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List of phobias

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"-phobia" redirects here. For the class of psychological disorders, see Phobia.

The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject. The suffix is antonymic to -phil-.

For more information on the psychiatric side, including how psychiatry groups phobias such as agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, see phobia. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In some cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game, of notable example being a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News.[1] In some cases, a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym with the suffix -phil-, e.g. Germanophobe / Germanophile.

A large number of -phobia lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Also, a number of psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. Sometimes it leads to bizarre results, such as suggestions to cure "prostitute phobia".[2] Such practice is known as content spamming and is used to attract search engines.

Psychological conditions

Specialists may prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms such as personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder.










  • Ichthyophobia – fear of fish, including fear of eating fish, or fear of dead fish
  • Iophobia – fear of rust or poison[8]











Animal phobias

Main article: Zoophobia

Non-psychological conditions

Biology, chemistry

Biologists use a number of -phobia/-phobic terms to describe predispositions by plants and animals against certain conditions. For antonyms, see here

Prejudices and discrimination

The suffix -phobia is used to coin terms that denote a particular anti-ethnic or anti-demographic sentiment, such as Americanophobia, Europhobia, Francophobia, Hispanophobia, and Indophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists (e.g. Polonophobia vs. anti-Polonism). Anti-religious sentiments are expressed in terms such as Christianophobia and Islamophobia.

Other prejudices include:

See also


  1. ^ The A- Z of Fear, a 30 October 1998 BBC News unsigned article in the "Entertainment" section
  2. ^ "Content Spammers Help You Overcome Prostitute Phobia". 25 August 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Doctor M., Ronald; Kahn P., Ada (2012). The Encyclopedia of Phobias, Fears, and Anxieties, Third Edition. Facts On File, Inc. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8160-6453-3. 
  4. ^ a b Robert Jean Campbell (2009). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–. ISBN 978-0-19-534159-1. 
  5. ^ Gould, Dr. George Milbry (1910). The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blackiston's Son & Co. p. 100. 
  6. ^ a b c "The Absolutely Scariest Colors Imaginable". Colour Lover. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  7. ^ Lisa Fritscher (7 January 2013). "Cleithrophobia". Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Chris Aldrich (2002). The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing. pp. 230–. ISBN 978-1-55369-886-9. 
  9. ^ Basavaraj, K. H.; Navya, M. A; Rashmi, R. (2010). "Relevance of psychiatry in dermatology: Present concepts". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (3): 270–275. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.70992. ISSN 0019-5545. PMC 2990831free to read. PMID 21180416. 
  10. ^ Thomas, Gregory (15 October 2012). "Do holes make you queasy or even fearful". The Daily Herald. Arlington, IL. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  11. ^ Schoenborn, Barry; Snyder, Richard (2012). Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies. For Dummies. p. 238. ISBN 1-118-11556-2. 
  12. ^ Kesterton, Michael (17 April 2009). "Social Studies". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "This woman is deathly afraid of cheese, so keep the Brie at bay". MSN. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Laudan, Rachel; Hayes, Dayle (2009). Food and Nutrition: Calories to energy drinks. Marshall Cavendish. p. 201. ISBN 0-7614-7821-3. 
  15. ^ Jackson, Holbrook (1932). The Fear of Books. University of Illinois. ISBN 978-0-252-07040-2. 
  16. ^ Fischler, C. "From lipophilia to lipophobia. Changing attitudes and behaviors towards fat: a socio-historical approach", in: Dietary fats determinants of preference, selection, and consumption / edited by DJ Mela. London : New York : Elsevier Applied Science, c1992. p. 103-115.
  17. ^ Askegaard, S. Ostberg, J. "Consumers' Experience of Lipophobia: A Swedish Study", Advances in Consume Research, 2003, vol. 30, p. 161
  18. ^ Askegaard, Søren, Holt, Douglas B. Jensen, Anne F. "Lipophobia: A Transatlantic Concept?" Advances in Consume Research, 1999, vol. 26, issue 1 p. 331-336.

Further reading

  • Aldrich, C. (2 December 2002). The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing. pp. 224–236. ISBN 1-55369-886-X. 

External links