List of people who have walked on the Moon

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List of people who have walked on the Moon is located in the United States
Armstrong
Armstrong
Aldrin
Aldrin
Conrad
Conrad
Bean
Bean
Shepard
Shepard
Mitchell
Mitchell
Scott
Scott
Irwin
Irwin
Young
Young
Duke
Duke
Cernan
Cernan
Schmitt
Schmitt
Birthplaces of astronauts who walked on the Moon[1]

Twelve people have walked on the Moon, starting with Neil Armstrong and ending with Gene Cernan. All crewed lunar landings took place between July 1969 and December 1972 as part of the Apollo program.

Alan Shepard was the oldest person to walk on the Moon, at age 47 years and 80 days. Charlie Duke was the youngest, at age 36 years and 201 days. Buzz Aldrin, David Scott, Charles Duke, and Harrison Schmitt are still living as of May 2019; the most recent to die was Alan Bean.[2]

Background[edit]

The United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in the Space Race.

Moonwalkers[edit]

Name Mission Born Died Lunar EVA dates (UTC)[3] Lunar EVAs[3] Total EVA duration[3] Service
1. Neil Armstrong Apollo 11 (1930-08-05)August 5, 1930[4] August 25, 2012(2012-08-25) (aged 82) July 21, 1969[a] 1 2 hours 31 minutes NASA[b]
2. Buzz Aldrin Apollo 11 (1930-01-20) January 20, 1930 (age 89)[5] July 21, 1969[a] 1 2 hours 31 minutes Air Force
3. Pete Conrad Apollo 12 (1930-06-02)June 2, 1930[6] July 8, 1999(1999-07-08) (aged 69) November 19–20, 1969 2 7 hours 45 minutes Navy
4. Alan Bean Apollo 12 (1932-03-15)March 15, 1932[7] May 26, 2018(2018-05-26) (aged 86) November 19–20, 1969 2 7 hours 45 minutes Navy
5. Alan Shepard Apollo 14 (1923-11-18)November 18, 1923[8] July 21, 1998(1998-07-21) (aged 74) February 5–6, 1971 2 9 hours 21 minutes Navy
6. Edgar Mitchell Apollo 14 (1930-09-17)September 17, 1930[9] February 4, 2016(2016-02-04) (aged 85) February 5–6, 1971 2 9 hours 21 minutes Navy
7. David Scott Apollo 15 (1932-06-06) June 6, 1932 (age 87)[10] July 31–August 2, 1971 3 18 hours 33 minutes Air Force
8. James Irwin Apollo 15 (1930-03-17)March 17, 1930[11] September 8, 1991(1991-09-08) (aged 61) July 31–August 2, 1971 3 18 hours 33 minutes Air Force
9. John Young Apollo 16 (1930-09-24)September 24, 1930[12] January 5, 2018(2018-01-05) (aged 87) April 21–23, 1972 3 20 hours 14 minutes Navy
10. Charles Duke Apollo 16 (1935-10-03) October 3, 1935 (age 83)[13] April 21–23, 1972 3 20 hours 14 minutes Air Force
11.[c] Gene Cernan Apollo 17 (1934-03-14)March 14, 1934[14] January 16, 2017(2017-01-16) (aged 82) December 11–14, 1972 3 22 hours 2 minutes Navy
12. Harrison Schmitt Apollo 17 (1935-07-03) July 3, 1935 (age 83)[15] December 11–14, 1972 3 22 hours 2 minutes NASA
  1. ^ a b Americans alive at the time remember it as the night of July 20, 1969 (Armstrong set foot on the Moon at 10:56 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time), but it was the 21st in UTC.
  2. ^ Armstrong had left the US Navy and was already a NASA employee when he and Elliot See became the first civilian astronauts in Astronaut Group 2. See Armstrong's NASA biography and a description of his receiving a NASA award, among others.
  3. ^ Gene Cernan is known as the most-recent person to walk on the Moon. This list illustrates the first person to egress on each mission. Cernan was the first to egress but was the last person back in the lunar module, so he was the 11th to walk on the Moon and the most recent to have walked on it.

Potential moonwalkers[edit]

Jim Lovell and Fred Haise were scheduled to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 13 mission, but the lunar landing was aborted following a major malfunction en route to the Moon.[16] Haise was again scheduled to walk on the Moon as commander of Apollo 19, but Apollo 18 and Apollo 19 were canceled on September 2, 1970.

Lunar activities[edit]

Armstrong
Aldrin

Armstrong descended down the lunar module ladder and spoke his famous epigram, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."[17] He then went to work on collecting the contingency sample, which was a scoop of the lunar surface collected early in the mission in case there was an emergency.[18] Armstrong took the TV camera off of the lunar module and mounted it to a tripod.[19] After that, Aldrin descended the ladder to join Armstrong.[20] Aldrin egressed to the surface about nine minutes after Armstrong.[21] They had some trouble planting the American flag into the lunar soil, but were able to secure it into the surface. Aldrin positioned himself in front of a video camera and began experimenting with different locomotion techniques on the surface.[22] During these experiments, Armstrong and Aldrin received a phone call from President Nixon, congratulating them for the successful landing.[23]

Aldrin then set to work documenting the condition of the spacecraft to ensure it was in proper condition for their upcoming launch. After setting up a couple of experiments with Armstrong, Aldrin went to work hammering a tube into the lunar surface to obtain a core sample.[24] Aldrin's EVA ended when they loaded the lunar samples into the spacecraft and tossed out unneeded items, just before sealing the hatch.[19] Armstrong performed the majority of the photography on the surface which is why there are only five photos of him on the Moon.[25]

Scott
Irwin

Soon after piloting the LM Falcon to a landing at Hadley Rille, Scott accomplished the only stand-up EVA through the lander's top hatch, using it as a high place from which to refine the geology traverses he and Irwin would undertake during the following days. Scott became the first to drive vehicle on the Moon as he drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle, more than doubling Apollo 14's EVA time. After the final traverse, back outside the LM, Scott performed a demonstration of Galileo's theory that all objects fall at the same rate in vacuum by dropping a hammer and a feather for the television camera.

Irwin came onto the lunar surface soon after his commander, Scott. As the LRV's first passenger, he had an often rough ride as Scott swerved to avoid craters.[26] It was Irwin who, during the second EVA, first spotted the Genesis Rock and aided Scott in collecting this bit of the early lunar crust.[27] A man of deep Christian religious faith, Irwin quoted from Psalms while on the lunar surface and later became an evangelist.[28]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 597–607.
  2. ^ Mancini, John (May 26, 2018). "Now just four men who walked on the moon are still alive". Quartz. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Chaikin 2007, pp. 611–613.
  4. ^ Hansen 2012, pp. 49–50.
  5. ^ "To the Moon and beyond". The Record (Bergen County). July 20, 2009. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  6. ^ "New Astronauts, 9 Hottest Jet Pilots in U.S., Have Been Training a Year". The Philadelphia Enquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. September 18, 1962. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ Jacobs, Nancy (November 14, 1969). "Ex-Coleman Resident Bean to be 4th on Moon". Abilene Reporter-News. Abilene, Texas. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  8. ^ Thompson 2004, p. 7.
  9. ^ "Mitchell, Once a Cowpoke, is an Intellectual". The Evening Sun. Baltimore, Maryland. New York Times News Service. February 1, 1971 – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ Furlong, William Barry (February 27, 1969). "Flying is in Astronaut's Blood". Quad-City Times. Davenport, Iowa. World Book Science Service. p. 29 – via Newspapers.com.
  11. ^ "A Who's Who on Apollo Crew". Daily News. New York, New York. July 26, 1971. p. 12 – via Newspapers.com.
  12. ^ "Astronauts Could Have a Party". The Orlando Sentinel. Orlando, Florida. February 3, 1963. p. 15 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^ Chaikin 2007, p. 600.
  14. ^ "Astronauts are Like Two Peas from a Pod". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. June 3, 1966. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com.
  15. ^ "Schmitt One Of Those Who Has Been There". Alamogordo Daily News. Alamogordo, New Mexico. October 16, 1977. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^ Tate, Karl (April 13, 2015). "How Apollo 13's Dangerous Survival Mission Worked (Infographic)". Space.com. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  17. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara; Mikkelson, David (October 2006). "One Small Misstep: Neil Armstrong's First Words on the Moon". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
  18. ^ Meyer, Charles (2009). "Lunar Sample Compendium: Contingency Soil (10010)" (PDF). Astromaterials Research & Exploration Science. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  19. ^ a b Jones, Eric M.; Glover, Ken, eds. (1995). "First Steps". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved September 23, 2006.
  20. ^ Jones, Eric M., ed. (1995). "One Small Step". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  21. ^ Orloff 2000, pp. 102–110.
  22. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 212–213.
  23. ^ Chaikin 2007, p. 215.
  24. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 216–217.
  25. ^ Jones, Eric M. (July 28, 2011). "AS11-40-5886". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  26. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 417–418.
  27. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 430–431.
  28. ^ Chaikin 2007, pp. 437, 442, 557–558.

References[edit]