List of pharaohs

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Pharaoh of Egypt
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
StyleFive-name titulary
First monarchNarmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch
Formationc. 3100 BC
  • 343 BC
    (last native pharaoh)[1]
  • 30 BC
    (last Greek pharaohs)
  • 313 AD
    (last Roman Emperor to be called Pharaoh)[2]
ResidenceVaries by era
AppointerDivine right

The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties.

Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 8th century BC, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time.

Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD.

The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian king lists[edit]

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]

  • Den seal impressions (1st Dynasty); found on a cylinder seal in Den's tomb. It lists all 1st Dynasty kings from Narmer to Den by their Horus names.[6]
  • Palermo stone (5th Dynasty); carved on an olivine-basalt slab. Broken into pieces and thus today incomplete.
  • Giza writing board (6th Dynasty); painted with red, green and black ink on gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective.
  • South Saqqara Stone (6th Dynasty); carved on a black basalt slab. Very selective.
  • Karnak King List (18th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Abydos King List of Seti I (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting the First Intermediate Period.
  • Abydos King List of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Ramesseum king list (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Contains most of the New Kingdom pharaohs up to Ramesses II.
  • Saqqara Tablet (19th Dynasty), carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting most kings of the 1st Dynasty for unknown reasons.
  • Turin King List (19th Dynasty); written with red and black ink on papyrus. Likely the most complete king-list in history, today damaged.
  • Medinet Habu king list (20th Dynasty); carved on limestone and very similar to the Ramesseum king list.
  • Manetho's Aegyptiaca (Greek Period); possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and many anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.

Predynastic period[edit]

Lower Egypt[edit]

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. The following list may be incomplete:

Name Image Comments Reign
Hedju Hor
Only known from two clay jugs from Tura
Naqada II??
Serekhs Ny Hor.jpg
Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada
Naqada II??
King 01 (missing)
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Hsekiu / Seka
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Tiu / Teyew
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
Thesh / Tjesh
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[11]
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[12]
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[13]
Ruled around or earlier than 3180 BC
Serekhs-Hat Hor.jpg
Around 3180 BC
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[14]
King 09 (destroyed)
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[14]
Double Falcon
Serech Double-Falcon.png
May also have ruled in Upper Egypt
Naqada III
(32nd century BC)
EB1911 Egypt - Early Art - King Narmer, Slate Palette.jpg
Only known from the Narmer Palette[15] Around 3150 BC
Naqada III

Upper Egypt[edit]

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Image Comments Reign
Finger Snail
The existence of this king is very doubtful.[16]
Naqada III
Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3250–3220 BC. He most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
Scorpion I
First ruler of Upper Egypt, Around 3250–3200 BC.
Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0[edit]

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Iry Hor name.jpg
Correct chronological position unclear.[21]
Around 3170 BC
Tarkhan crocodile.gif
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[22]
Around 3170 BC
Ka vessel.JPG
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[23]
Around 3170 BC
Scorpion II
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[24]
Around 3170 BC

Early Dynastic Period[edit]

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC.[25]

First Dynasty[edit]

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC.[25]

Name Image Comments Dates
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
Around 3100 BC[25]
Son of Narmer
Greek form: Athotís.
Around 3050 BC
Djer stela retouched.jpg
Son of Hor-Aha
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.
54 years[26]
Egypte louvre 290.jpg
Brother of Djer
Greek form: Usapháis.
10 years[27]
Den label.jpg
Son of Djet
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[28]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name.
42 years[27]
Anedjib Closeup.jpg
Grandson of Djet & nephew of Den
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[29]
10 years
Son of Anedjib or brother of him
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.
8½ years[27]
Son of Semerkhet
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.
34 years
Unknown son of Qa’a?
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC

Second Dynasty[edit]

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.[25]

Name Image Comments Dates
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people.
15 years
Nebra Hotepsekhemwy vase.png
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the Ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.
14 years
Statue nynetjer RMO.jpg
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.
43–45 years
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Around 2740 BC
Abydos KL 02-05 n13.jpg
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[35]
47 years (Supposedly)
Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[36]
CalciteVesselFragmentNameOfSekhemibPerenmmat-BritishMuseum-August21-08 retouched.jpg
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[37]
Around 2720 BC
Neferkara I
Abydos KL 03-05 n19.jpg
Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
25 years(according to Manetho)
Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.[38]
8 years
Hudjefa I
Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times.
11 years(According to the Turin Canon)
Khasekhem oxford2.jpg
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.
18 years

Old Kingdom[edit]

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom ruled from 2686 to 2181 BC.[41]

Third Dynasty[edit]

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.
19 or 28 years, possibly around 2650 BC[44]
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[46]
2649–2643 BC
Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon.
Around 2650 BC
Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni.
2643–2637 BC
Huni-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.
2637–2613 BC

Fourth Dynasty[edit]

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Snofru Eg Mus Kairo 2002.png
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[48]
2613–2589 BC[41]
Kairo Museum Statuette Cheops 03 (cropped).jpg
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
2589–2566 BC
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.
2566–2558 BC
Khafre statue.jpg
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
2558–2532 BC
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
Around 2570 BC
MenkauraAndQueen-CloseUpOfKingsFace MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
2532–2503 BC
Abydos KL 04-06 n25.jpg
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
2503–2498 BC
According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.
Around 2500 BC

Fifth Dynasty[edit]

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2496–2491 BC
Egypt sahura and god.jpg
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
Neferirkare Kakai 2.png
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
2477–2467 BC
Son of Neferirkare
2460–2458 BC
Shepseskare Cylinder Seal.png
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[49]
A few months
Nyuserre Ini
Niuserre BrooklynMuseum.png
Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Menkauhor CG 40.jpg
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
DjedkareIsesi-GoldCylanderSeal MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
2414–2375 BC
Unas stelae.jpg
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty[edit]

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Sistrum Inscribed with the Names of King Teti MET DT259185.jpg
According to Manetho, he was murdered.
2345–2333 BC
Abydos KL 06-02 n35.jpg
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
Kneeling statue of Pepy I.jpg
Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Hidden treasures 09.jpg
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
AnkhnesmeryreII-and-Son-PepiII-SideView BrooklynMuseum.png
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[50]
Abydos KL 06-06 n39.jpg
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Abydos KL 07-01 n40.jpg
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[51] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

First Intermediate Period[edit]

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)[edit]

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 2181 to 2160 BC[52]). They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[53] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[54]

Name Image Comments Dates
Abydos KL 07-02 n41.jpg
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[55][56][57]
Probably short, Around 2181 BC
Neferkare II
Abydos KL 07-03 n42.jpg
Neferkare (III) Neby
Abydos KL 07-04 n43.jpg
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Abydos KL 07-05 n44.jpg
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Abydos KL 07-06 n45.jpg
Abydos KL 07-07 n46.jpg
Abydos KL 07-08 n47.jpg
Abydos KL 07-09 n48.jpg
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Abydos KL 07-10 n49.jpg
Abydos KL 07-11 n50.jpg
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Abydos KL 07-12 n51.jpg
Unknown to 2171 BC
Neferkamin Anu
Abydos KL 07-13 n52.jpg
Around 2170 BC
Qakare Ibi
Abydos KL 07-14 n53.jpg
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts
2169–2167 BC
Abydos KL 07-15 n54.jpg
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.
2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Abydos KL 07-16 n55.jpg
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.
2163–2161 BC
Abydos KL 07-17 n56.jpg
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.
2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty[edit]

The Ninth Dynasty[58] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.[59] The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[58]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Egypte louvre 246 panier.jpg
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.
2160 BC–unknown
Neferkare VII
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Nebkaure Khety Petrie.png
Senenh— or Setut

Tenth Dynasty[edit]

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[59]

Name Image Comments Dates
Graffito Meryhathor Djehutynakht Hatnub.jpg
2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII
Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)
Coffin Nefri Wahkare Lacau.jpg
Stele Anpuemhat Quibell.png
Unknown–2040 BC

Eleventh Dynasty[edit]

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Prince Intef Petrie.png
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Statue Mentuhotep-aa by Khruner.jpg
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
Unknown–2133 BC[59]
Sehertawy Intef I
Intef I.jpg
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2133–2117 BC[59]
Wahankh Intef II
Funerary stele of Intef II.jpg
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2068 BC[59]
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Silsileh close up.jpg
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[60]
2068–2060 BC[59]

Middle Kingdom[edit]

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

Eleventh Dynasty continued[edit]

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II[61]
Mentuhotep Closeup.jpg
Gained all Egypt c. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins, becomes first pharaoh of Middle Kingdom.
2060–2040 BC[59]
(King of Upper Egypt Only)

2060–2009 BC[59]
(King of Upper and Lower Egypt)
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[62]
Mentuhotep-OsirideStatue-CloseUp MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
2009–1997 BC[59]
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[63]
Relief Mentuhotep IV Lepsius.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
1997–1991 BC[59]

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia[edit]

Name Image Comments Dates
Inscription Segerseni Gauthier.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC
Qakare Ini[64]
Inscription Qakare Ini.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC
Inscription Iyibkhentre Gauthier 02.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC

Twelfth Dynasty[edit]

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[65][66]
Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards.
1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[67] (Sesostris I)
Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 104.jpg
Built the White Chapel
1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[68]
Louvre sphinx.jpg
Ruled for at least 35 years.
1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[69] (Sesostris II)
Statue Senusret II Lille.jpg
1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[70] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[71]
Amenemhet III, basalto, seconda metà del XIX sec. ac. 02.JPG
1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[72]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.
1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[73]
Statue of Sobekneferu (Berlin Egyptian Museum 14475).jpg
The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh.
1807–1802 BC

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

Second Intermediate Period[edit]

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Amenemhat.jpg
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies
1802–1800 BC[74]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[74]
1800–1796 BC[74]
Stele of Nerikare.png
Attested on a Nile record from Semna.[75]
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Amenemhat V.jpg
Ruled for 3 to 4 years[74]
1796–1793 BC[74]
Ameny Qemau
Plaque Qemaw by Khruner.jpg
Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur
1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre
1792–1790 BC
Only attested on the Turin canon
Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[74]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Table CG23040 Kamal.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon.[76]
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
Stele Nebnuni by Khruner.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon[77]
1785–1783 BC[74] or 1739 BC[78]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
Cylinder Sehetepibre by Khruner.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon[79]
1783–1781 BC[74]
Known only from the Turin canon 1781 BCE
Known only from the Turin canon
7 months, 1780 BC[74] or 1736 BC[78]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Louvre 032007 40.jpg
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies
Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[74]
4 months
1777 BC[74]
Awybre Hor I
Ka Statue of horawibra.jpg
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue
Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[74]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre
Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[74]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer
Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[74]
Kay Amenemhat.jpg
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[74]
Cylinder Sedjefakare Petrie.jpg
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents.
5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[74]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Wegaf Rubensohn.png
Founder of the dynasty in old studies
Around 1767 BC
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara
Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues
Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[74] or 1711 BC.[80]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Hotepkare cylinder Petrie.png
Less than 10 years
Seth Meribre
Stele JE 35256 Randall-MacIver.png
Reign ended 1749 BCE
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
SobekhotepIII-DualRelief BrooklynMuseum.png
4 years and 2 months
1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
Neferhotep I 2.jpg
11 years
1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor
Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently.
1739 BC[74]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
Statue of Sobekhotep IV.jpg
10 or 11 years
1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
Statue of Merhotepre Sobekhotep V.jpg
1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days
Around 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
Scarab of King Ia-ib LACMA M.86.313.10 (2 of 2).jpg
10 years and 8 months
1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[74]
Merneferre Ay I
Merneferre Ay.jpg
Longest reigning king of the dynasty
23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[74] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Merhotepre Ini.png
Possibly a son of his predecessor
2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[74] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu
Attested only on the Turin canon
3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[74]
Mersekhemre Ined
Neferhotep II 2.jpg
May be the same person as Neferhotep II
3 years, 1672–1669 BC[74]
Sewadjkare Hori
5 years
5 years
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
Merkawre Sobekhotep.png
2 years and 6 months[74]
1664–1663 BC[74]
Seven kings
Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon[74]
1663 BC –?[74]
Merkheperre Scarab.png
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[74]
Attested only on the Turin canon
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[74]
Name lost
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
Sewadjare Mentuhotep.png
Around 1655 BC[74]
Ibi [...]maatre
Hor[...] [...]webenre
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor
Between 1663-1649 BC
Unknown–1649 BC[74]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Around 1654
Dedumose II
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty.
After 1660 BC.[74]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty
Mershepsesre Ini II
Reperti del Tempio di Iside di Benevento 25.jpg
Late 13th dynasty.

Fourteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[81] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given according to Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Scarab Sekhaenre EA30511 Hall.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given according to Ryholt[81]
1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Scarab Nubwoserre UC16597.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[81]
1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[81]
Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[81]
1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[81]
Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[81]
1760–1745 BC
Canaanite - Scarab with Cartouche of King Sheshi - Walters 4217 - Bottom (2).jpg
Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given according to Ryholt.[81] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos.
1745–1705 BC
Aasehra obelisk Petrie.png
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi[81]
Around 1705
Around 1704 BC
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[74]
Around 1704 to 1699 BC
Stele Merdjefare by Khruner.png
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[74]
Around 1699 BC
Sewadjkare III
1694 BC
Around 1690 BC
Jar Nebsenre by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen
At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Scarab Sekheperenre by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a single scarab seal
2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[81]
Only known from the Turin canon
Only known from the Turin canon
Some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals
c. 1650 BC

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Scarab Nuya by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Around 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Scarab Shenshek by Khruner.png
Attested by a scarab-seal
Yakareb scarab.png
YaqubHar scarab Petrie 75.png
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis 41.
17th–16th centuries BC

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain.
1649 BC – Unknown
Aperanati scarab Petrie.png
Chronological position uncertain.
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign
30–40 years
ScarabBearingNameOfApophis MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
40 years or more
Cylinder Khondy Petrie.jpg
1555–1544 BC

Abydos Dynasty[edit]

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[83][84][85] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[86]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
Stele Pantjeny Petrie.jpg
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[86]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[87][88][89]
Woseribre Senebkay
Cartouche Senebkay by Khruner.jpg
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.
Around 1650 BC

Sixteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered
Sekhemresementawy Djehuti
Block Djehuti by Khruner.jpg
3 years
Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII
Stele Sekhemre Seusertawy by Khruner.png
16 years
Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III
Stele JE 59635 by Khruner.png
1 year
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi
Sphinx Seankhenre by Khruner.jpg
May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[88]
1 year
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I
Dagger Sewadjenre Petrie.png
26 years
Neferkare(?) Nebiryraw II
Statuette Harpocrates Mariette.jpg
Around 1600 BC
Axehead Semenenre by Khruner.jpg
Around 1600 BC
Seuserenre Bebiankh
Dagger Bebiankh by Khruner.jpg
12 years
Djedhotepre Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[88]
Around 1588-1582 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Around 1588-1582 BC
Djedankhre Montemsaf
Around 1590 BC
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Mentuhotep VI.jpg
Short reign, around 1585 BC
Seneferibre Senusret IV
Senusret IV.png
Sekhemre Shedwast
May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[90] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[87][88]

Seventeenth Dynasty[edit]

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
Rahotep stele BM Budge.png
Around 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
At least 7 years
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
Statuette Sobekemsaf Petrie b.png
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX.
Unknown to around 1573 BC
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef, Louvre.jpg
Possibly around 1573-1571 BC
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years
Around 1571 to the mid-1560s BC
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef, Louvre.jpg
Late 1560s BC
Senakhtenre Ahmose
Relief Senakhtenre by Khruner.jpg
Around 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Sequenre tao.JPG
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[74]

New Kingdom[edit]

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
Around 1550–1525 BC; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC[91]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
58 I Amenhotep I.jpg
Son of Ahmose I.
1541–1520 BC
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign.
1520–1492 BC
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Stone block with relief at Karnak Temple Thutmosis II.jpg
Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.
1492–1479 BC
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II.
1479–1458 BC
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments.
1458–1425 BC
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
Amenophis II-E 10896-IMG 0085-gradient.jpg
Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1425–1400 BC
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
Thumtmoses IV-E 13889-Louvre Museum (7465530452).jpg
Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1400–1390 BC
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Amenhotep iii british museum.jpg
Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV.
1390–1352 BC
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
1352–1336 BC
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg
Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.
1335–1334 BC
A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.
1334-1332 BC
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However, he became famous for being buried in a decorative tomb intended for someone else called KV62.
1332–1324 BC
Kheperkheperure Ay (II)
Opening of the Mouth - Tutankhamun and Aja-2.jpg
Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
1324–1320 BC
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb01 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg
Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
1320–1292 BC

Nineteenth Dynasty[edit]

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great.

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[92]
StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
1292–1290 BC
Menmaatre Seti I
SetiI-KneelingStatueOfferingToOsiris-CloseUp MetropolitanMuseum.png
Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
1290–1279 BC
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns.
1279–1213 BC
Banenre Merenptah[93]
Merenptah Louxor-HeadAndShoulders-BackgroundKnockedOut.png
Thirteenth son of Ramesses II.
1213–1203 BC
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Amenmesse-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Most likely a usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah.
1203–1200 BC
Userkheperure Seti II[94]
Turin statue of Seti II.jpg
Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
1203–1197 BC
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[95]
Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
1197–1191 BC
Satre-merenamun Tausret
Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
1191–1190 BC

Twentieth Dynasty[edit]

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte
Sethnakht closeup Lepsius.png
Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
1190–1186 BC
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy).
1186–1155 BC
Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
M-Ramses IV.jpg
Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
1155–1149 BC
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Ramses V mummy head.png
Son of Ramesses IV
1149–1145 BC
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V.
1145–1137 BC
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Tomb KV1 Ramesses VII Lepsius.jpg
Son of Ramesses VI.
1137–1130 BC
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
SFEC-MEDINETHABU-Sethiherkhepeshef II.jpg
An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
1130–1129 BC
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII.
1129–1111 BC
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[96]
A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
1111–1107 BC
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[97]
Temple Khonsu Ramesses XI Lepsius.jpg
Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
1107–1077 BC

Third Intermediate Period[edit]

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)[98]
Canopic Smendes Met.jpg
Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI.
1077–1051 BC
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
Bowcap Amenemnesut Psusennes by Khruner.jpg
Obscure four-year reign.
1051–1047 BC
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty.
1047–1001 BC
Usermaatre Amenemope
Son of Psusennes I.
1001–992 BC
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Seal Aakheperre Osorkon Petrie.jpg
Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor.
992–986 BC
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty.
986–967 BC
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Statue CG42192 legrain.jpg
Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun.
967–943 BC

Theban High Priests of Amun[edit]

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Name Image Comments Dates
First High Priest of Amun to claim to be pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh.
1080–1074 BC
Payankh stele Mariette.jpg
Some sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor.
1074–1070 BC
Pinedjem I
Statue Pinedjem CG42191 Legrain.png
Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I.
1070–1032 BC
Mummy Masaherta Smith.JPG
Son of Pinedjem I.
1054–1045 BC
Djedkhonsuefankh Shabti.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I.
1046–1045 BC
Molded Faience Amuletic Tube with Throne Name of the High Priest of Amen Menkheperre LACMA M.80.198.107.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I.
1045–992 BC
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II)
Nesbanebdjed II statuette Petrie.png
Son of Menkheperre.
992–990 BC
Pinedjem II
Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II.
990–976 BC
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III)
Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure.
976–943 BC

Twenty-Second Dynasty[edit]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Karnak Sheshonq I.jpg
Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Possibly the biblical Shishaq.
943–922 BC
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Statue of Pharaoh Osorkon I-AO 9502-IMG 7653-gradient.jpg
Son of Shoshenq I.
922–887 BC
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Sheshonq II mask2004.jpg
Obscure pharaoh, possibly a usurper.
887–885 BC
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb
Obscure pharaoh, placement uncertain.
880s BC
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
Sarcophage Harsiesis.JPG
An obscure rebel, at Thebes.
880–860 BC
Takelot I
Takelot I a.jpg
Son of Osorkon I.
885–872 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Egypte louvre 066.jpg
Son of Takelot I.
872–837 BC
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
Shoshenq III.jpg
837–798 BC
Shoshenq IV
Stele Shoshenq V Y8 Spiegelberg.png
798–785 BC
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
Stele of Year 2 of Pami, Louvre.jpg
785–778 BC
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
Apis stele, Shoshenq V, Louvre.jpg
778–740 BC
Usermaatre Osorkon IV
Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
740–720 BC

Twenty-Third Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Karnak Ptah 08.jpg
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd.
837–813 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
Torso of Pedubast I by Michael Martin.jpg
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II.
826–801 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I
Co-regent with Pedubast.
812–811 BC
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI
Successor to Pedubast.
801–795 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Osorkon III.jpg
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king.
795–767 BC
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Karnak Takelot III.jpg
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign.
773–765 BC
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Egypte louvre 054.jpg
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III.
765–762 BC
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq VII A poorly attested king.

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Louvre C100 stele Petrie.png
Reigned at Thebes only.
762–Unknown BC

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
Tefnakht Athens stela (T. Efthimiadis) det.jpg
732–725 BC
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
Apis Bakenranef 6 Mariette.jpg
725–720 BC

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period)[edit]

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
Stele Piye submission Mariette.jpg
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years
744–714 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[99]
Djedkaure Shebitku
Stela Shebitqo Met.jpg
Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s
714–705 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[99]
Neferkare Shabaka
Stela Shabaqo Met.jpg
Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s
705–690 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[99]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
Died in 664 BC
690–664 BC[100]
Bakare Tantamani
Nubian head.JPG
Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year.
664–653 BC

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500).

Late Period[edit]

The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[101]

Name Image Comments Dates
Tefnakht II
Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I.
685–678 BC
Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned.
678–672 BC
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Necho I Horus.png
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I.
672–664 BC

The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Psammetique Ier TPabasa.jpg
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II.
664–610 BC[100]
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Necho-KnellingStatue BrooklynMuseum.png
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the death of Josiah. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II.
610–595 BC[100]
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Sphinx Psammetique II 1104.jpg
Son of Necho II and father of Apries.
595–589 BC[100]
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II.
589–570 BC[100]
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
Farao Amasis.JPG
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III.
570–526 BC[100]
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Psamtik III.jpg
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt.
526–525 BC[100]

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period)[edit]

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 404 BC. The Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Stela Cambyses Apis closeup.jpg
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC.
525–1 July 522 BC[100]
Smerdis (Bardiya)
Son of Cyrus the Great.
522 BC[100]
Petubastis III[102]
Ignota prov., pannello decorativo del re sehibra, xxiii dinastia, 823-716 ac..JPG
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta.
522/21–520 BC
Darius I the Great
Flickr - isawnyu - Hibis, Temple Decorations (III).jpg
Ascended throne by overthrowing Gaumata[103]
522–November 486 BC[100]
Psammetichus IV[102]
A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain.
Possibly in the 480s BC
Xerxes I the Great
Xerxes Image.png
Assassinated by Artabanus of Persia.
November 486–December 465 BC[100]
Artabanus the Hyrcanian
465-464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand
Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius.jpg
Died in 424 BC
464–424 BC
Xerxes II
A claimant.
424–423 BC[100]
A claimant.
423–July 423 BC[100]
Darius II
Darius ii.png
Died in 404 BC
July 423–March 404 BC[100]

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaios aramaic papyrus Sachau.png
Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians.
404–398 BC

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty[edit]

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Louvre 032007 15.jpg
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed.
399–393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Statue Achoris Petrie 01.jpg
Son of Nefaarud I.
Around 392–around 391 BC
Statue of 29th Dynasty King Psamuthis LACMA M.71.73.57.jpg
Possibly dethroned Hakor for a year.
Around 391 BC
Hakor (restored)
Statue Achoris Petrie 01.jpg
Retook the throne from Psammuthes.
Around 390–around 379 BC
Nefaarud II
Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor.
Around 379 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty[edit]

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:[104]

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos.
379–361 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Fragment of a faience saucer inscribed with the name of King Teos (Djedhor). 30th Dynasty. From the Palace of Apries at Memphis, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta.
361–359 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
Head of Nectanebo II-MBA Lyon H1701-IMG 0204.jpg
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[105] to be recognized by Manetho.
359–342 BC

Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period)[edit]

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III Pharao.jpg
Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time.
343–September 338 BC[104]
Artaxerxes IV Arses
Artaxerxes IV Arses.jpg
Only reigned in Lower Egypt.
338–336 BC
Stela Nastasen Kambasuten Lepsius.jpg
Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia.
338–335 BC[104]
Darius III
Darius III of Persia.jpg
Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC. The Persian Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
336–332 BC

Hellenistic period[edit]

Argead Dynasty[edit]

The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Alexander III of Macedon.jpg
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt.
332–13 June 323 BC[106]
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Théodule Devéria (French) - (Close-up of a Sculpture (Profile of a Head), Karnak) - Google Art Project.jpg
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great.
323–317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Alexandros IV Aigos Budge.png
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana.
317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty[edit]

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.

Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.[citation needed]

Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.[citation needed]

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849.jpg
Abdicated in 285 BC[citation needed]
7 November 305–January 282 BC[104]
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos
Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg
28 March 284–28 January 246 BC
Arsinoe II
Wife of Ptolemy II
c. 277–July 270 BC[104]
Ptolemy III Euergetes I
Ptolemy III Euergetes.jpg
28 January 246–November/December 222 BC
Berenice II
Wife of Ptolemy III. Was Murdered.
244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Octadrachm Ptolemy IV BM CMBMC33.jpg
Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder.
November/December 222–July/August 204 BC
Arsinoe III
Oktadrachmon Arsinoe III.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy IV. Was Murdered.
220–204 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
205–199 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Tetradrachm Ptolemy V.jpg
Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC
July/August 204–September 180 BC
Cleopatra I
Cleopatra I.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority
c. February 193–176 BC[107]
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg
Died 145 BC
180–October 164 BC[107]
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy VI
175-October 164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC
171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg
Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC
163–July 145 BC[107]
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt.
163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Coin of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator.jpg
Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II
145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
145–131 BC
Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III.jpg
Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Was murdered by her own son Ptolemy X.
142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphites
Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII
131 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
131–130 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
127–116 BC
Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III.jpg
Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.
127–107 BC
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116.
124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II
Died 80 BC
116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV
Berenice und Selene.jpg
Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered.
116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Ptolemy X Alexander I Louvre Ma970.jpg
Died 88 BC
110–109 BC
Berenice III
Berenice III.jpg
Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later
81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III
80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)
Ptolemy XII Auletes Louvre Ma3449.jpg
Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC
80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena
Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV
79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI
Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as Cleopatra V.[108]
58–57 BC
Berenice IV
Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC.
58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Ptolemy XII Auletes Louvre Ma3449.jpg
Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death
55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII
Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of Cleopatra with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide.
31 May 52[109]–12 August 30 BC
Ptolemy XIII
Portrait of Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator.jpg
Brother of Cleopatra VII
51–13 January 47 BC
Arsinoe IV
Jacopo Tintoretto - The Liberation of Arsinoe - WGA22667.jpg
In opposition to Cleopatra VII
December 48–January 47 BC
Ptolemy XIV
Ptolemy XIV.jpg
Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII
13 January 47–26 July 44 BC
Ptolemy XV
Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg
Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.
2 September 44–August 30 BC


Egyptian relief depicting the Roman Emperor Trajan (right, reigned 98–117 AD) in full pharaonic style.

Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt.

The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia (reigned 311–313 AD).[2][110]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
  2. ^ a b c von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Verlag Philipp von Zabern. pp. 266–267. ISBN 978-3422008328.
  3. ^ "Digital Egypt for Universities". Retrieved 2019-02-12.
  4. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 50.
  5. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 61.
  6. ^ Cervello-Autuori, Josep (2003). "Narmer, Menes and the Seals from Abydos". In Hawass, Zahi (ed.). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, 2000. 2. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. pp. 168–75.
  7. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 259.
  8. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 259.
  9. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 139.
  10. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 199.
  11. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 138.
  12. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 181.
  13. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 311.
  14. ^ a b Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 137.
  15. ^ Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125.
  16. ^ a b c d Barry Kemp (a1), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell, The Colossi from the Early Shrine at Coptos in Egypt, in: Cambridge Archaeological Journal Volume 10, Issue 2April 2000, 233
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  24. ^ Toby Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategy, Society and Security. Routeledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, p. 38, 56 & 57.
  25. ^ a b c d Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 81. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
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  28. ^ William Matthew Flinders Petrie: The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties. Cambridge University Press, New York 2013 (reprint of 1901), ISBN 1-108-06612-7, p. 49.
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Further reading[edit]

  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav,The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
  • Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.

External links[edit]