List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States
This is a partial list of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. The plenary power to grant a pardon or a reprieve is granted to the President of the United States by Article II, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution; the only limits mentioned in the Constitution are that pardons are limited to federal offenses, and that they cannot affect an impeachment process: "The president shall ... have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment".
Though pardons and reprieves have been challenged in the courts, and the power to grant them challenged by Congress, the Court has consistently declined to put limits on the president's discretion. The president can issue a full pardon, reversing a criminal conviction (along with its legal effects) as if it never happened. A pardon can be issued from the time an offense is committed, and can even be issued after the full sentence has been served. The president can issue a reprieve, commuting a criminal sentence, lessening its severity, its duration, or both while leaving a record of the conviction in place. Additionally, the president can make a pardon conditional, or vacate a conviction while leaving parts of the sentence in place, like the payment of fines or restitution.
Approximately 20,000 pardons and commutations were issued by U.S. presidents in the 20th century alone. Pardons granted by presidents from George Washington until Grover Cleveland's first term (1885–1889) were hand written by the president; thereafter, pardons were prepared for the president by administrative staff requiring only that the president sign it. The records of these Presidential acts were openly available for public inspection until 1934. In 1981 the Office of the Pardon Attorney was created and records from President George H. W. Bush forward are now listed.
- 1 George Washington
- 2 John Adams
- 3 Thomas Jefferson
- 4 James Madison
- 5 James Monroe
- 6 John Quincy Adams
- 7 Andrew Jackson
- 8 Martin Van Buren
- 9 William Henry Harrison
- 10 John Tyler
- 11 James K. Polk
- 12 Zachary Taylor
- 13 Millard Fillmore
- 14 Franklin Pierce
- 15 James Buchanan
- 16 Abraham Lincoln
- 17 Andrew Johnson
- 18 Ulysses S. Grant
- 19 Rutherford B. Hayes
- 20 James Garfield
- 21 Chester A. Arthur
- 22 Grover Cleveland
- 23 Benjamin Harrison
- 24 Grover Cleveland
- 25 William McKinley
- 26 Theodore Roosevelt
- 27 William Howard Taft
- 28 Woodrow Wilson
- 29 Warren Harding
- 30 Calvin Coolidge
- 31 Herbert Hoover
- 32 Franklin D. Roosevelt
- 33 Harry Truman
- 34 Dwight D. Eisenhower
- 35 John F. Kennedy
- 36 Lyndon B. Johnson
- 37 Richard Nixon
- 38 Gerald Ford
- 39 Jimmy Carter
- 40 Ronald Reagan
- 41 George H. W. Bush
- 42 Bill Clinton
- 43 George W. Bush
- 44 Barack Obama
- 45 Donald Trump
- 46 See also
- 47 References
- 48 External links
- Philip Vigol (or Wigle) and John Mitchel, convicted of treason for their roles in the Whiskey Rebellion
- David Bradford, for his role in the Whiskey Rebellion
- John Fries, for his role in Fries's Rebellion; convicted of treason due to opposition to a tax; Fries and others were pardoned, and a general amnesty was issued for everyone involved.
Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson pardoned, commuted or rescinded the convictions of 119 people. One of his first acts upon taking office was to issue a general pardon for any person convicted under the Sedition Act. Among them are:
- David Brown – convicted of sedition under the Sedition Act of 1798 because of his criticism of the United States federal government, receiving the harshest sentence of anyone; pardoned along with all violators of the act.
- Benjamin Fairbanks – Convicted with Brown of erecting a Liberty Pole in Dedham, Massachusetts. He received the lightest sentence of anyone under the Act.
- William Hull – while Governor of the Michigan Territory, sentenced to death for surrendering Fort Detroit; pardoned
- Jean Lafitte and Pierre Lafitte and the Baratarian Pirates for past piracy, granted due to their assistance during the War of 1812; granted February 6, 1815.
- Numerous individuals convicted of piracy.
John Quincy Adams
- Captain L. O. Helland – arrested for having more passengers on board the vessel (Restauration) than were allowed by American law; pardoned
- Wekau and Chickhonsic – Ho-Chunk leaders pardoned for their role in the Winnebago War
- George Wilson – convicted of robbing the United States mails. Strangely, Wilson refused to accept the pardon. The case went before the Supreme Court, and in United States v. Wilson the court stated: "A pardon is a deed, to the validity of which delivery is essential, and delivery is not complete without acceptance. It may then be rejected by the person to whom it is tendered; and if it is rejected, we have discovered no power in this court to force it upon him." As such, rather than serve a sentence of 20 years Wilson was executed by hanging.
Martin Van Buren
- William Lyon Mackenzie – violation of American neutrality laws; pardoned
William Henry Harrison
Whig President William Henry Harrison was one of only two presidents who gave no pardons. This was due to his death shortly after taking office.
- Alexander William Holmes – sailor convicted of voluntary manslaughter (U.S. v. Holmes); pardoned
James K. Polk
- John C. Frémont – convicted by court martial of mutiny. Frémont later became the 1856 Republican candidate for the Presidency of the United States.
- Daniel Drayton and Edward Sayres – convicted in the Pearl incident (transporting slaves to freedom); pardoned
- Noah Hanson – a free black man who was tried and convicted of assisting slaves to escape; only known Presidential pardon of a black person for Underground Railroad activities; convicted in 1851; pardoned in 1854
- Brigham Young – pardoned for role in the Utah War.
- Daniel Vandersmith – a former judge, pardoned for forgery.
- 264 of 303 Dakota Indians who attacked white settlers in the Great Sioux Uprising of 1862.
- Clement Vallandigham – Copperhead Congressman sentenced for disloyalty; sentence commuted, and deported to the Confederacy.
- Various men who enlisted in the army, but who were, among other circumstances, underage, bounty jumpers, or AWOL.
Democratic President Andrew Johnson pardoned about 7,000 people in the "over $20,000" class by May 4, 1866. More than 600 prominent North Carolinians were pardoned just before the election of 1864. President Andrew Johnson pardoned, commuted or rescinded the convictions of 654 people. Among them are:
- Ex-Confederates – a full and unconditional pardon and amnesty to all former Confederates of the rebellion on Christmas Day 1868, (earlier amnesties requiring signed oaths and excluding certain classes of people were issued by both Lincoln and Johnson). Among them were:
- Charles D. Anderson
- Richard H. Anderson
- Eli Metcalfe Bruce
- Horatio Washington Bruce
- Charles Clark
- Jefferson Davis
- Harris Flanagin
- Augustus Hill Garland
- Benjamin Harvey Hill
- Wade Keyes
- Enoch Louis Lowe
- Andrew Gordon Magrath
- Eugenius Aristides Nisbet
- James Byeram Owens
- Walter Preston
- James Seddon
- Alexander H. Stephens
- George Trenholm
- Samuel Arnold – charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln
- Samuel Mudd – charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln
- Edmund Spangler – charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant
- Ex-Confederate leaders – All but 500 former top Confederate leaders were pardoned when President Grant signed the Amnesty Act of 1872.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican President James A. Garfield was one of only two presidents who issued no pardons. This was due to his assassination shortly after taking office.
Chester A. Arthur
- Fitz John Porter – Court-martialed for his actions at Second Bull Run; sentence commuted
- James Brooks – Texas Ranger indicted for manslaughter; pardoned after lobbying from his fellow Rangers
- Rudger Clawson – convicted of polygamy; pardoned
- David King Udall – convicted on perjury charges; spent 3 months in prison; full and unconditional pardon
- "Billy Wilson" (David L. Anderson) – outlaw; pardoned
- Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints – Granted amnesty and pardon for the offense of engaging in polygamous or plural marriage to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
- Alexander McKenzie – contempt of court; pardoned
- Charles Chilton Moore – jailed for blasphemy; pardoned
- Servillano Aquino – Filipino general received death sentence for anti-American activities in the Philippines; pardoned after 2 years
- Al Jennings – sentenced to life in prison for robbery; pardoned
- Stephen A. Douglas Puter – convicted of land fraud; pardoned after 18 months so he could turn state's evidence
William Howard Taft
- John Hicklin Hall – role in the Oregon land fraud scandal; pardoned
- Charles W. Morse – convicted of violations of federal banking laws; pardoned due to ill health (later found to be feigned)
- Captain Van Schaick – pardoned after 3 ½ years in prison for the General Slocum steamship disaster of 1904
- George Burdick – a New York newspaper editor, who had refused to testify in federal court regarding the sources used in his article concerning the collection of customs duties. He pleaded the 5th amendment; President Wilson then granted him a full pardon for all of his federal offenses, which he refused. He continued to plead the 5th, at which he was sentenced by a federal judge for contempt. It was then that the Supreme Court reinforced the necessity of accepting a pardon to be valid; the federal judge had imprisoned Burdick on the grounds that he was claiming falsely his need for protection against self-incrimination.
- Frederick Krafft – convicted for alleged violation of the Espionage Act. Only person convicted under this law to receive a full executive pardon.
- Eugene V. Debs – convicted of sedition under the Espionage Act of 1917; sentence commuted
- Kate Richards O'Hare – convicted of sedition under the Espionage Act of 1917; sentence commuted
- Marcus Garvey – convicted of mail fraud; sentence commuted and deported
- Lothar Witzke – German spy and saboteur; pardoned and deported
- Warren T. McCray – Governor of Indiana convicted of Mail Fraud; pardoned after learning of the KKK's role in his arrest and conviction
- Thomas W. Miller – conspiring to defraud the U.S. government; pardoned
Franklin D. Roosevelt
- George R. Dale – convicted of violating Prohibition laws; pardoned after the repeal of Prohibition
- Roy Olmstead – convicted for violating the National Prohibition Act; appealed, arguing that the wiretapping evidence used against him constituted a violation of his constitutional rights to privacy and against self-incrimination; U.S. Supreme Court upheld the conviction in the landmark case of Olmstead v. United States; pardoned
- Duncan Renaldo – arrested for illegal entry into the US; pardoned
- George Caldwell – income tax evasion; pardoned
- Oscar Collazo – Collazo attempted Truman's assassination; Commuted death sentence to life sentence; also see listing under Carter
- James Michael Curley – fraud and mail fraud; pardoned
- Richard W. Leche – mail fraud; pardoned
- Andrew J. May – accepting bribes; pardoned
- Seymour Weiss – tax evasion and mail fraud; pardoned
Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Maurice L. Schick – military court-martial for brutal murder; death sentence commuted to life imprisonment, with the condition that he would never be released. Legal challenge went to the Supreme Court, questioning the constitutionality of the punishment "Life Imprisonment Without Parole". Decided in Schick v. Reed that to be so sentenced was constitutional.
It is important to note that "until the Eisenhower Administration, each pardon grant was evidenced by its own separate warrant signed by the President. President Eisenhower began the practice of granting pardons by the batch, through the device of a "master warrant" listing all of the names of those pardoned, which also delegated to the Attorney General (or, later, the Deputy Attorney General or Pardon Attorney) authority to sign individual warrants evidencing the President's action."
John F. Kennedy
- First-time offenders convicted of crimes under the Narcotics Control Act of 1956 – pardoned all, in effect overturning much of the law passed by Congress.
- Hank Greenspun – editor and publisher of the Las Vegas Sun, who was convicted in 1950 of violating the neutrality act in shipping arms to Israel during the Israeli war of independence; full pardon 1961
- John Factor – scheduled to be deported. pardoned in 1962 after investigation by Robert Kennedy
- Hampton Hawes – heroin charges; Executive Clemency in 1963
Lyndon B. Johnson
- Frank W. Boykin – Former Alabama Congressman convicted of bribery; pardoned in 1964 at the request of departing Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.
- Maurice Hutcheson – former President of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America; held in Contempt of Congress in 1957; pardoned
- Jimmy Hoffa – convicted of fraud and bribery (tax evasion) in 1964 – sentence commuted (with conditions) on December 23, 1971
- Angelo DeCarlo – convicted of conspiracy to commit murder and extortion in March 1970; was pardoned in late 1972 due to poor health, died on October 20, 1973.
- Richard Nixon – granted a full and unconditional pardon just before he could be indicted in the Watergate scandal. This was the first – and only – time that a U.S. President received a pardon.
- Ernest C. Brace – pardoned of his 1961 court-martial from the United States Marine Corps in light of his almost eight years as a POW in Vietnam.
- Iva Toguri D'Aquino, aka – "Tokyo Rose" – convicted of Treason in 1949, paroled in 1956. She was pardoned on January 19, 1977, Ford's last day in office. The only U.S. citizen convicted of treason during World War II to be pardoned.
- Robert E. Lee – full rights of citizenship were posthumously restored
- Vietnam war draft resisters – Ford offered conditional amnesty to over 50,000 draft resisters.
- Maurice L. Schick – military court-martial for brutal murder; commuted to life with the possibility of parole.
- Oscar Collazo – Attempted assassination on President Harry S. Truman in 1950; commuted to time served
- G. Gordon Liddy – Watergate figure. Convicted for 20 years, commuted after serving 4½ years in 1977 for conspiracy, burglary and illegal wiretapping.
- Peter Yarrow – Singer-songwriter of Peter, Paul and Mary, had pleaded guilty to a morals charge involving a 14-year-old girl in 1970, was pardoned in 1980,.
- Vietnam war draft resisters – Unconditional amnesty issued in the form of a pardon
- Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederate States of America, was arrested and accused of treason in 1865. Charges were brought in 1968, but was absolved of any guilt for participation in the Civil War by President Andrew Johnson's Fourth Amnesty Proclamation on Christmas Day of that year. Posthumously pardoned.
- Patty Hearst – Convicted of bank robbery in 1976 after being kidnapped and allegedly brainwashed; sentence commuted in 1979
- Lolita Lebrón, Rafael Cancel Miranda, Irving Flores Rodriguez – opened fire in the U.S. House of Representatives and wounding five Congressmen in 1954; clemency
- Frederic B. Ingram – Heir from Tennessee, convicted of bribing government officials in Illinois in 1977; jailed for 16 months. His sentence was commuted by Carter in December 1980.
- Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller – FBI officials convicted in December 1980 of authorizing illegal break-ins and fined. Pardoned on March 20, 1981. Mark Felt later in life admitted to being Deep Throat, the informant during the Watergate affair.
- Marvin Mandel – former Governor of Maryland convicted of mail fraud and racketeering in 1977; granted clemency in 1981; conviction later overturned in U.S. district court.
- Junior Johnson – a former NASCAR driver convicted of Moonshining in 1956; pardoned in 1986
- George Steinbrenner – Was convicted of illegal Nixon campaign contributions and obstruction of justice in 1974; pardoned in January of 1989
George H. W. Bush
- For their roles in the Iran–Contra affair
- Armand Hammer – CEO of the Occidental Petroleum Company, contributed $110,000 to the Republican National Committee just before his pardon. Pardoned for illegally contributing $54,000 to Richard Nixon's presidential campaign in 1972.
- Myra Soble – 1957 conviction of Conspiracy to Receive and Obtain National Defense Information and transmit same to foreign government in the Rosenberg spy ring; served four years, pardoned in 1991, died one year later.
- Almon Glenn Braswell – Nutritional supplement magnate, convicted of mail fraud and perjury in 1983; pardoned
- Henry Cisneros – Clinton's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor count for lying to the FBI in 1999 about payments to a mistress, and was fined $10,000.
- Roger Clinton, Jr. – brother of Bill Clinton. After serving a year in federal prison (1985-86) for cocaine possession.
- John Deutch – Director of Central Intelligence, former Provost and University Professor, MIT. He had agreed to plead guilty to a misdemeanor for mishandling government secrets on January 19, 2001, but President Clinton pardoned him in his last day in office, two days before the Justice Department could file the case against him.
- Edward Downe, Jr. – convicted of wire fraud, filing false income tax returns, and securities fraud in 1992; pardoned
- Elizam Escobar – Puerto Rican artist and activist, convicted of seditious conspiracy in 1980; pardoned
- FALN – commuted the sentences of 16 members of FALN, a violent Puerto Rican terrorist group that set off 120 bombs in the United States, mostly in New York City and Chicago. The 16 were convicted of conspiracy and sedition and sentenced with terms ranging from 35 to 105 years in prison.
- Henry O. Flipper – The first black West Point cadet was found guilty of "conduct unbecoming an officer" in 1882. Posthumously pardoned.
- Patty Hearst – Convicted of bank robbery in 1976 after being kidnapped and allegedly brainwashed. Prison term commuted by Jimmy Carter and was released from prison in 1979. She was fully pardoned by Clinton in 2001.
- Rick Hendrick – NASCAR Team Owner & Champion; convicted of mail fraud in 1997; pardoned
- Susan McDougal – partners with Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton in the failed Whitewater land deal. Guilty of contempt of court, she served her entire sentence starting in 1998 and was then pardoned.
- Samuel Loring Morison – former Naval intelligence officer, convicted of espionage and theft of government property in 1985; pardoned
- Mel Reynolds – Former Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois. Convicted of bank fraud and obstruction of justice in 1997; sentence was commuted.
- Marc Rich, Pincus Green – business partners; indicted by U.S. Attorney on charges of tax evasion and illegal trading with Iran in 1983 and fled the country that year. Pardoned in 2001 after Rich's ex-wife, Denise Eisenberg Rich, made large donations to the Democratic Party and the Clinton Foundation.
- Dan Rostenkowski – Former Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois, indicted for his role in the Congressional Post Office scandal and pleaded guilty to mail fraud in 1996. Served his entire 17-month sentence, then pardoned in December 2000.
- Fife Symington III – Republican Governor of Arizona convicted of bank fraud in 1997, the conviction was overturned in 1999; subsequently pardoned.
George W. Bush
- José Compeán and Ignacio Ramos – Two US Border Patrol agents who wounded drug smuggler Osvaldo Aldrete Dávila on February 17, 2005 and tried to cover up the incident received commutation in 2009.
- John Forté – Hip-hop singer and songwriter sentenced for smuggling cocaine in 2000 was commuted.
- Lewis "Scooter" Libby – Assistant to President George W. Bush and Chief of Staff to Dick Cheney was convicted of perjury in connection with the CIA leak scandal involving members of State Department who 'outed' CIA agent Valerie Plame. Was sentenced to 30 months in prison and fined him $250,000 on June 5, 2007. Libby received commutation of his prison sentence, not a full pardon, on July 2, 2007 . Libby later received a full pardon from President Donald Trump in 2018.
- Issac Robert Toussie – Convicted of making false statements to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in 2001; pardoned in 2008 and the pardon revoked one day later.
- Charles Winters – Posthumous pardon for smuggling three B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers to Israel in the late 1940s.
- James Cartwright, retired United States Marine Corps four-star general, he pleaded guilty to giving false statements to federal investigators in 2016 and was awaiting sentencing. Pardoned on January 17, 2017.
- Dwight J. Loving, a U.S. Army private sentenced to death for murdering two taxi drivers in 1988. Commuted to life without parole on January 17, 2017.
- Chelsea Manning, U.S. Army whistleblower convicted by court-martial in July 2013, sentenced to 35 years in prison for providing classified documents to WikiLeaks. Commuted on January 17, 2017.
- Willie McCovey, professional baseball player, pleaded guilty to tax evasion in 1995 and received two years probation and a $5,000 fine. Pardoned on January 17, 2017.
- Ian Schrager, former co-owner of the famed dance club Studio 54, pleaded guilty to tax evasion in 1979 and received three and a half years in prison and a $20,000 fine. Pardoned on January 17, 2017.
- Oscar López Rivera, FALN member sentenced in 1981 to 55 years in prison for seditious conspiracy, use of force to commit robbery, interstate transportation of firearms, and conspiracy to transport explosives with intent to destroy government property, and subsequently to an additional 15 years for attempted escape in 1988. Commuted on January 17, 2017.
- Joe Arpaio, former Sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona, was convicted of contempt of court and was awaiting sentencing. Pardoned on August 25, 2017.
- Sholom Rubashkin, an Iowa meatpacking magnate sentenced to 27 years in prison for bank fraud in 2010 after what many considered an overzealous prosecution. Commuted on December 20, 2017.
- Kristian Saucier, a former U.S. Navy sailor convicted of unauthorized possession and retention of national defense information in 2016. Pardoned on March 9, 2018.
- Lewis "Scooter" Libby, convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice in connection with the CIA leak scandal. Pardoned on April 13, 2018, following an earlier commutation by President George W. Bush in July 2007, shortly after his conviction.
- Jack Johnson, a champion boxer who was convicted in 1913 while traveling with his white girlfriend for violating the Mann Act, which made it illegal to transport women across state lines for "immoral" purposes. Posthumously pardoned on May 24, 2018.
- Dinesh D'Souza, author and documentary film maker, convicted of campaign finance violations in 2014. Pardoned on May 31, 2018.
- Alice Marie Johnson, first-time drug offender sentenced to life without parole in 1996 for conspiracy to possess cocaine, attempted possession of cocaine, and money laundering. Commuted on June 6, 2018.
- Dwight Hammond and Steven Hammond, ranchers convicted in 2012 of two counts of arson on federal land. Commuted and pardoned on July 10, 2018.
- "Constitutional Topic: Presidential Pardons". usconstitution.net. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Pfiffner, James. "Essays on Article II:Pardon Power". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. Washington, D.C.: The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- Ruckman, Jr., P. S. (November 4, 1995). "Federal Executive Clemency in United States". Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Clark, Josh. "How Presidential Pardons Work". howstuffworks.com. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Slack, Charles (2015). Liberty's First Crisis: Adams, Jefferson, and the Misfits Who Saved Free Speech. Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0802123428.
- Ingersoll, Charles Jared (1852). History of the second war between the United States of America and Great Britain: declared by act of Congress, the 18th of June, 1812, and concluded by peace, the 15th of February, 1815. 2. Lippincott, Grambo & Co. pp. 82–83.
- Preston, Daniel (2000). A Comprehensive Catalogue of the Correspondence and Papers of James Monroe [Two Volumes]. ABC-CLIO/Greenwood. pp. 788ff. ISBN 978-0-313-31426-1.
- Hall, John W. (2009). Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies in the Black Hawk War. Harvard University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-674-03518-6.
- "Sold – Only Known Presidential Pardon of a Black Person For Underground Railroad Activities". Raab Collection. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- "President James Buchanan, on His Next to Last Day in Office, Pardons a Judge". Shapell Manuscript Collection. SMF.
- "Abraham Lincoln: Deciding the Fate of 300 Indians Convicted of War Crimes in Minnesota's Great Sioux Uprising". historynet.com. June 12, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- p. 34, Vallandigham, Clement Laird. The Trial Hon. Clement L. Vallandigham by a Military Commission: and the Proceedings Under His Application for a Writ of Habeas Corpus in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Southern District of Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: Rickey and Carroll, 1863.
- "Abraham Lincoln Exercises Clemency". Shapell Manuscript Collection. SMF.
- Franklin, John Hope (1961). Reconstruction After the Civil War. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 33–34.
- Johnson, Andrew. (December 25, 1868). Proclamation 179 – Granting Full Pardon and Amnesty for the Offense of Treason Against the United States During the Late Civil War. presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Harrison, Benjamin (January 4, 1893). "Proclamation 346 – Granting Amnesty and Pardon for the Offense of Engaging in Polygamous or Plural Marriage to Members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints". presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- More are listed at the Presidential pardons page at Almanac of Theodore Roosevelt.
- United States Supreme Court. "Burdick v. United States 236 U.S. 79 (1915)". justia.com.
- "Presidential Clemency Statistics: 1900 to Present". US Department of Justice – Office of the Pardon Attorney. October 10, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Truman, Harry S. (December 23, 1947). "Proclamation 2762: Granting Pardon to Certain Persons Convicted of Violating the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 as Amended". Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Love, Margaret Colgate (2000). "Of Pardons, Politics and Collar Buttons: Reflections on the President's Duty to be Merciful". Fordham Urban Law Journal. 27 (5): 1491. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- "A CODE TO KEEP: The True Story of America's Longest-Held Civilian Prisoner of War in Vietnam by Ernest C. Brace". Kirkus Reviews. February 23, 1988. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Texts of Documents on the Pardon". The New York Times. January 22, 1977. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Trex, Ethan (January 5, 2009). "11 notable presidential pardons". CNN. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Ingram Chronicles, Forbes, June 9, 1999
- "Federal Presidential Pardon". Levin & Zeiger LLP. April 25, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Rudin, Ken (January 26, 2001). "I Beg Your Pardon". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Statement of U.S. Attorney Johnny Sutton Following Today's Oral Argument Before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Re: United States of America V. Ignacio Ramos and Jose Alonso Compean" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Attorney's Office, Western District of Texas. December 3, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
- Rose, Lisa (November 30, 2008). "Talent and friends get singer John Forte out of jail". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Calia, Mike; Pramuk, Jacob (April 13, 2018). "President Trump pardons former Cheney chief of staff Scooter Libby". CNBC.
- Stout, David; Lichtblau, Eric (December 24, 2008). "Pardon Lasts One Day for Man in Fraud Case". The New York Times.
- Malloy, Allie (December 20, 2016). "Obama grants clemency to 231 individuals, largest single day act". CNN. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Savage, Charlie (December 20, 2017). "Obama Pardons James Cartwright, General Who Lied to F.B.I. in Leak Case". The New York Times.
- "Obama commutes death sentence for ex-soldier from Texas". Houston Chronicle.
- Savage, Charlie (January 17, 2017). "Obama Commutes Bulk of Chelsea Manning's Sentence". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Willie McCovey pardoned by President Barack Obama". ESPN. January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Nir, Sarah Maslin (December 20, 2017). "On Obama's Pardon List: A Hotel Magnate Who Owned Studio 54". The New York Times.
- Levin, Sam (January 17, 2017). "Obama commutes sentence for political prisoner Oscar López Rivera". The Guardian. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Hirschfeld, Julie; Haberman, Maggie (August 25, 2017). "Trump Pardons Joe Arpaio, Who Became Face of Crackdown on Illegal Immigration". The New York Times.
- "Breaking News: Sholom Rubashkin Has Been Freed From Prison". The Yeshiva World. December 20, 2017.
- Olson, Wyatt (March 9, 2018). "Trump pardons sailor convicted of photographing sub's nuclear propulsion system". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- "Trump Pardons Scooter Libby in a Case That Mirrors His Own". The New York Times. April 13, 2018.
- "Trump pardons ex-Cheney aide Scooter Libby". CNN. April 13, 2018.
- "Trump pardons late boxer Jack Johnson". Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- "Trump Pardons Jack Johnson, Heavyweight Boxing Champion". The New York Times. May 24, 2018.
- "Trump posthumously pardons heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson". CNN. May 24, 2018.
- "Boxer Jack Johnson is posthumously pardoned by President Trump". The Washington Post. May 24, 2018.
- "Trump pardons conservative pundit Dinesh D'Souza, suggests others also could receive clemency". The Washington Post. May 31, 2018.
- "Trump to Pardon Pundit Dinesh D'Souza for Campaign Finance Violation". Bloomberg. May 31, 2018.
- "Dinesh D'Souza, Pardoned by Trump, Claims Victory Over Obama Administration". The New York Times. June 1, 2018.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Collins, Kaitlan (June 6, 2018). "Trump commutes sentence of Alice Marie Johnson". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- "Trump has commuted the life sentence of Alice Marie Johnson, a woman whose case was championed by Kim Kardashian". The Washington Post. June 6, 2018.
- "Trump commutes life sentence for drug offender backed by Kim Kardashian West". Chicago Sun-Times. June 6, 2018.
- "Trump Commutes Sentence of Drug Offender Championed by Kardashian". Bloomberg. June 6, 2018.
- "Trump grants clemency to woman after Kim Kardashian pressed her case". The Hill. June 6, 2018.
- "Statement from the Press Secretary Regarding Executive Clemency for Dwight and Steven Hammond". White House. July 10, 2018.
- Clemency Statistics
- Presidential Clemency Actions By Fiscal Year: 1900 To 1945
- Presidential Clemency Actions By Administration: 1945 To 2001
- Presidential pardons page at University of Pittsburgh School of Law
- "Presidential Pardons: Presidential Clemency Actions, 1789-2001". Jurist Legal Intelligence. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2012.