List of poisonous fungus species

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This is a compendium of poisonous fungi. See also mushroom poisoning.

List of toxic mushroom species[edit]

Scientific name Common name Active agent Distribution Similar edible species Picture
Agaricus californicus California Agaricus phenol and xanthodermin North America Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus californicus
Agaricus hondensis Felt-ringed Agaricus phenol and xanthodermin North America Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus hondensis
Agaricus menieri phenol and xanthodermin Europe Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus moelleri phenol and xanthodermin Europe Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus moelleri
Agaricus phaeolepidotus phenol and xanthodermin Europe Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus placomyces Edible Agaricus species North America and Europe Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus placomyces
Agaricus xanthodermus Yellow-staining mushroom phenol and xanthodermin[1][2] worldwide Edible Agaricus species
Agaricus xanthodermus
Amanita abrupta American abrupt-bulbed Lepidella L-2-amino-4-pentynoic acid and 2-Amin-5,5-hexadienoic acid[3] North America Edible Agaricus species
Amanita abrupta
Amanita aprica Sunshine amanita muscarine and ibotenic acid[4] (maybe not muscarine but muscimol) North America
Amanita aprica
Amanita boudieri Boudier's lepidella A. smithiana toxin[3] Europe Edible Agaricus species

Amanita vittadinii

Amanita boudieri
Amanita brunnescens Cleft-foot Amanita amatoxins[5] North America Amanita rubescens

Amanita novinupta

Amanita brunnescens
Amanita citrina bufotenin[6]
Amanita citrina
Amanita cokeri Coker's amanita 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid[7] North America Amanita vittadinii

Amanita strobiliformis

Edible Agaricus species

Amanita cokeri
Amanita cothurnata Booted amanita muscimol and ibotenic acid[8] North America
Amanita cothurnata
Amanita echinocephala European solitary amanita A. smithiana toxin[3] Europe, Western Asia and North Africa Amanita vittadinii

Amanita strobiliformis

Edible Agaricus species

Amanita echinocephala
Amanita farinosa Powdery Amanita unknown North America
Amanita farinosa
Amanita flavorubescens unknown North America Amanita rubescens

Amanita novinupta

Amanita jacksonii

Amanita hemibapha

Amanita gemmata Gemmed Amanita muscimol and ibotenic acid[9] Europe, North Africa, Asia and North America
Amanita gemmata
Amanita gioiosa unknown (probably muscimol and ibotenic acid) Europe and North Africa
Amanita gioiosa
Amanita gracilior A. smithiana toxin[3] Europe
Amanita heterochroma Eucalyptus fly agaric unknown (probably muscimol and ibotenic acid) Europe and North Africa Amanita caesarea
Amanita hongoi Hongo's Amanita unknown Japan
Amanita ibotengutake Japanese ringed-bulbed Amanita muscimol and ibotenic acid[10] Japan
Amanita muscaria Fly agaric muscimol and ibotenic acid[8] worldwide Amanita caesarea

Amanita jacksonii

Amanita hemibapha

Amanita muscaria
Amanita neoovoidea East Asian egg amidella 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid[3] East Asia Amanita ovoidea
Amanita neoovoidea
Amanita pantherina Panther cap muscimol and ibotenic acid[8] Europe, North Africa, Eastern Asia

(a similar American species exist but is not published yet)[4]

Amanita rubescens
Amanita pantherina
Amanita porphyria Grey veiled Amanita unknown (probably bufotenin) North America and Europe
Amanita porphyria
Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo's false death cap 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid[3] Asia
Amanita pseudoporphyria
Amanita pseudoregalis False royal fly agaric unknown (probably muscimol and ibotenic acid) Europe Amanita rubescens
Amanita pseudorubescens False blusher unknown Europe Amanita rubescens
Amanita regalis Royal fly agaric muscimol and ibotenic acid[11] Europe and Alaska Amanita rubescens
Amanita regalis
Amanita smithiana Smith's Amanita A. smithiana toxin and 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid[3] North America
Amanita smithiana
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Club-footed clitocybe unknown North America and Europe Infundibulicybe geotropa

Infundibulicybe gibba

Ampulloclitocybe clavipes
Chlorophyllum molybdites Green-spored parasol unknown worldwide (very rare in Europe) Chlorophyllum rhacodes

Chlorophyllum olivieri

Coprinus comatus

Chlorophyllum molybdites
Clitocybe cerussata muscarine[12] Europe Clitopilus prunulus
Clitocybe dealbata muscarine[12][13] Europe Clitopilus prunulus

Marasmius oreades

Clitocybe dealbata
Coprinopsis alopecia coprine Europe
Coprinopsis atramentaria Common ink cap coprine[14] North America, Europe, Asia and Australia
Coprinopsis atramentaria
Coprinopsis romagnesiana Scaly ink cap coprine Europe
Coprinopsis romagnesiana
Cortinarius bolaris unknown Europe
Cortinarius bolaris
Cortinarius callisteus unknown Europe Cantharellus spp.
Cortinarius cinnabarinus unknown Europe Laccaria laccata
Cortinarius cinnabarinus
Cortinarius cinnamomeofulvus unknown Europe Cantharellus tubaeformis

Cantharellus lutescens

Laccaria laccata

Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus unknown Europe Cantharellus tubaeformis

Cantharellus lutescens

Laccaria laccata

Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus
Cortinarius cinnamomeus unknown North America and Europe Cantharellus tubaeformis

Cantharellus lutescens

Laccaria laccata

Cortinarius cinnamomeus
Cortinarius cruentus unknown Europe
Cortinarius gentilis unknown Europe Cantharellus spp.
Cortinarius gentilis
Cortinarius limonius unknown North America and Europe Cantharellus spp.
Cortinarius limonius
Cortinarius malicorius unknown Europe Cantharellus tubaeformis

Cantharellus lutescens

Laccaria laccata

Cortinarius malicorius
Cortinarius mirandus unknown Europe
Cortinarius palustris unknown Europe Cantharellus tubaeformis

Cantharellus lutescens

Laccaria laccata

Cortinarius phoeniceus unknown Europe
Cortinarius phoeniceus
Cortinarius rubicundulus unknown North America and Europe Cantharellus spp.
Cortinarius rubicundulus
Cortinarius smithii Smith's Cortinarius unknown North America
Cortinarius smithii
Cudonia circinans gyromitrin and monomethylhydrazine[15] North America, Europe and Asia Morchella spp.

Cantharellus spp.

Cudonia circinans
Gyromitra perlata Pig's ears gyromitrin and monomethylhydrazine[15] North America and Europe Disciotis venosa
Gyromitra perlata
Echinoderma asperum Freckled dapperling unknown North America Europe, Asia and Oceania Macrolepiota procera

Chlorophyllum rhacodes

Echinoderma asperum
Echinoderma calcicola unknown Europe Macrolepiota procera

Chlorophyllum rhacodes

Entoloma albidum unknown North America Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus prunulus

Clitocybe multiceps

Entoloma rhodopolium Wood pinkgill unknown Europe and Asia Entoloma sarcopum
Entoloma rhodopolium
Entoloma sinuatum Livid Entoloma unknown North America, Europe and Asia Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus prunulus

Clitocybe multiceps

Entoloma sinuatum
Hebeloma crustuliniforme Poison pie unknown North America, Europe and Australia Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus geminus

Lepista irina

Hebeloma crustuliniforme
Hebeloma sinapizans Rough-stalked hebeloma unknown North America and Europe Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus geminus

Lepista irina

Hebeloma sinapizans
Helvella crispa Elfin saddle unknown Europe
Helvella crispa
Helvella dryophila Oak-loving elfin saddle unknown North America Morchella spp.
Helvella dryophila
Helvella lactea unknown North America and Europe
Helvella lactea
Helvella lacunosa Slate grey saddle unknown worldwide Morchella spp.
Helvella lacunosa
Helvella vespertina Western black elfin saddle unknown North America Morchella spp.
Helvella vesepertina
Hapalopilus nidulans Tender nesting polypore polyporic acid[16] worldwide (except South America) Fistulina hepatica

Laetiporus sulphureus

Hapalopilus rutilans
Hypholoma fasciculare Sulphur tuft fasciculol E and fasciculol F[17] worldwide Hypholoma capnoides

Kuehneromyce mutabilis

Hypholoma fasciculare
Hypholoma lateritium Brick cap unknown (probably fasciculol E and fasciculol F) North America, Europe and Asia Hypholoma capnoides

Kuehneromyce mutabilis

Hypholoma lateritium
Hypholoma marginatum unknown (probably fasciculol E and fasciculol F) Europe Hypholoma capnoides

Kuehneromyce mutabilis

Hypholoma marginatum
Hypholoma radicosum unknown (probably fasciculol E and fasciculol F) Europe Hypholoma capnoides

Kuehneromyce mutabilis

Hypholoma radicosum
Imperator rhodopurpureus unknown Europe Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Imperator rhodopurpureus
Imperator torosus unknown Europe Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Imperator torosus
Inocybe fibrosa muscarine Europe Tricholoma columbetta

Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus prunulus

Inocybe fibrosa
Inocybe geophylla Earthy inocybe muscarine[18] North America and Europe Clitopilus prunulus

Laccaria amethystina

Inocybe geophylla
Inocybe geophylla var. geophylla
Inocybe geophylla var. lilacina
Inocybe geophylla var. lilacina
Inocybe hystrix muscarine North, Central America and Europe
Inocybe hystrix
Inocybe lacera Torn fibercap muscarine North America and Europe
Inocybe lacera
Inocybe rimosa muscarine[18] Europe and Asia Marasmius oreades
Inocybe rimosa
Inocybe sambucina muscarine Europe Tricholoma columbetta

Calocybe gambosa

Clitopilus prunulus

Lactarius torminosus Woolly milkcap velleral North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa Lactarius deliciosus
Lactarius torminosus
Mycena diosma unknown (probably puraquinonic acid) Europe Laccaria amethystina
Mycena diosma
Mycena pura Lilac bonnet puraquinonic acid and psilocybin[19][20] Europe Laccaria amethystina

Laccaria laccata

Mycena pura
Mycena rosea Rosy bonnet unknown (probably puraquinonic acid) Europe Laccaria amethystina
Mycena rosea
Panaeolus cinctulus banded mottlegill psilocybin and psilocin North America, Europe, Africa and Australia Marasmius oreades
Panaeolus cinctulus
Psilocybe semilanceata Liberty cap psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin[21] America, Europe, Asia and Oceania
Psilocybe semilanceata
Omphalotus illudens Jack-O'lantern mushroom illudin S, illudin M, and muscarine[22] North America and Europe Cantharellus spp.
Omphalotus illudens
Omphalotus japonicus Tsukiyotake illudin S and illudin M[23][24][25] Asia Pleurotus ostreatus

Lentinula edodes

Sarcomyxa serotina

Omphalotus japonicus
Omphalotus nidiformis Ghost fungus illudin S, illudin M, and illudosin[26][26][27] Oceania and India Pleurotus ostreatus

Lentinula edodes

Sarcomyxa serotina

Omphalotus nidiformis
Omphalotus olearius Jack-O'lantern mushroom illudin S[28] Europe Cantharellus spp.
Omphalorus olearius
Omphalotus olivascens Western jack-o'-lantern mushroom illudin S[29] America Cantharellus spp.
Omphalotus olivascens
Paralepistopsis acromelalga acromelic acid Japan Paralepista flaccida

Paralepista gilva

Paralepistopsis amoenolens Paralysis funnel acromelic acid North Africa and Europe Paralepista flaccida

Paralepista inversa

Infundibulicybe gibba

Pholiotina rugosa amatoxins[30] North America, Europe and Asia
Pholiotina rugosa
Ramaria formosa Beautiful clavaria unknown North America, Europe and Asia Ramaria botrytis
Ramaria formosa
Ramaria neoformosa unknown Europe Ramaria botrytis
Ramaria neoformosa
Ramaria pallida unknown North America and Europe Ramaria botrytis
Ramaria pallida
Rubroboletus legaliae Le Gal's bolete unknown (probably boletasine and muscarine) Europe Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Rubroboletus legaliae
Rubroboletus lupinus Wolves bolete unknown (probably boletasine and muscarine) Europe Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Rubroboletus lupinus
Rubroboletus pulcherrimus unknown North America Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Rubroboletus pulcherrimus
Rubroboletus satanas Satan's bolete boletasine and muscarine[31][32] Europe Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Rubroboletus satanas
Russula emetica The sickener lactarorufin A, methoxyfuranalcohol, and R. emetica unnamed compound[33] North America, Europe, North Africa and Asia Russula aurea

Russula cyanoxantha

Russula emetica
Russula subnigricans unknown
Sarcosphaera coronaria Pink crown methylarsonic acid[34] North America, Europe, North Africa and Asia
Sarcosphaera coronaria
Suillellus luridus Lurid bolete muscarine[35] North America, Europe and Asia Neoboletus erythropus

Suillellus queletii

Suillellus luridus
Tricholoma equestre Yellow knight unknown Europe
Tricholoma equestre
Tricholoma filamentosum unknown unknown Tricholoma terreum

Tricholoma myomyces

Tricholoma filamentosum
Tricholoma pardinum Tiger tricholoma unknown North America, Europe and Asia Tricholoma terreum

Tricholoma myomyces

Tricholoma pardinum
Tricholoma muscarium tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid[36][37] Japan
Trogia venenata Little white mushroom unknown China
Turbinellus floccosus Woolly false chanterelle norcaperatic acid[38] North America and Eastern Asia Gomphus clavatus

Polyozellus multiplex

Cantharellus spp.

Turbinellus floccosus
Turbinellus kauffmanii norcaperatic acid[38] North America Gomphus clavatus

Polyozellus multiplex

Cantharellus spp.

Turbinellus kauffmanii

List of suspicious mushroom species[edit]

Scientific name Common name Distribution Picture
Agrocybe arenicola Europe
Amanita albocreata Ringless panther North America
Amanita albocreata
Amanita altipes Yellow long-stem Amanita China
Amanita breckonii North America
Amanita breckonii
Amanita ceciliae Snakeskin grisette North America and Europe
Amanita ceciliae
Amanita eliae Fries's Amanita Europe and North Africa
Amanita eliae
Amanita flavoconia Yellow-dust Amanita North America
Amanita flavoconia
Amanita frostiana Frost's Amanita North America
Amanita frostiana
Amanita nehuta Mahori dust Amanita New Zealand
Amanita nehuta
Amanita parcivolvata America
Amanita parcivolvata
Amanita parvipantherina China
Amanita petalinivolva South America
Amanita roseotincta North America
Amanita roseotincta
Amanita rubrovolvata Red volva Amanita Asia
Amanita rubrovolvata
Amanita subfrostiana False Frost's Amanita China
Amanita velatipes North America
Amanita velatipes
Amanita viscidolutea South America
Amanita wellsii Wells's Amanita North America
Amanita wellsii
Amanita xanthocephala Vermilion grisette Australia
Amanita xanthocephala
Armillaria mellea[citation needed] Honey fungus North America, Europe, Northern Asia and Australia
Armillaria mellea
Calocera viscosa Yellow stagshorn North America, Europe and Asia
Calocera viscosa
Chlorophyllum brunneum Shaggy parasol North America, Europe, Australia and Southern Africa
Chlorophyllum brunneum
Choiromyces venosus Europe
Clitocybe fragrans Europe
Clitocybe fragrans
Clitocybe nebularis Clouded agaric North America and Europe
Clitocybe nebularis
Conocybe subovalis Europe
Conocybe subovalis
Coprinellus micaceus Mica cap worldwide
Coprinellus micaceus
Lactarius chrysorrheus Yellowdrop milkcap North America, Europe and North Africa
Lactarius chrysorrheus
Lactarius helvus Fenugreek milkcap Europe and Asia
Lactarius helvus
Lepiota cristata Stinking dapperling North America, Europe, Northern Africa, Northern Asia and New Zealand
Lepiota cristata
Marasmius collinus Europe
Russula olivacea North America, Europe and Asia
Russula olivacea
Russula viscida Europe
Russula viscida
Schizophyllum commune worldwide
Schizophyllum commune
Scleroderma citrinum common earthball North America, Europe and Asia
Scleroderma citrinum
Stropharia aeruginosa[citation needed] Verdigris agaric North America and Europe
Stropharia aeruginosa
Tricholoma sulphureum Gas agaric Europe and North America
Tricholoma sulphureum
Tricholoma bufonium Europe
Tricholoma bufonium

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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