List of pizza varieties by country
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During the latter half of the 20th century, pizza became a globally accessible dish, mainly due to Italian immigrants that had brought their dishes to new people with resounding success, often in racially and culturally resistive environments.
- 1 Asia
- 2 Europe
- 3 Middle East
- 4 North America
- 5 Oceania
- 6 South America
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Pizza became a popular fast food in Bangladeshi urban areas. Since the introduction of various pizza brands such as Domino's and Pizza Hut in the early to mid-2000s, it has reached almost all classes of urban peoples.
Pizza is an emerging fast food in Indian urban areas. American pizza chains Domino's Pizza and Pizza Hut opened their first outlets in India in 1996. Domestic pizza brands include U.S.Pizza, Smokin' Joes and Pizza Corner. Branded pizza is available in most cities in India.
Pizzas served in India by foreign pizza brands feature greater "recipe localization" from pizza makers than many other markets such as Latin America and Europe, but similar to other Asian pizza markets. Indian pizzas are generally spicier and more vegetable-oriented than those in other countries. For instance, oregano spice packs are included with a typical pizza order in India instead of Parmesan cheese. In addition to spicier and more vegetable-oriented ingredients, Indian pizza also utilized unique toppings. For example, a pizza topping unique to India would be pickled ginger.
Pizza outlets serve pizzas with several Indian-style toppings, such as tandoori chicken and paneer. More conventional pizzas are also eaten. Pizzas available in India range from localized basic variants, available in neighborhood bakeries, to gourmet pizzas with exotic and imported ingredients available at specialty restaurants.
American pizza chains entered Japan in the 1970s (e.g. Shakey's Pizza and Pizza Hut 1973, Domino's pizza in 1985). The largest Japanese pizza chain is Pizza-La. Local types of pizza are popular, with many using mayonnaise sauces, and sometimes other ingredients such as corn, potatoes, avocado, eel, or even honey or chocolate (as in dessert). "Side orders" also often include items such as french fries, fried chicken, baked pasta, as well as vegetable soups, green salads, desserts, and soda or Japanese tea. There is also a strong tradition of using Tabasco sauce on cooked pizzas.
Pizza toppings in Japan also differ from that found in the United States. One of the unique pizza toppings found in Japan is squid. Seafood may be found on pizza everywhere, but having squid as the focal ingredient is unique to Japan.
Local crust variants also exist, for instance mochi pizza (crust made with Japanese mochi cakes). Traditional pizza served in Italian-style restaurants are also popular, and the most popular pizza chain promoting Italian style artisanal pizza is Salvatore Cuomo. The Italian association Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana also has an independent branch in Japan.
Pizza is a popular snack food in South Korea, especially among younger people. Major American brands such as Domino's, Pizza Hut, and Papa John's Pizza compete against domestic brands such as Mr. Pizza and Pizza Etang, offering traditional as well as local varieties which may include toppings such as bulgogi and dak galbi. Korean-style pizza tends to be complicated, and often has nontraditional toppings such as corn, potato wedges, sweet potato, shrimp, or crab. Traditional Italian-style thin-crust pizza is served in the many Italian restaurants in Seoul and other major cities. North Korea's first pizzeria opened in its capital Pyongyang in 2009.
Pizza is becoming more popular as a fast food in the urban areas of Nepal, particularly in the capital city, Kathmandu. There are a number of restaurants that serve pizzas in Kathmandu. With the opening of number of international pizza restaurants, the popularity as well as consumption has markedly increased in recent times.
The first pizzerias opened in Karachi and Islamabad in the late 1980s, with Pappasallis serving pizza in Islamabad since 1990. Pizza has gained a measure of popularity in the eastern regions of Pakistan—namely, the provinces of Sindh, Punjab, and Azad Kashmir, as well as the autonomous territory of Gilgit-Baltistan. Pizza has not penetrated into western Pakistan; of the remaining provinces and territories of Pakistan, only one (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has seen much of the dish, in the form of a single Pizza Hut in Peshawar. Chicken Tikka and achari chicken pizzas are popular. In the regions where pizza is known, spicy chicken and sausage-based pizzas are also very popular, as they cater to the local palate.
Authentic Neapolitan pizzas (pizza napoletana) are typically made with tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. They can be made with ingredients like San Marzano tomatoes, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and mozzarella di bufala Campana, made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state (this mozzarella is protected with its own European protected designation of origin).
According to the rules proposed by the Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana, the genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of wheat flour (type 0 or 00, or a mixture of both), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer's yeast, salt and water. For proper results, strong flour with high protein content (as used for bread-making rather than cakes) must be used. The dough must be kneaded by hand or with a low-speed mixer. After the rising process, the dough must be formed by hand without the help of a rolling pin or other machine, and may be no more than 3 millimeters (0.12 in) thick. The pizza must be baked for 60–90 seconds in a 485 °C (905 °F) stone oven with an oak-wood fire. When cooked, it should be crispy, tender and fragrant. There are three official variants: pizza marinara, which is made with tomato, garlic, oregano and extra virgin olive oil, pizza Margherita, made with tomato, sliced mozzarella, basil and extra-virgin olive oil, and pizza Margherita extra made with tomato, mozzarella from Campania in fillets, basil and extra virgin olive oil. The pizza napoletana is a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (Specialità Tradizionale Garantita, STG) product in Europe.
Pizza in Lazio (Rome), as well as in many other parts of Italy, is available in two different styles. Take-away shops sell pizza rustica or pizza al taglio. This pizza is cooked in long, rectangular baking pans and relatively thick (1–2 cm). The pizza is often cooked in an electric oven. It is usually cut with scissors or a knife and sold by weight. In pizzerias, pizza is served in a dish in its traditional round shape. It has a thin, crisp base quite different from the thicker and softer Neapolitan style base. It is usually cooked in a wood-fired oven, giving the pizza its unique flavor and texture. In Rome, a pizza napoletana is topped with tomato, mozzarella, anchovies and oil (thus, what in Naples is called pizza romana, in Rome is called pizza napoletana). Other types of Lazio-style pizza include
- pizza romana (tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil)
- pizza viennese (tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil)
- pizza capricciosa (mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil)
- pizza quattro formaggi ("four cheese pizza": tomatoes, and the cheeses mozzarella, stracchino, fontina and gorgonzola; sometimes ricotta is swapped for one of the latter three)
- pizza bianca ("white pizza": a type of bread topped with olive oil, salt and, occasionally herbs, such as rosemary sprigs;
- it is also a Roman style to add figs to the pizza, the result being known as pizza e fichi), and pizza alla casalinga ("Grandma pizza": a thin layer of dough which is stretched into an oiled, square "Sicilian" pan, topped sparingly with shredded mozzarella, crushed uncooked canned tomatoes, chopped garlic and olive oil, and baked until the top bubbles and the bottom is crisp).
Sicilian pizza is prepared in a manner originating in Sicily, Italy. Just in the US, the phrase Sicilian pizza is often synonymous with thick-crust or deep-dish pizza derived from the Sicilian Sfincione. In Sicily, there is a variety of pizza called Sfincione. It is that believed Sicilian pizza, Sfincione, or focaccia with toppings, was popular on the western portion of the island as far back as the 1860s.
Bill for traditional Italian pizza
There was a bill before the Italian Parliament in 2002 to safeguard the traditional Italian pizza, specifying permissible ingredients and methods of processing (e.g., excluding frozen pizzas). Only pizzas which followed these guidelines could be called "traditional Italian pizzas" in Italy. On 9 December 2009, the European Union, upon Italian request, granted Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) safeguard to traditional Neapolitan pizza, in particular to "Margherita" and "Marinara". The European Union enacted a protected designation of origin system in the 1990s.
The Maltese enjoy eating Italian style pizza and fast-food pizzas, as well as experimenting with various toppings, including local produce. One style of fast-food pizza is the typical pizza kwadra (square pizza), which is found in Pastizzi shops (pastizzeriji), a deep-pan pizza cut into squares, generally topped with either green olives (taż-żebbuġ), hard boiled egg and cocktail sausage (bajd u zalzett), or chicken and barbecue sauce (tat-tiġieġ). A typical Pizzerija restaurant will offer a vast number of different pizza recipes, mostly based on the Italian style ones. A typical menu would include:
- Margherita: tomato sauce, mozzarella
- Funghi: tomato sauce, mozzarella, mushrooms
- Capricciosa: tomato sauce, mozzarella, mushrooms, ham, eggs, artichoke, cocktail sausages, green olives
- Quattro Stagioni: tomato sauce, mozzarella, ham, black olives, mushrooms, artichoke, peas, salami, eggs
- Vegetariana: tomato sauce, mozzarella, mushrooms, onion, (artichoke), sweet corn, green peppers,
- Quattro Formaggi: tomato sauce, and 4 assorted cheeses, generally mozzarella, Parmesan cheese, blue cheese, and goat cheese, but may vary
- Marinara: tomato sauce, mozzarella, shrimps, mussels, tuna, calamari, crab meat
- Peperoni: tomato sauce, mozzarella, peperoni
- Napolitana: tomato sauce, anchovies, olives, capers
- Hawaii: tomato sauce, mozzarella, ham, pineapple
- Maltija (Maltese): tomato sauce, goat cheese, sun dried tomatoes, Maltese sausage, onion
- Calzone (folded): tomato sauce, mozzarella, mushrooms, ham, eggs,
- Rucola: tomato sauce, mozzarella di bufala, parma ham, Parmesan shavings, rucola
- Bolognese: tomato sauce, mozzarella, minced meat, onion, (fresh tomato)
- Meat Feast: tomato sauce, mozzarella, minced meat, Maltese sausage, and other meat
- Kebabpizza: tomato sauce, mozzarella, döner kebab, onion, green peperoncini, (kebab sauce poured over after baking)
- Mexicana: tomato sauce, mozzarella, various recipes with minced beef, jalapeños, sweet corn, onion, spicy sauce and other hot ingredients
Pizza has become a household dish. Nevertheless, the traditional Maltese pizza consists of a typical Maltese ftira covered in cheese (mainly local gbejna), onions and potatoes. In fact, it is most often known simply as "ftira" and is mainly sold on the island of Gozo. Different toppings can be added, including tuna, olives, anchovies, sundried tomatoes, and even traditional Maltese sausage.
Norwegians eat the most pizza in the world according to a 2004 survey by ACNielsen 2004, 5,4 kg/year per capita. 50 million frozen pizzas were sold that year, with consumption being 22,000 tons of frozen pizza, 15,000 tons of home-baked and 13,000 tons of restaurant-made pizzas. By far the most popular is the frozen pizza Grandiosa, every other pizza sold, frozen or fresh is a Pizza Grandiosa. Since its start in 1980 the Grandiosa has been part of Norwegian modern culture and trends, going so far to be unofficial called "The national dish of Norway".
Norway also has a traditional home-made pizza called "lørdagspizza" (literally translates to "Saturday pizza"). The dough is shaped to the pan (usually rectangular), then a mix of minced meat and tomato sauce follows. Finally it is gratinated with a generous amount of cheese.
Pizza arrived in Sweden with Italian guest workers and became popular around 1970. Swedish pizza is mainly of the Neapolitan type and most pizzerias in Sweden have Margherita, Capricciosa and Quattro Stagioni pizzas at the top of the menu, although with altered recipes. For example, a Swedish Margherita uses Swedish hard cheese instead of mozzarella and dried oregano instead of fresh basil. The Swedish pizza has been developed with lots of innovations and styles, creating a tradition distinct from the Italian one, although some names may overlap. Occasionally pizzerias offer "Italian pizza" imitating Italian recipes in addition to the Swedish ones.
A typical Swedish pizzeria offers 40-50 different named varieties on the menu, even up to 100, and personal modifications are allowed. Also, many pizzerias also serve salads, lasagne, kebab and hamburgers, especially if there is a facility to sit and eat. Italian style restaurants often combine a restaurant menu with a pizza menu.
Some popular varieties common in most of Sweden, mostly with the same name, all having tomato sauce and cheese to start with and additional toppings:
- Africana: ham/beef/chicken, banana, pineapple, onion, curry powder
- Bolognese: minced meat, onion, (fresh tomato)
- Calzone (folded): ham
- Capricciosa: mushrooms, ham
- Ciao-ciao (folded): beef, garlic, (onion)
- Frutti di mare: tuna, shrimp, mussels
- Hawaii: ham, pineapple
- Kebabpizza: döner kebab, onion, green peperoncini, (kebab sauce poured over after baking)
- Marinara: shrimp, mussels
- Mexicana: various recipes with minced beef, jalapeños, onion, spicy sauce and other spicy ingredients
- Napolitana: anchovies, olives, capers
- Quattro Stagioni: ham, shrimp, (mussels), mushrooms, artichoke
- Vegetariana: mushrooms, onion, (pineapple), (artichokes), (asparagus), (red bell pepper)
- other varieties with filet of beef or pork and béarnaise sauce and onion
Perhaps the most extreme pizza sort heard of in Sweden is the Calskrove or Calzskrove (a portmanteau of calzone and "skrovmål" meaning "big meal" but also Northern slang for "hamburger meal"), sold at some pizzerias in northern Sweden, a complete meal of a 150 or 250 grams hamburger with bread and all regular toppings, and chips (french fries), baked into a regular Calzone with ham as well.
One of the most popular types of pizza in Sweden since the 1990s is kebab-pizza, and a song in the Swedish Melodifestivalen 2008 was "Kebabpizza slivovitza". The invention is most likely the result of the common tendency of pizza bakers to create their own flagship compositions and novel flavors, using whatever might be available in their kitchen. In recent years one can find pizza with fresh lettuce or chips (French fries) put on top after baking. The amount of topping compared to the crust is rather high by international standards.
The typical side order with Swedish pizza is a free "pizza salad". 1969 Giuseppe "Peppino" Sperandio opened "Pizzeria Piazza Opera", one of the first restaurants only serving pizza in Stockholm, Sweden. Sperandio was born in northeast Italy where a cabbage salad called "kupus salata" was a very common dish, from bordering country Croatia. This salad from his childhood, was offered as a free side dish. Eaten, while waiting for the pizza to be baked. Sperandio became Stockholm's pizza king and had during his hey day more than 30 pizza restaurants. Today this Balkan salad (renamed to pizza salad), is as Swedish as the Dala horse. The pizza salad is made with shredded cabbage, coarse pepper and sometimes red bell pepper, slightly pickled (fermented) in vinaigrette for a few days.
In general, Swedish pizzerias are private enterprises and not franchise, often owned as a family business by immigrants, but very seldom Italians. Of international restaurant chains only Pizza Hut is well established, although Vapiano has a few restaurants in Stockholm and Domino's have been trying to establish itself in southern Sweden since 2008. Many pizzerias offer affordable (about 1-2 € total, or free with large order) home delivery in less than 30 minutes and many are connected to an on-line ordering service. The take-away price of one standard size (30 cm) pizza is 5 to 8 € depending on topping, about the double for a "family pizza" of double size (weight), and about the half for a "children's pizza" (mostly served in restaurants). Pizza has become a staple food in Sweden (1,1 kg/year), although most people prepare their own food, as home cooking skills generally are good, and is largely considered as an acceptable occasional fast food alternative to a proper meal.
Since the 1980s, a wide variety of pizzas ranging from fairly authentic Italian to American style to the mass-processed varieties are widely available and pizzas are also commonly made at home with children using local substitutions such as bacon for prosciutto and cheddar for mozzarella. Dough bases vary widely from homemade scone doughs to thin Roman-style and thick American stuffed-crust types. The typical British high-street now has a variety of international Italian- and American-style pizza chains, including homegrown chains PizzaExpress, Strada and Prezzo as well as Dominos, Pizza Hut, and Papa John's alongside much more authentic independent Italian-run restaurants with wood-fired ovens particularly in large cities such as London. Unique spicy varieties enjoy some popularity, including Chicken tikka masala or other curry toppings, chilli pizzas and a typical mid-range restaurant or takeaway will usually have versions of such standard "Italian-American" combinations as 'Hawaiian' (ham and pineapple); 'Peperroni' (spicy salami) and 'Meat Feast' (a mix of meats and salami) and a 'Vegeteriana' options. Non-Italian varieties are common too, for example, lahmacun called 'Turkish pizzas', or Alsatian 'Flammkuchen'. A local delicacy in many parts of Scotland is a deep-fried pizza, also known as a pizza crunch, available from Fish and Chip shops. A frozen pizza is folded in half, dipped in batter and deep fried. It is usually served with salt and vinegar or salt and sauce depending on which region it is ordered from.
Iceland has all of the typical pizza toppings you would expect like pepperoni and sausage but also have some unique ones. A pizza topping that is found in Iceland that may not be found elsewhere would be bananas. Bananas are used as toppings across the country showing how they have created their own version of an Italian classic.
Many Israeli and American pizza stores and chains, including Pizza Hut and Sbarro, have both kosher and non-kosher locations. Kosher locations either have no meat or use imitation meat because of the Jewish religious dietary prohibition against mixing meat with dairy products, such as cheese. Kosher pizza locations must also close during the holiday of Passover, when no leavened bread is allowed in kosher locations. Some Israeli pizza differs from pizza in other countries because of the very large portions of vegetable toppings such as mushrooms or onions, and some unusual toppings, like corn or labane, and middle-Eastern spices, such as za'atar. Like most foods in Israel, pizza choices reflect multiple cultures.
Pizza establishments in Turkey are a mixture of local restaurants, local chains (e.g. Pizza Max), and international chains like Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Little Caesars, and Sbarro. While most combinations of toppings reflect common ingredients found in the US and Italy, there are additional ingredients available that cater to traditional tastes as well, such as minced beef, spicy Sucuk sausage, cured meats like Pastırma, cheeses like Kaşar and Beyaz, and local olives and herbs. With the exception of some restaurants, pork products like ham and bacon are not available, which are substituted with beef, chicken, or lamb equivalents.
Mexican pizza is a pizza made with ingredients typical of Mexican cuisine. The usual toppings that can be found throughout Mexico are chorizo, jalapeño pepper slices, grilled or fried onions, tomato, chile, shrimp, avocado, and sometimes beef, bell peppers, tripas or scallop. This pizza has the usual marinara sauce or white sauce and mozzarella cheese. Variations, substituting pepper jack cheese or Oaxaca cheese for mozzarella, are also popular.
In 1905, the first pizza establishment in the United States was opened in New York's Little Italy. Due to the influx of Italian immigrants, the U.S. has developed regional forms of pizza, some bearing only a casual resemblance to the Italian original. Chicago has its own style of a deep-dish pizza and New York City's style of pizza are well-known. New York-style pizza refers to the thin crust pizza popular in the states of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Philadelphia provides sauce on top of the cheese; St. Louis uses thin crusts and rectangular slices in its local pizzas. Detroit-style pizza is a square pizza that has a thick deep-dish crisp crust, and is generally served with the sauce on top of the cheese. The square shape is the result of an early tradition of using metal trays originally meant to hold small parts in factories. The jumbo slice is an oversized New York-style pizza sold by the slice to go, especially in the Adams Morgan neighborhood in Washington, D.C. The white clam pie is a pizza variety that originated at the Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana restaurant in New Haven, Connecticut.
Canada features many of the large pizza chains found in the United States, but with regional variations resulting from influences of local Canadian cuisine.
The "Canadian pizza" or "Canadian" pizza topping typically includes tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese, bacon, pepperoni, and mushrooms; variations exist.). The recipe is also known internationally by this name. The classic preparation of this recipe is often referred to in Québécois as pizza québécoise.
Pictou County Pizza is a variant of pizza unique to Pictou County in Nova Scotia. Garlic fingers is an Atlantic Canadian pizza garnished with melted butter, garlic, cheese, and sometimes bacon, with the round sliced into finger before serving. Toronto-style pizza, is a medium-thick crust margarita pizza topped with garlic and basil oil topping, a fusion of an Italian-type pizza and the Vietnamese traditions of using herbed oil toppings.
Predominantly French-speaking province Quebec has its own specialities. One of them is the "all dressed". Tomato sauce (a little spicy), pepperoni, onions, green pepper slices, mushrooms. The poutine one is composed of french fries, gravy sauce and fresh mozarella curds.
The usual Italian varieties are available, though more common is the style popular in the U.S., with more and richer toppings than Italian style. A common unique type is the Aussie, Australian or Australiana, which has the usual tomato base or a seasoned base and mozzarella cheese with options of chicken, ham, bacon and egg (seen as quintessentially Australian breakfast fare). Pizzas with seafood such as prawns are also popular. In the 1980s some Australian pizza shops and restaurants began selling "gourmet pizzas", that is, pizzas with more expensive ingredients such as salmon, dill, bocconcini, tiger prawns, or unconventional toppings such as kangaroo meat, emu and crocodile. "Wood-fired pizzas", that is, those cooked in a ceramic oven heated by wood fuel, are well-regarded.
Franchised chains coexists with independent pizzerias, Middle-Eastern bakeries and kebabs shops.
New Zealand's first dedicated pizza outlet was opened by Pizza Hut in New Lynn in 1974, with Dominos following. One notable indigenous chain is Hell Pizza established in 1996 - which now has outlets worldwide - distinguishing itself by often-controversial marketing and using only free-range ingredients. Independent restaurants are common.
New Zealand has no rules for pizza construction, leading to an eclectic and varied approach to toppings. Gourmet and "wild" ingredients are often used, and New Zealanders are apt to push the boundaries of what a pizza can be.
Standard Argentine pizza has a thicker crust than traditional Italian style pizza and includes more cheese. Pizza is made with very thin, and sometimes thick, high-rising doughs, with or without cheese, cooked in the oven or a la piedra (on a stone oven), and stuffed with numerous ingredients -— is a dish which can be found in nearly every corner of the country. Buenos Aires, Rosario, and Córdoba also serve it with fainá, which is a chick pea-flour dough placed over the piece of pizza. People say that what makes the Argentine pizza unique is the blending of Italian and Spanish cultures. At the turn of the 19th century, immigrants from Naples and Genoa opened the first pizza bars, though Spanish residents subsequently owned most of the pizza businesses. Another very popular kind is the fugazza, which consists in a regular pizza crust topped with onions, ground black pepper, olive oil and mozzarella cheese (in this case it is called fugazzeta).
São Paulo has 6,000 pizza establishments and 1.4 million pizzas are consumed daily. It is said that the first Brazilian pizzas were baked in the Brás district of São Paulo in the late part of the 19th century. Until the 1940s, almost only found in the Italian communities around the country. Since then, pizza became increasingly popular among the rest of the population. The most traditional pizzerias are still found in the Italian neighborhoods, such as Bexiga (official name: Bela Vista). Both Neapolitan (thick crust) and Roman (thin crust) varieties are common in Brazil, with traditional versions using tomato sauce and mozzarella as a base. Brazilian pizza in general, though, tends to have less tomato sauce than the authentic (Italian) pizza, or uses slices of tomato in place of sauce. Brazilian pizzerias offer also Brazilian variants such as "pizza com catupiry". July 10 is "Pizza Day" in São Paulo, marking the final day of an annual competition among "pizzaiolos". In Brazil, pizza quatro queijos (pizza quattro formaggi) uses mozzarella, provolone, parmesan and gorgonzola, and there is also a variety with five cheeses, which adds catupiry.
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