List of leaf vegetables

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This is a list of vegetables which are grown or harvested primarily for the consumption of their leafy parts, either raw or cooked. Many plants with leaves that are consumed in small quantities as a spice such as oregano, for medicinal purposes such as lime, or used in infusions such as tea, are not included in this list.

History[edit]

Humans have used leaves as food since time immemorial. Different types of leaves, depending from the place and the season, were part of the human diet since prehistoric times. Traces of edible leaves have been found in ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Some edible leaves were historically documented in ancient Greece, in ancient Rome, in ancient Sri Lanka and in the Middle Ages.[1] With the passing of the centuries many of those traditional leaf vegetables have been replaced by leaves that are more tender, have a more neutral taste or that are considered more refined. The leaves that were part of ancient traditional diets are still to be found in the wild, sometimes at the edge of cultivated fields, or near abandoned homesteads. Generally they are found not far from inhabited places, indicating that they are the vestiges of ancient cultivated plants.[2]

There are places, like the Italian region of Liguria, where it is customary to go to the fields in spring to gather different kinds of edible leaves. These are later boiled to prepare preboggion, a local green mixture, that is generally used to stuff ravioli-like pasta. Also in Greece the tradition of eating a great variety of different leafy greens gathered in the fields has been preserved. These are eaten as a dish called horta.

Precautions[edit]

Moderate quantities of edible leaf vegetables that are proportionate to amounts in local dishes, according to culture and place, are harmless unless there are allergies to chemicals in the leaves. For example, some people are allergic to celery leaves. At any rate, it is advisable not to eat large quantities of any particular leaf for protracted periods.

The fact that a certain leaf is part of the traditional cuisine of a country or an area is no guarantee that it is harmless as food. The leaves of the black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and similar species, contain solanine, an alkaloid. Despite their categorization among poisonous plants, nightshade species are part of the cuisine of certain countries, such as Ethiopia, India and Greece. The leaves are cooked in salty water, which is often boiled and drained more than once.[3]

Emergency food[edit]

Another category comprises edible leaves - from plants such as alfalfa, Ruppia maritima, rice or wheat, and cultivated legumes - that are used as emergency or famine food. They are eaten only during times of famine or in isolated areas when fishing or hunting fails.[4] Most such leaves are very rough fare as they are often used as fodder in times of plenty. During Holodomor, for instance, desperate Ukrainians ate leaves from bushes and trees when no other food was available.[5]

Generally, the types of leaves that are eaten during emergency times only are not considered normally consumed leafy greens and have not been included in the list.

List[edit]

Key
  • Citations marked with Ecoport are from the Ecoport Web site, an ecology portal developed in collaboration with the FAO.[6]
  • Those marked with GRIN are from the GRIN Taxonomy of Food Plants.[7]
  • Sources marked with Duke are from James Duke's book Handbook of Energy Crops.[8]
Species Common name Observations
Abutilon theophrasti China Jute The taste is good, but since the texture of the leaves is cloth-like and not crisp, it is not very suitable for being eaten raw.[9]
Acacia pennata Climbing wattle Cha-om, an important green in Burma and Thailand[10][11][12]
Acmella oleracea Paracress Brèdes mafane, sharp-tasting leaves, very popular in Madagascar where they are used to prepare a dish known as romazava[13] In Northern Thailand it is one of the ingredients of the Kaeng khae curry.[14]
Althaea officinalis Common Marshmallow It was an esculent vegetable among the Ancient Romans; a dish of Marsh Mallow was one of their delicacies.
Amaranthus cruentus Purple amaranth Thai: phak khom daeng. Vietnamese: rau dên. Amaranthus species are edible and have a pleasant taste, but contain a certain proportion of oxalic acid and should preferably be eaten after boiling and disposing of the water[15][16]
Amaranthus retroflexus Common amaranth Thai: phak khom. Rougher than other species of Amaranth when uncultivated, but very common as a weed.
Amaranthus spinosus Prickly amaranth Thai: phak khom nam
Amaranthus tricolor Amaranth Amarant hybrids, often from hydroponic cultivation, are popular in China and other Asian countries. They are usually eaten blanched[17][18]
Amaranthus viridis Slender amaranth Malayalam; chiira[19][20]
Apium graveolens Celery Generally the stalk is preferred, but the leaves are a staple in many soups. Some people have celery allergy which can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[21]
Atriplex hortensis Garden orache It was cultivated in Southern Europe in ancient times. Presently it is not valued as a leafy vegetable[22][23][24]
Barbarea verna Bank cress It is considered a satisfactory substitute for watercress.
Barringtonia acutangula Chik-nam, Kra don Shoots and young leaves are eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan
Basella alba Indian spinach [25][26]
Beta cicla Chard One of the cultivated descendants of the Sea Beet
Beta vulgaris maritima Sea Beet [27]
Borago officinalis Common Borage Widespread as a leaf vegetable in former times. Still valued in some places in Italy and Northern Spain[28]
Brassica carinata Abyssinian Cabbage [29][30]
Brassica juncea Indian mustard [31][32]
Brassica napus Rutabaga Sag, popular in Indian and Nepalese cuisine, usually stir-fried with salt, garlic and spices[33][34]
Brassica napus var. pabularia Rape Kale [35][36]
Brassica nigra Black Mustard Black mustard is commonly found in neglected gardens, on roadsides, in abandoned fields, and in areas where waste is disposed of. The plant is native to Asia and Europe, but now grows over much of southern Canada and almost all of the United States. This is the chief mustard used in condiments and as such is normally associated with hot-dogs. To make the mustard condiment, the seeds must be ground fine and then mixed with flour and a small portion of water and vinegar. The plant can be cultivated for its young leaves which are used in a salad or as a pot herb.[37]
Brassica oleracea Wild Cabbage [38]
Brassica oleracea var. acephala Kale Kale is a type of cabbage that has flat or curly leaves and stem colors ranging from dark green to burgundy. Kale contains many nutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamins A, C, and K. Young leaves can be harvested to use fresh in salads or allowed to mature and used as a cooked green. Kale can be found throughout the summer months, but is especially good after a frost.[39]
Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Kai-lan Also known as Chinese kale[40]
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis Cauliflower [41][42]
Brassica oleracea var. capitata Cabbage [43][44]
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Brussels Sprouts [45][46]
Brassica oleracea var. italica Broccoli [47][48]
Brassica rapa Turnip Leaves popular in the southern United States, Galicia, Spain (Grelos)[49][50][51]
Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis Bok Choi [52]
Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa Chinese Savoy [53]
Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica Mizuna [54]
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis Napa Cabbage [55]
Brassica rapa subsp. rapa Rapini [56]
Brassica rapa var. rosularis Tatsoi
Campanula rapunculus Rampion It was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach[57]
Campanula versicolor Harebell Used in Greek cuisine[57]
Capparis spinosa Caper Caper leaves are part of the Greek cuisine[58][59]
Celosia argentea var. argentea Wild Coxcomb Known as "Lagos spinach", it is one of the main boiled greens in West Africa[60][61]
Centella asiatica Asian pennywort, Gotukola Bai bua bok, popular green in Thailand
Gotukola Sambola in Sri Lanka
Chenopodium album Lamb's Quarters Popular type of Palak in Northern India. Also used to stuff paratha[62][63][64]
Chenopodium ambrosioides American Wormseed Chenopodium species are edible, but many species are mediocre as a leaf vegetable.[65]
Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae Southern Huauzontle [66][67]
Chenopodium bonus-henricus Good King Henry One of the finest Chenopodium species[68][69]
Chenopodium giganteum Tree Spinach [70][71]
Chenopodium glaucum Oak-Leaved Goosefoot [72]
Chenopodium nuttalliae Huauzontle Popular in Mexico[73]
Chenopodium quinoa subsp. quinoa Quinoa It has its origin in the Andean region[74][75]
Chenopodium rubrum Red Goosefoot [76]
Chrysanthemum coronarium Garland chrysanthemum Popular in Korean, Cantonese, Taiwanese, Hong Kong and Japanese cuisine[77]
Cichorium endivia Endive [78]
Cichorium endivia var. crispum, Curly endive Sometimes called "chicory" in the United States, called chicorée frisée in French[78]
Cichorium endivia var. latifolium, Broad-leaved endive Escarole in French[78]
Cichorium intybus Chicory Leaves cooked with Fave in Northern Italy[79][80]
Cichorium intybus Radicchio Popular in Italy[79]
Cirsium oleraceum Cabbage thistle [81]
Claytonia perfoliata Miner's lettuce Used by California Gold Rush miners who ate it to prevent scurvy. Like lettuce but rougher[82]
Claytonia sibirica Siberian spring beauty Has beet-flavoured leaves.[83]
Cleome gynandra African cabbage Widespread in many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Its leaves form an important part of diets in Southern Africa.[84]
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Chaya or Tree spinach Traditional food in parts of Central and South America. Leaves must be cooked before being eaten.[85]
Coccinia grandis Ivy Gourd Leaves cooked in soups in Thailand.[86][87]
Colocasia esculenta Taro Only the young leaves are eaten. Popular in Mauritius.[88][89]
Corchorus olitorius Jew's mallow Used in Molokhiya[90][91][92][93]
Coriandrum sativum Cilantro, Coriander Used mainly for garnishing or in small quantities[94]
Crambe maritima Sea kale It was popular as a blanched vegetable in the early 19th Century, but its use declined
Crassocephalum crepidioides Redflower ragleaf Traditionally eaten as a green in tropical Africa. Possible toxicity not well studied
Cratoxylum formosum Phak tiu som or Phak tiu daeng Young leaves are edible. Popular in Laos, Thailand (Isan) and Vietnam
Crithmum maritimum Samphire In the 19th century, samphire was being shipped in casks of seawater from the Isle of Wight to market in London at the end of May each year.[95]
Crotalaria longirostrata Chipilín A common leafy vegetable in the local cuisines of southern Mexico[96][97]
Cryptotaenia japonica Mitsuba Small quantities added to soups, etc.[98][99]
Cyclanthera pedata Caigua Traditional green in Central America and South America[100]
Cynara cardunculus Cardoon Leaf stems are valued as food[101][102]
Diplazium esculentum Vegetable fern Probably the most commonly consumed fern[103][104]
Erythrina fusca Thong lang Fresh raw leaves eaten in Thailand in Miang kham.[105]
Eruca sativa Arugula, Rocket Especially appreciated in Veneto, Italy[106]
Emex spinosa Lesser jack It was formerly used as a leafy vegetable, but not highly valued
Eryngium foetidum Bhandhanya, Culantro Eaten as a leafy green in Thailand. Used as seasoning in the Caribbean.
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel [107]
Galactites tomentosa Scarlina Edible type of thistle [108]
Galinsoga parviflora Gallant Soldier Popular in Colombia and Peru in soups and salads[109]
Glechoma hederacea Ground Ivy [110]
Glinus lotoides Lotus sweetjuice Used as a leaf vegetable in many tropical countries[111]
Gnetum gnemon Melindjo Popular in Indonesian cuisine.[112][113]
Gynura crepioides Okinawan Spinach Grown commercially as a vegetable in China
Halimione portulacoides Sea purslane [114]
Hibiscus sabdariffa Roselle Telugu: Gongura. Roselle leaves are edible and have a pleasant taste. This plant is having good medicinal values. In some areas it is used as substitute of Jute.
Hirschfeldia incana Shortpod mustard [115]
Honckenya peploides Sea sandwort Traditionally used as food by the inhabitants of coastal Subarctic areas[116]
Houttuynia cordata Fishwort Popular as a leaf vegetable particularly in Vietnam[117][118]
Hydrophyllum canadense John's Cabbage It was used as a leaf vegetable by Native American peoples[119]
Hydrophyllum virginianum Shawnee Salad It was used as a leaf vegetable by Native American peoples[120]
Hyoseris radiata Used in Liguria, Italy, to make preboggion
Hypochaeris maculata Spotted Cat's-ear Similar to dandelion but not as tasty
Hypochaeris radicata Catsear Young leaves should be harvested before they become too fibrous[121]
Inula crithmoides Golden samphire Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked as a leaf vegetable.[122]
Inula helenium Elecampane Leaves are edible, although root is preferred[123]
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Water Spinach Popular leafy green in Southeast Asia[124][125]
Ipomoea batatas var. batatas Sweet Potato [126][127]
Kleinhovia hospita Young leaves are eaten as a vegetable in Malaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.[128]
Lablab purpureus Lablab The leaves are used as greens, but have to be cooked like spinach and the water has to be discarded.[129]
Lactuca indica Indian Lettuce [130][131]
Lactuca perennis [132]
Lactuca sativa Lettuce The wild varieties differ much from the average cultivated salad lettuce.
Lactuca sativa Celtuce [133]
Lactuca serriola Prickly Lettuce Prickly lettuce is a common edible weed that is native to Europe, but can now be found from coast to coast in the United States. The name comes from the small prickles that can be found on the lower part of the stem and the midrib of the leaves. The plant is found in fields, places of waste, and roadsides. The leaves of the plant reach out towards the sun and for this reason the plant is sometimes called the Compass Plant. Prickly Lettuce can grow to be from two to five feet tall but should be harvested early on when it is a few inches high. The young leaves of the plant are very tender and make an excellent salad green. As a potherb, the plant needs little cooking and is commonly made with a sauce of melted butter or vinegar. Prickly lettuce should be harvested in spring or early summer.[37]
Lagenaria siceraria Bottle Gourd In Burma young leaves are boiled and eaten with nga peet spicy sauce[134][135]
Lallemantia iberica Dragon's head Cultivated in ancient times. Popular in Iran as green vegetable[136]
Lamium album White deadnettle [137]
Lamium amplexicaule Henbit deadnettle [138]
Lamium purpureum Red deadnettle Leaves of plants are eaten in salads or in stirfry.[139]
Lapsana communis Nipplewort Cultivated in Ancient Rome. Presently it is not valued as a leafy vegetable[140]
Launaea sarmentosa Kuḷḷafila Used in Maldivian cuisine, usually finely chopped and mixed with Maldive fish and grated coconut in a dish known as mas huni.[141]
Leichhardtia australis Bush Banana Traditional food of the Indigenous Australian people[142]
Leontodon hispidus Hawkbit Leontodon species are dandelion-like plants that are generally edible[143]
Leontodon tuberosus Popular in Crete as a leafy green[143]
Lepidium campestre Field pepperweed All Lepidium species are edible. Appreciated for their peppery taste[144]
Lepidium latifolium Dittander [145][146]
Lepidium meyenii Maca A traditional vegetable of the Andean mountain areas[147][148]
Lepidium sativum Garden cress Used in soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor[149][150]
Lepidium virginicum Virginia pepperweed [151]
Leucaena leucocephala Phak kratin Popular in Laos and Thailand (Isan)
Levisticum officinale Lovage Used in salads and soups. Flavor and smell are very similar to celery[152]
Limnocharis flava Genjer Used in Southeast Asia, but considered inferior fare in some places[153][154]
Limnophila aromatica Rice paddy herb, Ngò om Popular in Vietnamese cuisine as an ingredient in canh chua, a sweet and sour seafood soup[155]
Limnophila indica [156]
Lysimachia clethroides Gooseneck Loosestrife Edible, but considered poor fare[157]
Malva neglecta All Malva species are edible, but are generally considered poor fare or rough food[158][159]
Malva parviflora Cheeseweed [160]
Malva sylvestris Mallow [161]
Malva verticillata Musk Mallow
Malva verticillata var. crispa [162]
Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta Cassava Should be always eaten boiled after disposing of the water. In some countries cassava leaves are regarded as a poor man's food and only eaten when there is nothing else.[163][164][165][166]
Matteuccia struthiopteris Kogomi The sprouts are a delicacy in Japanese cuisine[167]
Megacarpaea polyandra 多蕊高河菜 duo rui gao he cai From the cabbage family. The young leaves are cooked as a vegetable in China[168]
Melanthera biflora Sea daisy The leaves and shoots are edible[169] and are eaten cooked in Malaysian cuisine as a leaf vegetable and in Langkhttp://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=2162awi raw with chilli and shrimp paste sambal.[170][171][172]
Mentha arvensis piperascens Japanese mint All Mentha species are edible, but generally used in small quantities as garnishing or in salads
Mentha longifolia Habek mint [173]
Mertensia maritima Sea bluebell Traditionally used as food after boiling by the Inuit [116]
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Ice plant [174][175]
Mimulus guttatus Seep monkey flower The raw or cooked leaves were one of the traditional foods of the Mendocino and Miwok Indians, among other native peoples[176][177]
Mirabilis expansa Mauka One of the important food crops of the ancient Inca empire. Leaves were eaten as a leaf vegetable or used raw in salads.[178]
Morinda citrifolia Noni tree Known as bai-yo in Thai cuisine the leaves are cooked with coconut milk in a curry.[179]
Moringa oleifera Drumstick tree Leaves are very popular in South Asia for curries and omelettes.[180][181][182]
Moringa ovalifolia South-west African moringa Found in northern Namibia and south-western Angola
Moringa stenopetala Ethiopian moringa [183]
Mycelis muralis Wall lettuce Leaves eaten raw in salads[184][185]
Myrianthus arboreus Ujuju Important food source in the Delta and Edo States of Nigeria[186]
Myriophyllum brasiliense Parrot feather Used as a leaf vegetable in South America[111]
Myrrhis odorata Cicely Young stalks and leaves are eaten in salads[187]
Nasturtium officinale Watercress One of the most popular salad greens in certain areas, but watercress crops grown in the presence of animal waste can be a haven for parasites such as the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.[188]
Neptunia oleracea Loureiro Phak chet Widely used in Thailand. Eaten raw with Nam phrik[189]
Nymphaea odorata Fragrant Water Lily Young leaves were eaten as a vegetable by Native Americans[190]
Nymphoides indica Water Snowflake Young leaves and stems are edible.[191]
Nymphoides peltatum Yellow floating heart [192]
Ocimum basilicum Sweet Basil Used in soups and sauces.[193]
O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora Thai basil Eaten both raw and cooked[194]
Ocimum × citriodorum Lemon basil Used throughout Southeast Asia[195]
Oenanthe javanica Water Celery Used in Southeast Asia and the Far East[196][197]
Oenothera biennis Common evening primrose [198][199]
Oenothera hookeri Hooker's Evening-primrose Leaves are cooked as greens[200]
Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive fern It was used as a vegetable by the Iroquois[201]
Oroxylum indicum Pheka Has edible leaves and stems, eaten especially in Isan (Thailand) and in Laos[202]
Oryza sativa Rice [203][204][205]
Osmorhiza aristata Grows in China and Japan[206][207]
Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon fern [208]
Osmunda claytoniana Interrupted fern [209]
Oxalis acetosella Common wood sorrel Oxalis species contain oxalic acid and should not be eaten for long periods in large quantities. If possible, they should be eaten after boiling and disposing of the water[210]
Oxalis corniculata Creeping woodsorrel [211]
Oxalis deppei Iron Cross Popular as a vegetable in Mexico for its sharp, lemony taste[212]
Oxalis oregana Redwood sorrel [213]
Oxalis stricta Common yellow woodsorrel [214]
Oxalis tuberosa Oca [215][216]
Oxalis violacea [217]
Oxyria digyna Mountain sorrel [218]
Pachira aquatica Money tree [219][220]
Pachira insignis [221]
Paederia foetida [222]
Parkia biglandulosa
Parkia speciosa Petai [223][224]
Parkinsonia florida Blue Palo Verde
Pastinaca sativa subsp. sativa Parsnip [225][226]
Patrinia scabiosifolia Golden lace
Patrinia villosa
Paulownia tomentosa Empress tree [227]
Pedalium murex Burra Gookeroo Mucilaginous[228]
Peperomia pellucida Clearweed [229][230]
Pereskia aculeata Barbados Gooseberry [231][232]
Pergularia daemia [233]
Perilla frutescens Perilla [234]
Persicaria hydropiper Water pepper The leaves of a cultivar of this plant are eaten in Japan[235]
Persicaria vulgaris
Petasites frigidus Arctic butterbur [236]
Petroselinum crispum Parsley Only eaten as garnish, not in large quantities [237]
Peucedanum ostruthium [238]
Phaseolus coccineus Runner Bean [239][240]
Phaseolus lunatus Lima Bean [241][242]
Phaseolus vulgaris Bean [243][244][245]
Phragmites australis Common Reed [246][247]
Phyla scaberrima Rough fogfruit
Phyllanthus acidus Star Gooseberry
Phyllanthus emblica Myrobalan [248]
Phyteuma orbiculare Round-headed rampion
Phytolacca acinosa Indian Pokeberry [249]
Phytolacca acinosa var. esculenta
Phytolacca americana American Pokeweed [250][251]
Phytolacca dioica Bella Sombra [252]
Phytolacca rivinoides Deer calalu [253][254][255]
Pimpinella anisum Aniseed [256][257]
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet Saxifrage [258]
Pinus densiflora Japanese Red Pine [259][260]
Piper auritum Mexican Pepperleaf Known as Hoja santa (Holy Leaf). Aromatic herb with a heart-shaped, velvety leaf often used in Mexican cuisine for tamales and sauces.<ref[http://www.zarela.com/2009/hoja-santa-piper-sanctum-or-piper-auritum/</ref>
Piper guineense West African Pepper [261]
Piper sarmentosum Cha-phlu Popular in Thailand in Miang kham[262]
Pipturus argenteus Queensland grass-cloth plant [263]
Pisonia grandis Tree lettuce The leaves are traditionally used as a leaf vegetable in some countries.[264] Traditionally eaten by Maldivians in Mas huni.[141]
Pistacia chinensis Chinese Pistache [265][266]
Pistacia terebinthus Terebinth [267][268]
Pistia stratiotes Water Lettuce [269]
Pisum sativum Garden Pea [270][271]
Plantago coronopus Buckshorn plantain Some people may be allergic to this plant.[272][273]
Plantago lanceolata Long-leaved Plantain [274]
Plantago major Broad-leaved Plantain [275]
Plantago maritima [276]
Pluchea indica [277]
Podophyllum hexandrum Himalayan mayapple [278]
Poliomintha incana [279]
Polygonum aviculare Knotweed [280]
Polygonum bistorta Bistort [281]
Polygonum bistortoides American Bistort [282]
Polygonum punctatum
Polygonum viviparum Alpine bistort [283]
Poncirus trifoliata Trifoliate orange [284]
Pontederia cordata [285]
Portulaca oleracea Common purslane Popular in Greek cuisine[286][287]
Portulaca pilosa
Portulacaria afra Elephant Bush
Primula veris Cowslip [288][289]
Primula vulgaris Primrose [290]
Pringlea antiscorbutica Kerguelen cabbage Its leaves contain a Vitamin C-rich oil, a fact which, in the days of sailing ships, made it very attractive to British sailors suffering from scurvy[291]
Prosopis spicegera
Prunella vulgaris [292]
Psoralea esculenta Prairie turnip The prairie turnip is a legume that was often used by American Indians located in the Great Plains. Roots of the legumes provide a valuable source of protein, minerals, and carbohydrates. Most turnips have white skin and the portion of the plant that is seen above the ground is purple, red, or green in color. The root below the surface is known as the taproot and is usually around 5-20 centimeters in diameter.[293]
Pteris ensiformis
Ptychosperma elegans
Pulicaria odora
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort [294]
Puya caerulea
Puya chilensis [295]
Pyrus betulaefolia Birch-Leaved Pear
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser celandine [296]
Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish [297]
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. landra
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus
Raphanus sativus Radish [298][299]
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus Chinese radish
Raphia hookeri Raffia palm [300][301]
Reichardia picroides French Scorzonera [302]
Rhamnus dahurica
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rheum tataricum
Rhexia virginica Meadow beauty [303]
Rhodiola rosea Roseroot [304]
Rhododendron arboreum [305]
Rhopalostylis sapida Nikau
Ribes cereum [306]
Ribes divaricatum [307]
Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant [308][309]
Ribes odoratum [310]
Rorippa indica [311]
Rorippa islandica
Rosa multiflora Seven Sisters Rose [312]
Roystonea elata
Roystonea oleracea
Rubus rosaefolius [313]
Rumex acetosa Sorrel Many species of Rumex are edible, but they contain a relatively high proportion of oxalic acid. Raw leaves should be eaten sparingly and leaves should preferably be used after boiling and disposing of the water.[314][315]
Salicornia europaea Glasswort Glasswort is a leafless plant with jointed stems that are a light green color in the summer and a red color in the fall. There are very small flowers within the segmented portions of the plant. The plant is found in coastal salt marshes and alkaline soils within south Nova Scotia and Eastern and central North America. The stems have a salty flavor and can be harvested to be used in salads, as a puree, or as a pickled condiment.[316]
Salix babylonica Weeping Willow [317]
Salix daphnoides [318]
Salix gracilistyla Rosegold pussy willow
Salsola kali Saltwort [319][320]
Salsola komarovii Land Seaweed
Salsola soda Opposite leaved saltwort [321]
Salvadora persica Toothbrush tree [322]
Sambucus javanica [323]
Sambucus sieboldiana [324]
Sanguisorba canadensis [325]
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet [326]
Sanguisorba officinalis Great Burnet
Sassafras albidum Sassafras [327]
Sauropus androgynus Katuk A traditional vegetable in some tropical countries that should be consumed in moderate quantities due to the presence of papaverine[328][329][330]
Saxifraga pensylvanica Eastern Swamp Saxifrage The Cherokee traditionally ate the leaves raw as greens[331][332]
Saxifraga stolonifera Creeping Rockfoil Occasionally used fresh or cooked in Japanese cuisine[333]
Schleichera oleosa [334][335]
Scolymus hispanicus Tagarnina Edible thistle. Popular in Southern Spanish cuisine [336]
Scolymus maculatus Spotted golden thistle [336]
Scorzonera hispanica Scorzonera [337][338]
Scutellaria baicalensis Baikal Skullcap [339]
Sechium edule Chayote [340][341]
Sedum anacampseros Love-restorer All stonecrops (Sedum) are edible, but are generally mediocre food.[342]
Sedum divergens Spreading stonecrop Traditional salad vegetable of the Haida and the Nisga'a people of Northwest British Columbia.[343]
Sedum reflexum Jenny's stonecrop Occasionally used as a salad leaf or herb in Europe.[344]
Sedum rhodanthum Rose crown [345]
Sedum telephium Livelong [346]
Senna occidentalis Digutiyara Traditionally eaten in the Maldives in Mas huni. Leaves are finely chopped.[141]
Senna siamea Cassod Tree Used in Thai cuisine in a curry named Kaeng khilek. Leaves are boiled and strained and the water discarded.[347]
Sesamum alatum Sésame de gazelle Eaten in dry regions of Africa like Chad as a vegetable. Considered as famine food in some areas[348][349][350]
Sesamum indicum Sesame [351][352]
Sesamum radiatum Benniseed Fresh leaves and young shoots are a popular leafy vegetable in Africa[353][354][355]
Sesbania grandiflora West Indian pea [356][357][358]
Sesbania sesban Sesban [359]
Sesuvium portulacastrum Sea Purselane [360]
Setaria palmifolia Palm-grass [361][362]
Sicyos angulatus [363]
Sida rhombifolia Arrowleaf sida
Sidalcea neomexicana
Silaum silaus Pepper saxifrage Despite the name, it is neither a saxifrage nor peppery in taste[364]
Silene acaulis Moss campion [365]
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion Collejas; a traditional green in Manchego cuisine, Spain[366][367]
Silybum marianum Blessed milk thistle [368]
Sinapis alba White Mustard [369][370]
Sinapis arvensis Charlock [371]
Sisymbrium altissimum [372]
Sisymbrium crassifolium [373]
Sisymbrium irio London rocket
Sisymbrium officinale Hedge mustard [374]
Sium cicutaefolium
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders [375]
Solenostemon rotundifolius Chinese potato [376][377]
Solidago missouriensis [378]
Sonchus arvensis Field sow-thistle [379]
Sonchus asper Spiny-leaved sow thistle [380]
Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistle Leaves are eaten as salad greens or cooked like spinach. This is one of the species used in Chinese cuisine as kŭcài (; lit. bitter vegetable).[381]
Sophora japonica Pagoda-tree [382]
Spathiphyllum phryniifolium
Sphenoclea zeylanica [383]
Sphenostylis stenocarpa [384][385]
Spilanthes acmella Toothache Plant
Spinacia oleracea Spinach Spinach contains a certain proportion of oxalic acid. Raw leaves should be eaten sparingly. In dishes that include large quantities, leaves should preferably be used after boiling and disposing of the water.[386][387]
Spirodela polyrhiza Greater Duck-weed [388]
Spondias dulcis Otaheite Apple [389][390]
Spondias mombin Yellow mombin [391][392]
Spondias purpurea Jocote [393][394]
Stanleya pinnatifida
Stellaria media Common Chickweed [395][396]
Stenochlaena palustris
Sterculia foetida [397]
Sterculia tragacantha
Strychnos spinosa Natal orange [398][399]
Suaeda maritima Sea Blite [400]
Symphytum officinale [401]
Symphytum uplandicum
Synedrella nodiflora [402]
Syzygium malaccense Malay apple [403][404]
Syzygium polycephalum [405]
Talinum paniculatum Jewels of Opar
Talinum portulacifolium [406]
Talinum triangulare [407]
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy [408]
Taraxacum albidum
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion [409][410]
‘‘Telfairia occidentalis’‘ Fluted gourd [411][412]
Telosma cordata
Tetracarpidium conophorum
Tetragonia decumbens
Tetragonia implexicoma [413]
Tetragonia tetragonioides New Zealand Spinach [414][415]
Thalia geniculata
Thespesia populnea Portia tree [416]
Thlaspi arvense Pennycress [417]
Thymus vulgaris Common Thyme [418]
Tiliacora triandra
Toddalia asiatica [419]
Toona sinensis Chinese Mahogany
Tordylium apulum [420]
Trachycarpus fortunei Windmill Palm [421]
Tradescantia virginiana [422]
Tragopogon dubius Western salsify [423]
Tragopogon porrifolius Salsify [424][425]
Tragopogon pratensis Goat's Beard [426]
Trianthema portulacastrum [427]
Trichodesma zeylanicum
Trifolium hybridum Alsike Clover Clover leaves are edible, but should be dipped in salt water before eating or preparation to aid in digestion[428][429]
Trifolium pratense Red Clover [430][431]
Trifolium repens White Clover [432]
Trigonella caerulea Sweet Trefoil [433]
Trigonella corniculata [434][435]
Trillium erectum Wake-robin [436]
Trillium grandiflorum White trillium [437]
Trillium sessile
Trillium undulatum Painted trillium [438]
Tropaeolum majus Garden Nasturtium [439][440]
Tropaeolum minus Dwarf Nasturtium [441][442]
Tropaeolum tuberosum Mashua [443][444]
Tulbaghia alliacea [445]
Tussilago farfara Coltsfoot [446]
Typha capensis
Typha elephantina [447]
Ullucus tuberosus Ulluco [448][449]
Ulmus pumila Siberian elm [450]
Urena lobata Rose Mallow [451]
Urtica dioica Stinging Nettle A good pot herb. Often also used as famine food[452]
Urtica urens Annual Nettle [453]
Valerianella eriocarpa Italian Corn Salad [454][455]
Valerianella locusta Corn Salad [456][457]
Vallaris heynei
Verbena officinalis European Verbena [458]
Vernonia amygdalina Bitter leaf [459][460]
Veronica anagallis-aquatica Water Speedwell [461]
Veronica beccabunga Brooklime [462]
Veronicastrum sibiricum
Viola adunca [463]
Viola canadensis Canada Violet [464]
Viola odorata Sweet Violet [465]
Viola papilionacea
Viola pedata Bird's Foot Violet [466]
Viola sororia Common blue violet
Viola x wittrockiana
Vitex doniana [467]
Vitis amurensis Amur grape [468]
Vitis californica California wild grape [469]
Vitis coignetiae
Vitis labrusca Northern Fox Grape [470][471]
Vitis munsoniana
Vitis shuttleworthii
Vitis vinifera Grape [472][473][474]
Wasabia japonica Wasabi Fresh leaves can be eaten, having the spicy flavor of wasabi roots
Wisteria floribunda Japanese wisteria [475]
Wolffia arrhiza [476]
Xanthoceras sorbifolium Yellowhorn
Xanthosoma atrovirens
Xanthosoma brasiliense [477][478]
Xanthosoma sagittifolium [479][480]
Xanthosoma violaceum [481][482]
Ximenia americana [483][484]
Zanthoxylum piperitum
Zanthoxylum planispinum
Zingiber zerumbet Awapuhi [485]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  226. ^ "Entity Display : Pastinaca sativa". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  227. ^ "Entity Display : Paulownia tomentosa". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  228. ^ Pedalium Murex - Food resource Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  229. ^ "GRIN #870". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  230. ^ "Entity Display : Peperomia pellucida". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  231. ^ "GRIN #871". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  232. ^ "Entity Display : Pereskia aculeata". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  233. ^ "Entity Display : Pergularia daemia". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  234. ^ "Entity Display : Perilla frutescens". Ecoport.org. 2001-10-31. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  235. ^ "Entity Display : Persicaria hydropiper". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  236. ^ "Entity Display : Petasites frigidus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  237. ^ "Entity Display : Petroselinum crispum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  238. ^ "Entity Display : Peucedanum ostruthium". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  239. ^ "GRIN #877". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  240. ^ "Entity Display : Phaseolus coccineus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  241. ^ "GRIN #879". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  242. ^ "Entity Display : Phaseolus lunatus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  243. ^ "GRIN #880". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  244. ^ "Entity Display : Phaseolus vulgaris". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  245. ^ "Phaseolus vulgaris". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-07. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  246. ^ "Entity Display : Phragmites australis". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  247. ^ "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  248. ^ "GRIN #884". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  249. ^ "Entity Display : Phytolacca acinosa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  250. ^ http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?908[permanent dead link]
  251. ^ "Entity Display : Phytolacca americana". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  252. ^ "Entity Display : Phytolacca dioica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
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  254. ^ "Entity Display : Phytolacca rivinoides". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
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  256. ^ http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?910[permanent dead link]
  257. ^ "Entity Display : Pimpinella anisum". Ecoport.org. 2000-03-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  258. ^ "Entity Display : Pimpinella saxifraga". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  259. ^ http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?913[permanent dead link]
  260. ^ "Entity Display : Pinus densiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  261. ^ "Entity Display : Piper guineense". Archive.is. 2012-07-10. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  262. ^ Pictures of the Miang kam preparation process Archived 2011-09-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  263. ^ "Entity Display : Pipturus argenteus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  264. ^ "Capricornia Cuisine: Bush Tucker in Central Queensland". Anpsa.org.au. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  265. ^ "GRIN #923". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  266. ^ "Entity Display : Pistacia chinensis". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  267. ^ "GRIN #924". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  268. ^ "Entity Display : Pistacia terebinthus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  269. ^ "Entity Display : Pistia stratiotes". Web.archive.org. 2016-09-21. Archived from the original on 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  270. ^ "GRIN #926". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  271. ^ "Entity Display : Pisum sativum". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  272. ^ Buckshorn plantain (Plantago coronopus) Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
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  274. ^ "Entity Display : Plantago lanceolata". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  275. ^ "Entity Display : Plantago major". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  276. ^ "Entity Display : Plantago maritima". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  277. ^ "Entity Display : Pluchea indica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  278. ^ "Entity Display : Podophyllum hexandrum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  279. ^ "Entity Display : Poliomintha incana". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  280. ^ "Entity Display : Polygonum aviculare". Archive.is. 2012-07-20. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  281. ^ "Entity Display : Polygonum bistorta". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-11. Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  282. ^ "Entity Display : Polygonum bistortoides". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  283. ^ "Entity Display : Polygonum viviparum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  284. ^ "Entity Display : Poncirus trifoliata". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  285. ^ "Entity Display : Pontederia cordata". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  286. ^ "GRIN #941". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  287. ^ "Entity Display : Portulaca oleracea L". Ecoport.org. 2005-11-11. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  288. ^ "GRIN #952". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  289. ^ "Entity Display : Primula veris". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  290. ^ "Entity Display : Primula vulgaris". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  291. ^ "Kerguelen cabbage". Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. 
  292. ^ "Entity Display : Prunella vulgaris". Ecoport.org. 2000-12-19. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
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  294. ^ "Entity Display : Pulmonaria officinalis". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  295. ^ "Entity Display : Puya chilensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  296. ^ "Entity Display : Ranunculus ficaria". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  297. ^ "Entity Display : Raphanus raphanistrum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  298. ^ "GRIN #1014". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  299. ^ "Entity Display : Raphanus sativus Bailey". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  300. ^ "GRIN #1015". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  301. ^ "Entity Display : Raphia hookeri". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  302. ^ "Entity Display : Reichardia picroides". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  303. ^ "Entity Display : Rhexia virginica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  304. ^ "Entity Display : Rhodiola rosea". Ecoport.org. 2003-03-17. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  305. ^ "Entity Display : Rhododendron arboreum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  306. ^ "Entity Display : Ribes cereum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  307. ^ "Entity Display : Ribes divaricatum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  308. ^ "GRIN #1029". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  309. ^ "Entity Display : Ribes nigrum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  310. ^ "Entity Display : Ribes odoratum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  311. ^ "Entity Display : Rorippa indica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  312. ^ "Entity Display : Rosa multiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  313. ^ "Entity Display : Rubus rosaefolius". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  314. ^ "GRIN #1070". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  315. ^ "Entity Display : Rumex acetosa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  316. ^ Peterson, Lee (1977). Edible Wild Plants. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 146. ISBN 0-395-31870-X.  Google preview of alternate edition 978-0-395-92622-2
  317. ^ "Entity Display : Salix babylonica L". ecoport.org. 
  318. ^ "Entity Display : Salix daphnoides". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  319. ^ "Entity Display : Salsola kali". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  320. ^ "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  321. ^ "Entity Display : Salsola soda". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  322. ^ "Entity Display : Salvadora persica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  323. ^ "Entity Display : Sambucus javanica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  324. ^ "Entity Display : Sambucus sieboldiana". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  325. ^ "Entity Display : Sanguisorba canadensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  326. ^ "Entity Display : Sanguisorba minor". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  327. ^ "Entity Display : Sassafras albidum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  328. ^ Nutritive value of Sauropus androgynus leaves Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  329. ^ "GRIN #1095". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  330. ^ "Entity Display : Sauropus androgynus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  331. ^ Daniel E. Moerman, Native American Food Plants: An Ethnobotanical Dictionary
  332. ^ "Entity Display : Saxifraga pensylvanica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  333. ^ "Entity Display : Saxifraga stolonifera". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  334. ^ "GRIN #1098". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  335. ^ "Entity Display : Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  336. ^ a b "Entity Display : Scolymus maculatus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  337. ^ "GRIN #1101". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  338. ^ "Entity Display : Scorzonera hispanica". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  339. ^ "Entity Display : Scutellaria baicalensis". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  340. ^ "GRIN #1104". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  341. ^ "Entity Display : Sechium edule". Archive.is. 2012-07-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  342. ^ Sedum Anacampseros, Evergreen Orpine - Food Resource Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  343. ^ Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy (2004). "Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon, & Alaska". ecoport.org. p. 156. Archived from the original on 2016-01-16. 
  344. ^ "Sedum rupestre - L. Crooked Yellow Stonecrop". Plants for a Future. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  345. ^ Rosecrown - Sedum rhodanthum
  346. ^ "Entity Display : Sedum telephium". ecoport.org. 
  347. ^ "แกงขี้เหล็ก - ''Kaeng khilek''". Papamenu.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  348. ^ G. J. H. Grubben, Vegetables, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa Archived May 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  349. ^ "GRIN #1110". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  350. ^ "Entity Display : Sesamum alatum". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  351. ^ "GRIN #1111". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  352. ^ "Entity Display : Sesamum indicum L". ecoport.org. 
  353. ^ "GRIN #1113". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  354. ^ "Entity Display : Sesamum radiatum". Archive.is. 2012-07-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  355. ^ "PROTA". Database.prota.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  356. ^ "GRIN #1114". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  357. ^ "Entity Display : Sesbania grandiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-13. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  358. ^ "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  359. ^ "Entity Display : Sesbania sesban". Archive.is. 2012-07-18. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  360. ^ "Entity Display : Sesuvium portulacastrum". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  361. ^ "GRIN #1116". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  362. ^ "Entity Display : Setaria palmifolia". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  363. ^ "Entity Display : Sicyos angulatus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  364. ^ "Silaum silaus – Pepper Saxifrage". Emorsgate Seeds. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  365. ^ "Entity Display : Silene acaulis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  366. ^ "GRIN #1120". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  367. ^ "Entity Display : Silene vulgaris". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  368. ^ "Entity Display : Silybum marianum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  369. ^ "Entity Display : Sinapis alba". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  370. ^ "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  371. ^ "Entity Display : Sinapis arvensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  372. ^ "Entity Display : Sisymbrium altissimum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  373. ^ "Entity Display : Sisymbrium crassifolium". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  374. ^ "Entity Display : Sisymbrium officinale". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  375. ^ "Entity Display : Smyrnium olusatrum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  376. ^ "GRIN #70741". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  377. ^ "Entity Display : Solenostemon rotundifolius". ecoport.org. 
  378. ^ "Entity Display : Solidago missouriensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  379. ^ "Entity Display : Sonchus arvensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  380. ^ "Entity Display : Sonchus asper". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  381. ^ "Kucai". Baidu Encyclopedia (苦菜_百度百科) (in Chinese). baike.baidu.com. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  382. ^ "Entity Display : Sophora japonica". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  383. ^ "Entity Display : Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  384. ^ "GRIN #1157". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  385. ^ "Entity Display : Sphenostylis stenocarpa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  386. ^ "GRIN #1158". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  387. ^ "Entity Display : Spinacia oleracea". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  388. ^ "Entity Display : Spirodela polyrhiza". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  389. ^ "GRIN #1159". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  390. ^ "Entity Display : Spondias dulcis". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  391. ^ "GRIN #1160". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  392. ^ "Entity Display : Spondias mombin". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  393. ^ "GRIN #1161". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  394. ^ "Entity Display : Spondias purpurea". ecoport.org. 
  395. ^ "GRIN #1165". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  396. ^ "Entity Display : Stellaria media". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  397. ^ "Entity Display : Sterculia foetida L". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  398. ^ "GRIN #1172". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  399. ^ "Entity Display : Strychnos spinosa". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  400. ^ "Entity Display : Suaeda maritima". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  401. ^ "Entity Display : Symphytum officinale". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  402. ^ "Entity Display : Synedrella nodiflora". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  403. ^ "GRIN #1182". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  404. ^ "Entity Display : Syzygium malaccense". ecoport.org. 
  405. ^ "Entity Display : Syzygium polycephalum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  406. ^ "Entity Display : Talinum portulacifolium". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  407. ^ "Entity Display : Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  408. ^ "Entity Display : Tanacetum vulgare". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  409. ^ "GRIN #1189". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  410. ^ "Entity Display : Taraxacum officinale". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  411. ^ "GRIN #1190". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  412. ^ "Entity Display : Telfairia occidentalis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  413. ^ "Entity Display : Tetragonia implexicoma". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  414. ^ "GRIN #1194". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  415. ^ "Entity Display : Tetragonia tetragonioides". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  416. ^ "Entity Display : Thespesia populnea". ecoport.org. 
  417. ^ "Entity Display : Thlaspi arvense". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  418. ^ "Entity Display : Thymus vulgaris". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  419. ^ "Entity Display : Toddalia asiatica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  420. ^ "Entity Display : Tordylium apulum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  421. ^ "Entity Display : Trachycarpus fortunei". ecoport.org. 
  422. ^ "Entity Display : Tradescantia virginiana". ecoport.org. 
  423. ^ "Entity Display : Tragopogon dubius". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  424. ^ "GRIN #1205". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  425. ^ "Entity Display : Tragopogon porrifolius". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  426. ^ "Entity Display : Tragopogon pratensis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  427. ^ "Entity Display : Trianthema portulacastrum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  428. ^ Wild Plants Archived 2016-02-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  429. ^ "Entity Display : Trifolium hybridum". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. 
  430. ^ "Entity Display : Trifolium pratense". ecoport.org. 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. 
  431. ^ "Trifolium pratense". www.hort.purdue.edu. 
  432. ^ "Entity Display : Trifolium repens". ecoport.org. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. 
  433. ^ "Entity Display : Trigonella caerulea". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. 
  434. ^ "GRIN #1217". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  435. ^ "Entity Display : Trigonella corniculata". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  436. ^ "Entity Display : Trillium erectum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  437. ^ "Entity Display : Trillium grandiflorum". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  438. ^ "Entity Display : Trillium undulatum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  439. ^ "GRIN #1235". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  440. ^ "Entity Display : Tropaeolum majus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  441. ^ "GRIN #1236". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  442. ^ "Entity Display : Tropaeolum minus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  443. ^ "GRIN #1237". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  444. ^ "Entity Display : Tropaeolum tuberosum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  445. ^ "Entity Display : Tulbaghia alliacea". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  446. ^ "Entity Display : Tussilago farfara". ecoport.org. 
  447. ^ "Entity Display : Typha elephantina". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  448. ^ "GRIN #1242". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  449. ^ "Entity Display : Ullucus tuberosus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  450. ^ "Entity Display : Ulmus pumila". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  451. ^ "Entity Display : Urena lobata". ecoport.org. 
  452. ^ "Entity Display : Urtica dioica". ecoport.org. 15 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. 
  453. ^ "Entity Display : Urtica urens". ecoport.org. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. 
  454. ^ "GRIN #1259". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  455. ^ "Entity Display : Valerianella eriocarpa". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  456. ^ "GRIN #1260". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  457. ^ "Entity Display : Valerianella locusta". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  458. ^ "Entity Display : Verbena officinalis". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  459. ^ "GRIN #1264". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  460. ^ "Entity Display : Vernonia amygdalina". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  461. ^ "Entity Display : Veronica anagallis-aquatica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  462. ^ "Entity Display : Veronica beccabunga". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  463. ^ "Entity Display : Viola adunca". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  464. ^ "Entity Display : Viola canadensis". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  465. ^ "Entity Display : Viola odorata". ecoport.org. 
  466. ^ "Entity Display : Viola pedata". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  467. ^ "Entity Display : Vitex doniana". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  468. ^ "Entity Display : Vitis amurensis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  469. ^ "Entity Display : Vitis californica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  470. ^ "GRIN #1285". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  471. ^ "Entity Display : Vitis labrusca". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  472. ^ "GRIN #1287". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  473. ^ "Entity Display : Vitis vinifera". ecoport.org. 
  474. ^ "Vitis vinifera". www.hort.purdue.edu. 
  475. ^ "Entity Display : Wisteria floribunda". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  476. ^ "Entity Display : Wolffia arrhiza". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. 
  477. ^ "GRIN #1292". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  478. ^ "Entity Display : Xanthosoma brasiliense". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 
  479. ^ "GRIN #1294". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  480. ^ "Entity Display : Xanthosoma sagittifolium". ecoport.org. 
  481. ^ "GRIN #1295". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  482. ^ "Entity Display : Xanthosoma violaceum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  483. ^ "GRIN #1296". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. 
  484. ^ "Entity Display : Ximenia americana". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. 
  485. ^ "Entity Display : Zingiber zerumbet". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. 

External links[edit]