List of pipe organ stops

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An organ stop can mean one of three things:

  • the control on an organ console that selects a particular sound
  • the row of organ pipes used to create a particular sound, more appropriately known as a rank
  • the sound itself

Organ stops are sorted into four major types: principal, string, reed, and flute.

This is a sortable list of names that may be found associated with electronic and pipe organ stops. Countless stops have been designed over the centuries, and individual organs may have stops, or names of stops, used nowhere else. This non-comprehensive list deals mainly with names of stops found on numerous Baroque, classical and romantic organs. Here are a few of the most common ones:

Stop name Alternative name Type Notes
Aeoline Aéoline
Éolienne

Echo Salicional

String an extremely small scaled stop with a very delicate, airy tone; built frequently as a single-rank stop, or as a double-rank celeste.
Baryton Baritone

Baritono Varitono

Reed 16' 8' or 4' reed stop imitative of the instrument
Blockflöte Block Flute

Blockflöt

Blokfluit

Blockpfeife

Flute German for "recorder"; a wide scaled conical or stopped flute of 4′ or 2′ pitch, taking its name from the common flute called a "recorder" which its tone closely resembles
Bombarde Bombarda

Bombardon

Bombardone

Reed a powerful chorus reed stop with a brassy timbre, occurring on the manuals at 16′ (and occasionally 8′), or in the pedal at 16′ or 32′ pitch; similar tone as the Ophicleide or the Trombone
Bourdon Bordun

Bordone

Bordón

Flute a wide-scaled stopped-flute, 16′ or 8′ on the manuals, and 16′ (sometimes 8'), or 32′ in the pedals (where it may be called Subbass or Contra Bourdon)
Cello Violoncelle String a string stop at 8′ or 16′; has a warmer, more "romantic" tone than the Gamba
Chimney Flute Rohrflöte Flute a stopped flue stop with a chimneyed stopper.
Choralbass Koraalbas Principal a 4′ strongly voiced octave Diapason in the pedal division, mainly for cantus firmus use
Claribel Clarabel Flute
Claribel Flute
Melodia
Flute an 8′ open wood manual stop.
Clarinet Clarinette
Clarionet

Clarinetto

Klarinette

Reed a reed stop with a rich tone imitating the orchestral instrument
Clarion Clairon

Clarino

Clarín

Clarone

Reed a 4′ or 2′ Trumpet, it is a chorus reed
Cor Anglais English Horn

Engelse hoorn

Reed 16' or 8' reed stop imitative of the instrument.
Cornet Cornett

Corneta

Flute A multi-rank stop consisting of up to five ranks of wide-scaled pipes. The pitches include 8′, 4′, 2+23′, 2′ and 1+35′. Three and four-rank cornets eliminate 8′ and 4′ ranks. This stop is not imitative of the orchestral cornet.
Cornopean Reed 8′ chorus reed similar to the Trumpet; normally located in the Swell division. It is usually quieter than a trumpet.
Cromorne Krummhorn

Kromhoorn

Cremona

Reed Cylindrical solo reed that has a distinct buzzing or bleating sound, imitative of the historical instrument of the same name
Diapason Open Diapason

Montre
Principale
Principal
Prinzipal

Principaal

Prestant

Praestant

Tenori[1]

Principal A flue stop that is the "backbone" sound of the organ. Most commonly at 8′ in manuals, and 8′ or 16′ in the pedals.
Diaphone Diaphonic Diapason Valvular A special type of organ pipe that produces tone by using a felt hammer to beat air through the resonator. Common on theatre organs but not often used in classical instruments.
Dulcian Dulzian

Dulciane

Dulceon

Reed A reed stop at 8' pitch on the manuals with a tone similar to that of a bassoon.
Dulciana Dulziana String An 8' metal string stop. Usually the softest stop on an organ.
Fagotto Fagot

Fagott

Bassoon

Basson

Reed 16' or 8' chorus reed. Inverted conical construction, softer than a trumpet or trombone.
Flageolet Flageoletta

Flautim

Flute A flute stop of 2' or 1' pitch.
Flûte Octaviante Flute 4' Harmonic Flute.
Fugara Principal/String hybrid A flue stop in 4' or 8' pitch. The tone has a sharp "stringy" quality.[2]
Gamba Viola da Gamba

Viola di Gambe
Viole

String A string stop that has a thinner, more cutting tone than the Cello stop. It is one of the earliest designs of string stops, and is named after the Baroque instrument viola da gamba.
Gedackt Gedeckt

Pileata
Stopped Diapason

Flute A basic stopped 8′ flute in the manuals, and stopped 16′ and/or 8′ flute voice in the pedal
Gemshorn Gemshoorn

Cor de Chamois

Flute/String hybrid A flue stop usually at 4' or 2' pitch but sometimes 8' pitch; similar tone as Spitz Flute
Gravissima Gravitone

Acoustic Bass Basse acoustique

Name for a resultant 64' flue (a 32' stop combined with a 2123' stop, which is a fifth, producing a difference tone of 8 Hz on low C.)
Harmonic Flute Flûte Harmonique

Harmonieflöte

Flute An open metal flute made to sound an octave above its length by means of a small hole at its midpoint. This stop has a very pure flute tone and was popularized by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll.
Hohlflöte Hohlflute
Holpijp
Flute A metal or wooden 8' open or stopped flute.
Keraulophon Keraulophone Flute A flue stop at 8' pitch with a stringy, reedy tone.
Larigot Largo Mutation Flute mutation stop at 1+13′ pitch
Mixture Fourniture
Plein Jeu
Principal Multi-rank stops that enhance the harmonics of the fundamental pitch, and are intended for use with foundation stops, not alone. Mixture IV indicates that the stop has four ranks. Mixture 15.19.22.26 indicates the composition.
Nachthorn Night Horn

Nachthoorn
Cor de Nuit
Corno de Nacht

Pastorita

Flute wide-scaled flute with a relatively small mouth, produces a soft, but penetrating sound; occurring at 8′ and 4′ pitch, and also at 2′ pitch at pedal
Nasard Nasat
Nazard
Mutation Flute mutation stop of 2+23′ (sounding a twelfth above written pitch)
Nason Flute Flute Flute stop with stopped pipes. Usually 4′ pitch in which the twelfth is often prominent
None Flute A rare mutation stop of 8/9', reinforcing the 8' harmonic series. (sounds a twenty-third above written pitch)
Oboe Hautbois

Hautboy Hoboe

Reed 8' reed stop used as both a solo stop and a chorus reed.
Octave Oktav

Oktaaf
Prestant
Principal

Principal A 4′ Principal. "Prestant" often indicates ranks that have pipes mounted in the front of the organ case.[3]
Octavin Ottavina Flute 2' harmonic flute
Ophicleide Ophikleid Reed powerful reed stop, much like the Bombarde or Trombone; normally a 16′ or 32′ pedal reed; unusually an 8′ or 16′ on the manuals
Orchestral Oboe Reed a different stop from Oboe; intended to imitate the orchestral instrument; of smaller scale than the non-imitative oboe
Piccolo Zwergpfeife Flute 2′ or 1' flute
Quarte Flute 2′ flute on 17th and 18th century French organs; short for Quarte de nasard, sounding an interval of a fourth above the nasard stop
Quint Quinte

Quinta

Mutation a resultant mutation stop, 5+13' on the manuals reinforcing the 16' harmonic series or 10+23' in the pedal reinforcing the 32' harmonic series.
Quintadena Quintaton

Quintatön

Flute Flue stop of 4′, 8′, or 16′ foot pitch with stopped pipes and a flute tone in which the twelfth is prominent
Regal Reed a reed stop with fractional-length resonators; produces a buzzy sound with low fundamental frequency.
Rohrflöte Chimney Flute Flute German for "reed flute"; a semi-capped metal pipe with a narrow, open-ended tube (i.e. "chimney") extending from the top which resembles a reed
Salicional Salicionale

Salicet

Principal/String hybrid An 8′ (sometimes 4' or 16') string stop, softer in tone than the Gamba
Schalmei Shawm

Schalmey

Reed A Reed with a buzzy Timbre, of the Regal class. Found at 16', 8' and 4'
Scharf Cymbale Principal A high-pitched mixture stop
Sesquialtera Flute Comprises ranks at 223' and 5+13'
Sifflöte Sifflet Flute 1′ flute
Speelfluyt Flute 4' flute the Speelfluyt was reconstructed by Jürgen Ahrend for the Schnitger organ in the Martinikerk, Groningen out of one remaining pipe
Spitz Flute Spitzflöte

Spire Flute

Flute/String hybrid 4' or 2' flute with metal pipes tapered to a point at the top; similar tone as Gemshorn
Suabe Flute Flute Flute stop of 4′ pitch or 8′ pitch with a bright, clear tone.
Super Octave Doublette
Fifteenth
Principal the manual 2′ Principal or Diapason; its name merely signifies that it is above (i.e. "super") the 4′ Octave.
Tibia Clausa Tibia Flute a large-scale, stopped wood flute pipe, usually with a leathered lip; performs same function in a theatre pipe organ as a principal in a classical organ.
Tierce Seventeenth
Terz
Tertia
Mutation flute mutation stop pitched 1+35′, supporting the 8′ harmonic series
Trichterregal Reed an 8-ft reed stop on a pipe organ with funnel-shaped resonators.[4][5] A trichterregal was used by Schnitger in the Schnitger organ that he built for St. James's Church, Hamburg.
Trombone Posaune

Bazuin

Basun

Reed Chorus reed simulating the trombone; most commonly in the pedal at 16′ or 32′ pitch; similar tone as Bombarde or Ophicleide
Trompette en Chamade Chamadetrompet Reed Solo trumpet laid horizontally; can often be heard over full organ.
Trompette Militaire Militair trompet Reed powerful solo reed of the trumpet-family, with a brassy, penetrating tone
Trumpet Trompete
Trompette
Reed a loud chorus reed stop, generally a single rank, with inverted conical resonators.
Tuba Reed large-scale, high pressure, smooth solo reed usually 8′ or 16' in the manuals and 16′ (sometimes 32′) in the pedal. Tuba is Latin for Trumpet; it is not named after the orchestral tuba.
Twelfth Octave Quint Mutation principal mutation stop of 2+23′ or 5+13'
Twenty-Second Kleine Principal
Vigesimaseconda
Principal a 1′ pitch principal in the manuals or a 2' pitch in the pedal
Unda Maris Meerflöte Flute Latin for "wave of the sea"; a very soft rank tuned slightly sharp or flat. It is drawn with another soft rank to create an undulating effect. Occasionally built as a double-rank stop called Unda Maris II, which has both a normal-pitched and detuned rank.
Voix Céleste Vox Celeste

Voix Lumineuse

String An 8′ string stop tuned slightly sharp or flat to create an undulating effect when combined with another string stop. Some variants contain both a normal-pitched and detuned rank. Play 
Vox Angelica Voix Angelique String A soft organ flue stop tuned slightly flat.
Vox Humana Voix Humaine Reed fractional length regal supposedly intended to imitate the human voice (hence the name)
Waldflöte Wald Flute

Woudfluit

Flûte Champ

Flute A soft flute stop usually at 2' pitch but sometimes at 8' or 4' pitch

References[edit]

  1. ^ Williams, Peter & Owen, Barbara (2001). "Organ stop". In Sadie, Stanley & Tyrrell, John (eds.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5.
  2. ^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1906). "Fugara" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  3. ^ "Encyclopedia of Organ Stops". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  4. ^ Audsley, George Ashdown (2002). Organ-Stops and Their Artistic Registration. Courier Dover Publications. p. 259. ISBN 0-486-42423-5.
  5. ^ "Trechterregal". Encyclopedia of Organ Stops. Edward L. Stauff.

External links[edit]