Ruler of the Mayan city-state of Palenque 603 - 683
Parakramabahu I King of Sri Lanka 1123 - 1186
Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia King of Croatia 1059 - 1075 [11]
Peter the Great Tsar of Russia; Founder of Russian Empire June 9, 1672 - February 5, 1725 [citation needed]
Peter III of Aragon King of Aragon and King of Sicily 1239 - November 1285
Phutthayotfa Chulalok King of Siam (In present-day: Thailand) March 20, 1782 - September 7, 1809 [12]
Qin Shi Huang First emperor of China, who unified China from Warring States 259 BC - 210 BC
Radama I First king of greater Madagascar 1793 - 1828
Raja Raja Chola I The Great Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom between 985 and 1014 CE. 947 - 1014
Rajendra Chola I The Great Chola Emperor from present day South India to Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia who ruled over the Chola kingdom between 1014 and 1044 CE. 979 - 1044
Ramesses II Pharaoh of Egypt known for his temples, monuments, and military feats. 1279 BC - 1213 BC [13]
Ram Khamhaeng King of Sukhothai (In present-day: Thailand) 1237/1247 - 1298
Reza Shah Founder and First Shahanshah of Persia Pahlavi dynasty, (in present-day Iran) March 15, 1878 - July 26, 1944 [14]
Rhodri the Great King of Gwynedd (in present-day Wales) 820 - 878
Roman the Great Grand Prince of Kiev 1160 - 1205 [15]
Sancho III of Pamplona King of Navarre 992 - 1035
Sargon of Akkad Ruler of the Akkadian Empire ? - 2215 BC [16]
Sejong the Great Korean King during the Joseon Dynasty 1397 - 1450 [17]
Shapur I Second Shahanshah of Persia Sassanid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 215 - May 270
Shapur II Tenth Shahanshah of Persia Sassanid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 309 - 379
Simeon I of Bulgaria Tsar (emperor) of Bulgaria 864 - 927 [18]
Stephen III of Moldavia Prince of Moldavia (Romania) 1433 - July 2, 1504 [citation needed]
Stefan Uroš I King of Serbia (1243–76) 1223 - 1277 [19]
Stefan Dušan King of Serbia (1331–45) and Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks (1345–55) 1308 - 1355 [20]
Taksin King of the Thonburi Kingdom (In present-day: Thailand) 1734 - 1783 [21]
Tamar of Georgia Queen of the Georgian Empire 1160 - January 18, 1223 [22]
Emperor Taizong of Tang Emperor of Tang (China) January 28, 598 - July 10, 649
Theoderic the Great King of the Ostrogoths, regent of the Visigoths and a viceroy of the Byzantine Empire 454 - August 30, 526
Theodosius I Roman emperor January 19, 347 - January 17, 395 [23]
Tigranes the Great Emperor of Armenia 140 BC - 55 BC [24]
Timur Better known as Tamerlane, founder of the Timurid Dynasty April 9, 1336 - February 18, 1405 [25]
Tiridates III of Armenia King of Armenia 285 - 339 [26]
Valdemar I of Denmark King of Denmark 1131 - 1182 [27]
Valentinian I Roman emperor 364 - 375 [28]
Vladimir the Great Kievan Rus' ruler; Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Kiev 958 - 1015 [29]
Vytautas Archduke of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy 1350 - 1430 [30]
Xerxes I Fourth Shahanshah of Persia Achaemenid Empire, (in present-day Iran) 519 BC - 465 BC [31]
Yuknoom Ch'een II Mayan king of Kaan 600-c.680 [32]

Aristocrats[edit]

Name Description Dates Sources
Alain I of Albret French aristocrat 1440 - 1522
Bruno Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lotharingia 925 - 965 [33]
Conrad, Margrave of Meissen Margrave of Meissen 1097 - February 5, 1157 [34]
Gerard, Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine 1020 - April 14, 1070 .[35]
Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg German prince who ruled Schauenburg and Holstein-Rendsburg and for a while a large part of Denmark 1292 - April 1, 1340
Gero Ruler of Marca Geronis, a very large march in Europe 900 - May 20, 965 [36]
Hanno II Carthaginian aristocrat, general and politician 3rd century BC [37]
Hanno III Carthaginian politician 2nd century BC [38][39]
Henry I, Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy 946 - October 15, 1002
Hugh the Great Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks 898 - June 16, 956 [40]
Hugh, Count of Vermandois Count of Vermandois 1057 - October 18, 1101
Humphrey I de Bohun Anglo-Norman aristocrat ? - 1123
Matteo Rosso Orsini Roman politician and father of Pope Nicholas III 1178 - 1246
Odo the Great Duke of Aquitaine ? - 735 [41]
Pompey Military and political leader of the late Roman Republic September 29, 106 BC - September 28, 48 BC [42]
Ralph IV of Valois Count of Valois, Bar, Vexin, Vitry, Amiens, Montdidier and Tardenois 1025 - 1074 [43]
Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona Count of Barcelona, Provence and various other counties 1082 - 1131
Robert I, Count of Dreux Count of Dreux 1123 - October 11, 1188
Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury Earl of Shrewsbury and Arundel ? - 1094
Theobald II, Count of Champagne Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV, Count of Champagne and of Brie 1090 - January 10, 1151
William I, Count of Burgundy Count of Burgundy and Mâcon 1020 - November 12, 1087
William V, Duke of Aquitaine Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Poitou 969 - January 31, 1030 [44]

Religious figures[edit]

Christian[edit]

Name Description Dates Sources
Abraham Kidunaia Hermit, priest, and Christian saint of Mesopotamia ? - 366 [45]
Abraham the Great of Kashkar Monk and saint of the Church of the East 492 - 586
Albertus Magnus Medieval German philosopher and theologian 1193/1206 - November 15, 1280 [46]
Anthony the Great Early Christian saint of Egypt January 12, 251 - January 17, 356 [47]
Arsenius the Great Roman anchorite saint in Egypt 354 - 445
Athanasius of Alexandria Early Christian saint and bishop of Alexandria 296 - May 2, 373 [48]
Babai the Great Assyrian church leader 551 - 628
Basil of Caesarea Greek bishop and theologian 330 - January 379 [49]
Bertin Frankish Abbot of a monastery that was named after him after he died 615 - 709
Bruno the Great Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lotharingia (also listed in the previous section) May 925 - October 11, 965 [50]
Euthymius the Great Abbot and Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox saint 377 - January 20, 473
Gertrude the Great German Benedictine, mystic, theologian and Roman Catholic saint 1256 - 1302 [51]
Pope Gregory I Roman Catholic Pope 540 - 604 [52]
Hugh of Cluny Abbot of Cluny 1024 - 1109
James, son of Zebedee [Note 1] One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ 3 - 44 [53]
Joannicius the Great Byzantine hermit, theologian and saint 752 - 846 [54]
Pope John Paul II Roman Catholic Pope May 18, 1920 - April 2, 2005 [55][56][57][58]
Pope Leo I Roman Catholic Pope 391 or 400 - 461 [59]
Macarius of Egypt Egyptian hermit 300 - 391 [60]
Michael the Great Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church 1126 - 1199 [61]
Pope Nicholas I Roman Catholic Pope 800 - 867 [62]
Photius I of Constantinople Eastern Orthodox saint and Patriarch of Constantinople 810 - 893 [63]
William of Maleval Founder of the Catholic congregation of Williamites ? - 1157

Jewish[edit]

Name Description Dates Sources
Aaron ben Jacob of Karlin Hasidic rabbi 1736 - 1772 [64]
Eliezer ben Hurcanus Rabbi in Judea 1st Century [65][66]
Hiyya the Great Rabbi in Judea 3rd Century [67]

Soldiers[edit]

Name Description Dates Sources
Afonso de Albuquerque Portuguese general, statesman and empire builder 1453 - 1515 [68]
Melias Distinguished Byzantine general of Armenian origin, called "Mleh the Great" in Armenian sources 10th Century [69]
Prokop the Great Hussite general in Bohemia 1380 - May 30, 1434 [70]

Legendary and mythological figures[edit]

Name Description Sources
Ajax the Great Greek hero in the Iliad [71]
Beli Mawr In medieval Welsh mythology and literature [72]
Yu the Great (c. 2200–2100 BC) Legendary ruler in ancient China [73]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In this case James is styled "the Greater" to distinguish him from the Apostle James the Lesser, with greater meaning older or taller, rather than more important.

References[edit]

  1. ^ In a clay cylinder (online). The first Persian ruler to use the title in an Iranian context was Darius I of Persia (Darius the Great), in the Behistun Inscription (online).
  2. ^ Plautus, Mostellaria 775.
  3. ^ Eskandar Beg Monshi (1978). History of Shah 'Abbas the Great: (Tarîk-e 'Alamara-ye 'Abbasi). Westview Press.
  4. ^ Sir William Wilson Hunter (1886). The Indian Empire: Its People, History, and Products. Asian Educational Services. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-81-206-1581-6.
  5. ^ Monika Khanna (2011). Ashoka, the Great: The Great Reformist Emperor of India. Farsight Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-89297-75-6.
  6. ^ Flora Shaw (23 December 2010). A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Soudan with an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-108-02492-1.
  7. ^ Patrick J. Geary (2010). Readings in Medieval History. University of Toronto Press. pp. 642–. ISBN 978-1-4426-0120-8.
  8. ^ Asiatic Society of Bengal (1840). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Soc. p. 533.
  9. ^ Bernard Lewis; Charles Pellat (1982). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 298. ISBN 9789004067127.
  10. ^ Korean Culture and Information Service Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (15 January 2015). FACTS ABOUT KOREA: South korea, Past and Present. 길잡이미디어. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-89-7375-584-4.
  11. ^ Vjekoslav Klaić (1972). Povijest Hrvata od najstarijih vremena do svršetka XIX stoljeća. Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske. p. 129.
  12. ^ Sulak Sivaraksa (1985). Siamese Resurgence: A Thai Buddhist Voice on Asia and a World of Change. Asian Cultural Forum on Development. p. 175.
  13. ^ "Ramses". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Wiley Publishing. 2004. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  14. ^ Skrine, Clarmont (1962). World War In Iran. Constable & Company, Ltd, pp 86–87.
  15. ^ Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History.[page needed]
  16. ^ "Sargon inscriptions". cdli.ucla.edu.
  17. ^ Christoph Bluth; Gareth Schott (2007). Korea. Polity. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7456-3356-5.
  18. ^ R. J. Crampton (24 November 2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-139-44823-9.
  19. ^ Konstantin Jireček (1967). Geschichte der Serben. Hakkert. p. 310.
  20. ^ A History of the Balkan Peoples. Ardent Media. 1971. p. 35. GGKEY:69RCKY1X0FZ.
  21. ^ Gerald W. Fry; Gayla S. Nieminen; Harold E. Smith (8 August 2013). Historical Dictionary of Thailand. Scarecrow Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-8108-7525-8.
  22. ^ Rapp 2003, p. 338.
  23. ^ Cooley, Alison E. (2012). The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge University Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-0-521-84026-2.
  24. ^ Manaseryan, Ruben (2007). Տիգրան Մեծ՝ Հայկական Պայքարը Հռոմի և Պարթևաստանի Դեմ, մ.թ.ա. 94–64 թթ. [Tigran the Great: The Armenian Struggle Against Rome and Parthia, 94–64 B.C.] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Lusakan Publishing. p. needed.
  25. ^ Josef W. Meri (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization. Routledge. p. 812. ISBN 9780415966900.
  26. ^ Beate Dignas; Engelbert Winter (13 September 2007). Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-521-84925-8.
  27. ^ Lester B. Orfield (1953). The Growth of Scandinavian Law. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-58477-180-7.
  28. ^ Thomas Banchich; Eugene Lane (26 January 2009). The History of Zonaras: From Alexander Severus to the Death of Theodosius the Great. Routledge. pp. 261–. ISBN 978-1-134-42473-3.
  29. ^ Mike Dixon-Kennedy (1998). Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic Myth and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-57607-063-5.
  30. ^ Giedrė Mickūnaitė (2006). Making a Great Ruler: Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. Central European University Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-963-7326-58-5.
  31. ^ Jacob Abbott (1850). History of Xerxes the Great. Harper & Brothers, publishers.
  32. ^ Robert J. Sharer; Loa P. Traxler (2006). The Ancient Maya. Stanford University Press. pp. 381–. ISBN 978-0-8047-4817-9.
  33. ^ Brian D. Starr (2006). Tree of Saints. Brian Daniel Starr. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-1-4196-3302-7.
  34. ^ "Konrad Markgraf von Meißen und der Niederlausitz". ADB. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  35. ^ Marek, Miroslav. "lorraine/lorraine11.html". genealogy.euweb.cz.[self-published source][better source needed]
  36. ^ Thompson, 486. Also see Lexikon des Mittelalters. Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge retrieved 15 March 2011
  38. ^ Picard, Life and Death of Carthage (1968), at 264, 286.
  39. ^ Cf., Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964), at 119.
  40. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family who Forged Europe, Trans. Michael Idomir Allen (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1993), pp.250-1
  41. ^ Melville M. Bigelow, "The Bohun Wills," American Historical Review, 1:3 (1896), 415.
  42. ^ JmLeach, John. Pompey the Great'). p. 29.
  43. ^ Bautier, Robert-Henri (1985). "Anne de Kiev, reine de France, et la politque royale au XIe siècle: Étude critique de la documentation". Revue des études slaves. 57 (4): 539–64. doi:10.3406/slave.1985.5520.
  44. ^ Bachrach, Bernard S. (1993). Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040. University of California Press.
  45. ^ Butler, Alban. "St. Abraham, Hermit", The Lives of the Saints, Vol.III, 1866
  46. ^ Weisheipl, James A. (1980), "The Life and Works of St. Albert the Great", in Weisheipl, James A. (ed.), Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, Studies and texts, 49, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, p. 46, ISBN 978-0-88844-049-5
  47. ^ Endsjø, Dag Øistein (2008). Primordial landscapes, Incorruptible Bodies. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4331-0181-6.
  48. ^ Clifford, Cornelius. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Athanasius". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  49. ^ Bowersock et al. (1999), p.336
  50. ^ Religious Drama and Ecclesiastical Reform in the Tenth Century, James H. Forse, Early Theatre, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2002), 48.
  51. ^ "Bossert, Sr. Evangela. "St. Gertrude of Helfta", Monastery of St. Gertrude, Cottonwood, Idaho". Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  52. ^ Huddleston, Gilbert (1909). "Pope St. Gregory I ("the Great")" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him. See John Moorhead, Gregory the Great, (Routledge, 2005), p1
  53. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. James the Greater".
  54. ^ Treadgold, Warren (January 2002). "Photius Before His Patriarchate". Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 53: 1–17. doi:10.1017/S0022046901008727 – via Cambridge.
  55. ^ "John Paul the Great Catholic University". Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  56. ^ "Our History". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  57. ^ "John Paul the Great Academy – Lafayette, LA". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  58. ^ Beabout, Gregory; Carter, Daniel. "Two Cheers for Democracy from St. John Paul the Great: Rhonheimer, Kraynak, and the Unfinished Agenda of Dignitatis Humanae". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  59. ^ Davis, SJ, Leo Donald (1990). The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325–787): Their History and Theology (Theology and Life Series 21). Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press. pp. 342. ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7.
  60. ^ "Μνήμη τοῦ ὁσίου πατρός ἠμῶν Μακαρίου τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου τοῦ ἀναχωρητοῦ" [Our father Makarios of Egypt the Anchorite, of blessed memory]. Apostoliki Diakonia: Eorlogio (in Greek). Apostoliki Diakonia (Apostolic Auxiliary) of the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  61. ^ Wright, A short history of Syriac literature, p.250, n.4, referencing Bar Hebraeus, Chron. Eccles., vol. 1, 537.
  62. ^ Will Durant. The Age of Faith. New York, New York, USA: Simon and Schuster, 1972. Chapter 21: Christianity in Conflict, p. 517-51
  63. ^ White, Despina Stratoudaki (1981). The Life of Patriarch Photios. Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, His Life, Scholarly Contributions, and Correspondence, Together with a Translation of Fifty-two of His Letters. ISBN 978-0-91658626-3. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  64. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "AARON BEN JACOB OF KARLIN". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  65. ^ Pirkei Avot 2:8; Avot of Rabbi Natan 6:3
  66. ^ Avot of Rabbi Natan 14:5
  67. ^ "HIYYA BAR ABBA - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  68. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (1 May 2008). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59339-492-9.
  69. ^ The name comes from Arabic malīh meaning "beautiful", "fine". Melias is probably the Malikh al-Armani of Arab chroniclers. Whittow 1996, p. 315.
  70. ^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Procopius, Andrew" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  71. ^ "Salamis The Island" Salamis The Island – Salamina Municipality – Greek Island
  72. ^ Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, Editions Errance, Paris, 2003, pp. 70-72.
  73. ^ Wang Quangen 王泉根, (1993). Huaxia Quming Yishu 華夏取名藝術. (Taipei: Zhishu-fang Chuban Jituan 知書房出版集團), 42.