Surviving paralytic polio can be a life-changing experience. Individuals may be permanently physically disabled to varying degrees. Others remember the fear and isolation. Some continue to campaign for polio eradication or disability rights.
An actor most famous for his role as Hawkeye Pierce in the television series M*A*S*H. Alda contracted polio at age seven, during an epidemic. His parents administered a painful treatment, developed by Sister Elizabeth Kenny, in which hot woollen blankets were applied to the limbs and the muscles were stretched by massage.
|- valign="top" | Drury, JamesJames Drury | 1934 !born 1934 | Drury is well known for his portrayal of the title role in the weekly television series, The Virginian. He survived a bout of polio at the age of 10. |- valign="top" | Farrow, MiaMia Farrow | 1945 !born 1945 | An actress who was appointed a UNICEF goodwill ambassador in 2000, and campaigns in the fight against polio. Farrow collapsed on her ninth birthday and was diagnosed with polio two days later. She was in the hospital for eight months, where an iron lung maintained her breathing. |- valign="top" | Ferrer, MelMel Ferrer | 1917–2008 | In the early 1940s, Ferrer's career as an actor, film director and Broadway producer was stalled when he contracted polio. Ferrer was ill for a year and resumed work in radio instead of theatre. |- valign="top" | Kirk, PhyllisPhyllis Kirk | 1929–2006 | An actress best known for her role as the heroine in the 3-D filmHouse of Wax. Kirk had polio as a child. |- valign="top" | Knef, HildegardHildegard Knef | 1925–2002 | After a bout with polio in 1932 Knef went on to become an actress, singer and writer. |- valign="top" | Lupino, IdaIda Lupino | 1918–1995 | A film actress and director, Lupino caught polio in June 1934 and was affected for only a few days. |- valign="top" | Phillips, PegPeg Phillips | 1918–2002 | An actress who survived a polio infection she caught as an adult. |- valign="top" | Rooney, TimTim Rooney | 1947–2006 | Actor and voice actor Tim Rooney was the second son of actor Mickey Rooney. He contracted polio as a child and was paralysed for two years. |- valign="top" | Russo, GianniGianni Russo | 1943 !born 1943 | An actor best known for his role as Carlo Rizzi in the 1972 movie The Godfather. He contracted polio at age seven, and spent five years in a state hospital. Russo says, "I made a novena that if I ever walked again, I'd light five candles for St. Anthony every day." |- valign="top" | Sutherland, DonaldDonald Sutherland | 1935 !born 1935 | Sutherland contracted polio as a child and developed a love of reading while bedridden. He went on to become an accomplished actor, and has appeared in over 130 films. |- valign="top" | Thaxter, PhyllisPhyllis Thaxter | 1921 !1921-2012 | Thaxter contracted polio in 1952. The disease took a toll on her career as an actress, to which she made a slow return—often taking roles that would accommodate a physical challenge. |- valign="top" | Verdon, GwenGwen Verdon | 1925–2000 | An actress and dancer on Broadway and in films. Verdon was encouraged to dance by her mother, a dance teacher, as therapy for her polio-afflicted legs. |- valign="top" | Weissmuller, JohnnyJohnny Weissmuller | 1904–1984 | At age nine, Weissmüller contracted polio. At the suggestion of his doctor, he took up swimming to help battle the disease, and he went on to win five Olympic gold medals in the sport during the 1920s. |}
|- valign="top" | Cabela, Richard N.Richard N. Cabela | 1936 !1936-2014 | An entrepreneur and founder of the outdoor retailer Cabela's. He stated that his business was inspired by his bout with polio and a deep love of fishing and hunting. |- valign="top" | Dawkins, PetePete Dawkins | 1938 !born 1938 | Former Heisman Trophy winner, Rhodes Scholar, U.S. Army Brigadier General, and Republican candidate for Senate, Dawkins contracted polio at age eleven. |- valign="top" | Drabinsky, GarthGarth Drabinsky | 1949 !born 1949 | Canadian theatrical producer, contracted polio at age three, and was left with a limp in his left leg. |- valign="top" | Fisher, Richard B.Richard B. Fisher | 1936–2004 | Chairman emeritus of the securities firm Morgan Stanley, he had to use a cane as a result of polio. |- valign="top" | Mars, Franklin ClarenceFranklin Clarence Mars | 1884–1934 | Founded the Marsconfectionery company. After contracting polio as a child and unable to play like other children, Mars helped his mother in the kitchen. This led to selling candy after school and, eventually, his own company. |- valign="top" | |- valign="top" | Stewart, James McGregorJames McGregor Stewart | 1889-1955 |Prominent Canadian lawyer and businessman. Contracted polio at age two and used crutches. First Nova Scotian President of the Canadian Bar Association, coal administrator during the Second World War, and founder of Halifax law firm, Stewart McKelvey. |- valign="top" | Steiff, MargareteMargarete Steiff | 1847–1909 | A toy maker and founder of the Steiff Company, known for its teddy bear. She contracted polio, aged 18 months, and lost the use of her legs and had only partial use of her right arm. |- valign="top" | Stein, Charles FrancisCharles Francis Stein | 1933–2006 | A Baltimore, Maryland, lawyer and prominent sail boat racing skipper, he contracted polio while at college and spent months in an iron lung. |- valign="top" | Washington, DennisDennis Washington | 1934 !born 1934 | A businessman and founder of The Washington Companies. He contracted polio when he was eight and recovered well. |- |Wayne E. Nichols Jr. |born 1950 |Business man and founder of Nichols Casework, Inc. and LOC Scientific, Inc, Contracted polio at 3, wore a brace 3 years, 3 surgeries next 10 years. Retired 2014 due to Post Polio Syndrome. |}
|- valign="top" | Ducharme, TheresaTheresa Ducharme | 1945–2004 | A crusader for equality of disabled people, Ducharme contracted polio in 1953. The disease left her a quadriplegic and dependent on a respirator for the rest of her life. |- valign="top" | Gallagher , HughHugh Gallagher | 1933–2004 | Author and disability rights advocate, Hugh Gallagher contracted polio at college and subsequently required a wheelchair due to lower-body paralysis. He aided the drafting of the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968. |- valign="top" | Heumann, JudithJudith Heumann | 1947 !born 1947 | Heumann contracted polio when she was 18 months old, and is unable to walk. She became a disability rights activist, co-founding the World Institute on Disability, and served as Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services during the Clinton Administration. |- valign="top" | Roberts, EdEd Roberts | 1939–1995 | A disability rights activist who co-founded the World Institute on Disability and was the first severely disabled student to attend the University of California, Berkeley. At age 14 Roberts contracted polio; he was paralysed and in an iron lung within 24 hours. When told he would be a vegetable for the rest of his life, he "decided to be an artichoke...a little prickly on the outside but with a big heart." |- valign="top" | Massie, BertBert Massie | 1949 !born 1949 | Sir Bert Massie is a prominent British disability rights campaigner who contracted polio at the age of one. He served as Chairman of the Disability Rights Commission from 2000 to 2007. |}
A television producer best known for the comedy series The Office. While living in Cairo Atalla contracted polio from polluted water when he was six months old. He uses a wheelchair and claims that, although he gets "patronised all the time", he has never "experienced prejudice because of it".
A film director, producer, and screenwriter. He recalls, "When I was nine I was confined to a room for over a year with polio, and because polio is a child's illness, they kept every other kid away from me. I remember being pinned to this bed, and longing for friends and company."
A film and television actor known for the CBS series Airwolf (1984-1986), he had polio between the ages of twelve and sixteen. Cord's family relocated to a Wyoming ranch c. 1945, where he was encouraged to ride horseback for successful therapy.
A radio and television personality, best known as a game show host, particularly The Price Is Right, Cullen contracted polio at the age of eighteen months. This left him with a permanent limp. He first worked in radio so that his limp would not be seen.
Drabinsky contracted polio at age six, which temporarily paralysed his left leg. He became a film and theatrical producer, and believes his experience with polio "galvanised [his] spirit and sense of determination".
Radio and television presenter and English historian, Starkey was born with two club feet and caught polio as an infant. He recalls, "I spent a lot of my infancy in hospital and actually started school in a wheelchair with this enormous plaster, and then into a surgical boot and callipers, none of which helps assimilation with other children."
Later a radio and television personality, Steagall worked as a rodeobull rider until he contracted polio at age 15. He began playing guitar as part of his recovery, and has recorded over 200 songs in various genres.
A comedian, best known for co-writing the Beginners' Guides column in The Times magazine. He caught polio, aged four months, after receiving the oral polio vaccine. He was in a coma for two weeks and is now a wheelchair-user.
A science-fiction author and inventor. He contracted polio in February 1962, which confined him to bed for months. In 1984, he was diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, and he spent the last years of his life in a wheelchair.
Creasey contracted polio in childhood, and had to re-learn to walk at age six. He went on to become an accomplished author, publishing 560 books under several different pseudonyms.
Southern Gothic Georgia-born author contracted polio at age five in Bacon County, GA and went on to publish15 novels, several collections of nonfiction, and a memoir. Columnist for Playboy and Esquire magazines and professor of creative writing at the University of Florida-Gainesville.
A writer most famous for her Just William humorous short stories. She caught polio in 1923 and lost the use of her right leg. When it became physically too hard to continue her teaching career she gave it up to concentrate on writing. Crompton believed that she had "a much more interesting life because of [her polio attack]".
A novelist known for his historical fiction, most notably his Empire Trilogy. Farrell contracted polio in 1956 while studying at Brasenose College, Oxford, and was forced to spend an extended time in an iron lung in order to breathe. This experience became the basis of his second novel, The Lung.
An essayist and author who contracted polio in 1959, leaving him near quadriplegic. Presley has had essays published by several major venues, both in print and online, including the New York Times, Salon and the Washington Post. His memoir,Seven Wheelchairs: A Life Beyond Polio, was published in 2008 by the University of Iowa Press and received favorable reviews in the New York Times and Kirkus Magazine.
A journalist and former editor of The Guardian. He caught polio shortly after his father who died in a couple of days. Preston needed an iron lung to survive and was frequently in hospital for the next 18 months. His limbs were permanently affected as a result.
A writer best known for his trilogy on Iowa pioneers: Vandemark's Folly, The Hawkeye and The Invisible Woman. Childhood polio deformed his feet restricting him indoors where he developed a love of reading.
Currently Irving Babbitt Professor of Comparative Literature and Professor of English at Harvard University, Shell's books in disability studies include works about paralysis and stuttering. Salk's vaccine came too late. September 1953: He began first grade at Van Horne School in Montreal. 14 October: He contracted polio. It was the same day that the foundation backed Jonas Salk's proposal to test his vaccine.
An author, most noted for her novel Cracking India, which tells of the partition of India through the eyes of a young girl affected with polio. Sidhwa caught polio, aged two, which paralysed her leg and led to several operations. Doctors advised her parents not to send her to school; she had a lonely childhood, filled with reading.
A journalist and editor of The Economist. Tynerman contracted polio at the age of three, which left his legs completely paralysed. He was eventually able to walk with the assistance of leg callipers and walking sticks, and once said that "The ambition and pride of the disabled, as I have some reason to know, is to stand on their own feet."
A composer and writer best known for his song Bananas In Pyjamas. Blyton contracted polio in 1947 and learned to play the piano during his two-year convalescence to "demonstrate that the illness wouldn't get the better of him."
As a child, singer-songwriter Judy Collins spent several months in the hospital recovering from bout with polio. Collins later became a representative for UNICEF and has worked to promote polio vaccination programmes.
A bluesguitarist and singer. After a bout with polio at age nine crippled his hands Davis learned to play the guitar upside down, using a butter knife to help fret the strings, producing a similar sound to a slide guitar.
Folksinger-songwriter and guitarist Donovan contracted polio, aged four, from the vaccine he was given. This left him with a limp and feeling excluded. However, he says "I kind of look back on it and think it was positive for me because it made me withdraw from my pals and realise I was different."
A rock and roll singer and songwriter, leader of the band Ian Dury and the Blockheads. His hand and leg were left shrivelled by a bout with polio at age seven. He campaigned with UNICEF to eradicate polio.
Fournier, later a cellist, began playing the piano as a child. In 1915 he had a mild case of polio, and lost dexterity in his legs and feet. No longer able to master the use of the piano pedals he turned to playing the cello.
A folk-blues singer and guitarist, best known for his collaborations with harmonica player Sonny Terry. When McGhee was paralysed due to polio as a child, he constructed a pushcart to get around. The cart was propelled with a stick by his younger brother, Granville "Stick" McGhee.
A musician, songwriter and painter. Mitchell started singing at age nine while in the hospital recovering from polio. Her distinctive sound featured dozens of non-standard guitar tunings, which she developed partly to compensate for a weakened arm.
A jazzsaxophonist. He contracted polio, aged three, and spent one year in an iron lung, followed by two years in bed. He was advised to learn a wind instrument to help with his recovery. Sanborn is now affected by post-polio syndrome.
This reggae band was formed after the three founding members met at the Mona Rehabilitation Centre in Kingston, Jamaica, in the 1950s. Member Albert "Apple Gabriel" Craig said of his bout with polio, "It take a lot from me outta life, but at the same time it give me much more in life".
A businessman and former governor of Minnesota. He contracted polio, aged nine, and was confined to bed. Andersen eventually made a good recovery but in his eighties, he was affected by post-polio syndrome. He believed that polio had a positive psychological impact on him and increased his determination.
The first person with a disability in Sri Lanka to be elected to a governing body, to hold portfolios and become an Acting Chief Minister. He is a lawyer and currently a member of the Uva Provincial Council. He contracted polio at the age of two and is a full-time wheelchair user.
A Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Tennessee. He was unfortunate to miss out on the 1954 Salk vaccine trials that his paediatrician father was helping with and that his brother benefited from—he was not in the appropriate age-group. Cohen caught polio that year, aged five, and was ill for three months. He still walks with a limp and has problems with his balance.
A politician, and father of Paul Martin (the former Prime Minister of Canada). He contracted polio in 1907 and was left with a slight limp. Martin was Minister of Health and Welfare when the Salk vaccine was conducting field trials. His personal family experience of polio made him determined to continue the trial, even after a setback where 79 children caught polio from the vaccine.
A business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense. Both McNamara and his wife contracted polio in August 1945. He was in the hospital for a couple of months but his wife was badly affected and remained there for nine months. His career change from Harvard professor to the Ford Motor Company was made to pay her hospital bills.
U.S. President 1933-1945. FDR founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, now called the March of Dimes. He spent as much time as he could recuperating from Poliomyelitis in the waters of Warm Springs, Georgia where he founded one of the first rehabilitation facilities for Polio survivors.
Gavin Woods is a South African political figure who contracted polio as a baby. He overcame the many obstacles posed by the effects of the disease to become a member of parliament, among other achievements.
Hee Yit Foong was the first non-Malay, disabled woman, to become the deputy speaker of a Malaysian legislative body, the Dewan Undangan Negeri of Perak. She carries a limp from a case of polio she contracted at the age of 4.
A scientist, inventor, and television pioneer, DuMont developed polio at age 11. While recovering from polio he began experimenting with electronics by building a radio transmitter and receiver out of an oatmeal box.
A psychiatrist who was influential in the modern practice of hypnosis and psychotherapy. He contracted polio, aged 17, and was almost completely paralysed for a time. Erickson regarded his lengthy recovery as a learning experience. Later, post-polio syndrome paralysed his legs and an arm.
A physiologist noted for his work on cardiology. He contracted polio in 1946 during his final year of medical residency training. Guyton's shoulders, left arm and right leg were paralysed. During nine months of recovery, he built many devices to aid the handicapped, for which he received a Presidential Citation. He remained severely crippled and could only walk with difficulty.
Little was the founder of the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital of London and the first to identify cerebral palsy. Around age two, Little was infected with poliomyelitis which caused a deformed foot. He decided to enter the medical profession, with the intention of finding a cure for his foot.
The first female aircraft designer in the world, MacGill was afflicted with polio at the age of 24. Although her disability brought an end to her dream of becoming a pilot, she insisted on going on all flight tests in order to best assess her aircraft designs.
A mechanical engineer and chemist, Midgley developed chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and leaded gasoline, and held over a hundred patents. He contracted polio at age 51, which left him severely disabled, and caused him to lose a leg. To help himself get out of bed, Midgley designed a system of ropes and pulleys; he died of strangulation in 1944 after becoming tangled in the ropes of his apparatus.
A physician, Rue contracted polio from a patient in 1954 (she was the last person in Oxford, England, to get the disease). The disease left her with one useless leg but motivated her to become a champion for women in medicine.
The first American female figure skating world champion and Olympic champion. She caught polio, aged 11, and was isolated in the hospital for a while. Albright later became a surgeon and helped with the international polio eradication effort through the World Health Assembly.
A Brazilian futsal player in his teens, Paulo Autuori contracted poliomyelitis and had to give up his career as a player. He decided to study to become a coach instead, and became one of the most successful managers in Brazilian football.
Stricken with polio at age three, Davis was left crippled from the waist down until he was five. He recovered but his legs remained slightly different lengths. Davis went on to become a successful amateur boxing coach and served on the U.S. Olympic boxing committee. He was also an executive, a civil rights leader, and campaigned as Minneapolis's first black mayoral candidate in 1971.
Track and field athlete Ray Ewry contracted polio as a child, and he used a wheelchair for a while. He devised his own exercises to strengthen his legs. Ewry went on to become one of the most successful Olympic athletes of all time, winning 10 gold medals in standing jump events.
An Olympic dressage silver medallist. She caught polio, aged 23, while pregnant. Hartel was left permanently paralysed below the knees but was able to compete again after three years of rehabilitation.
A professional golfer who has won many major golf championships. He caught polio, aged 13. Nicklaus was affected with stiffness, pain and weight loss over two weeks. He recovered without any paralysis but believes he may have post-polio syndrome, which makes his joints sore. His sister Marilyn also caught polio, possibly from him, and was less fortunate – she was unable to walk for a year.
A track and field athlete, Rudolph was the first American woman to win three gold medals at the Olympic Games. At age four, she contracted polio and lost the use of her left leg. After five years of massage and exercises, she managed to walk again without her leg braces. By the time she was a teenager, Rudolph was faster than the boys in her neighbourhood were. Rudolph won a bronze medal, aged 16, at the 1956 Summer Olympics and three gold medals in the 1960 Summer Olympics.
Soares contracted polio as an infant in Portugal, resulting in his use of a wheelchair. At age four, he was sent, alone, from his island home in the Azores to Lisbon. There he underwent surgery and spent six months in a body cast. Soares became a well known wheelchair rugby player and coach. His story is, in part, the subject of the 2005 documentary film, Murderball.
A designer, sculptor, and artist best known for his film props. He caught polio, aged 21, which paralysed his legs for nine months. Using leg braces and crutches, he started walking again. Chang was affected by post-polio syndrome in 1992.
A photographer and photojournalist most noted for her picture Migrant Mother. She caught polio, aged seven, and was left with a withered right lower leg and a limp. Lang said, "It was perhaps the most important thing that happened to me. It formed me, guided, instructed me, helped me, and humiliated me. All those things at once. I've never gotten over it and am aware of the force and power of it."
Lewis caught polio as a child, which severely reduced her mobility; she could only raise her neck with great difficulty. Despite barely being able to hold a paintbrush, she became a well known Folk artist.
Ruskin Spear, famous for his paintings of London, was disabled by polio as a child and attended Brook Green School for afflicted children; where he first displayed a talent for art. He became a successful painter and went on to teach at the Royal College of Art.
An industrial designer. He caught polio, aged eight, and had difficulty walking for a time. He retained a limp and some stiffness. Some symptoms returned in old-age, causing him to require a wheelchair.
A Marianist brother and professional magician, Br. Hamman contracted polio in 1952. During his two-year recuperation he focused on learning, practicing and inventing magic tricks, and after recuperation he continued to teach and perform from a wheelchair.
An author, speaker, and international advisor on education in the arts to government, non-profits, education, and arts bodies. Robinson has been a featured speaker at TED on the subject of education on two separate occasions. He contracted polio at age four.
Emmett Till was murdered on 28 August 1955 while on vacation in Mississippi. His death sparked an upsurge of activism and resistance during the Civil Rights Movement. A bout with polio at age five had left him with a persistent stutter.
Roman Emperor from 41 AD to his death. Historians have attributed his physical ailments to several causes. Robert Graves' Claudius novels made polio a popular choice, but some modern historians prefer cerebral palsy or some other affliction.
A painter, best known for his paintings of maritime and nautical subjects (formerly written about as Fitz Hugh Lane). Lane was afflicted with a disorder in childhood, once speculated as being polio, which left him with reduced mobility in his legs. However the notion that polio was responsible for his childhood of reduced mobility has largely been discredited, for contemporary accounts cite that Lane's paralysis was due to "eating some seeds of the apple peru" (referring either to the common tomato or to the "peru-apple" also known as jimsonweed).
The first prime minister of the Republic of the Philippines, it is thought that Mabini contracted polio in 1896; he used a wheelchair for the rest of his life, and came to be known as the "Sublime Paralytic".
A historical novelist and poet. He caught a fever, aged 18 months, which temporarily paralysed his right leg. Scott was left lame due to his withered leg. At the time, polio was not known to medicine. The retrospective diagnosis of polio is considered to be strong due to the detailed account Scott made.
A politician in Nazi Germany, one of Adolf Hitler's closest associates and minister of propaganda. Biographies differ as to the cause of his "club foot", which almost certainly was not in fact congenital. Some mention a case of osteomyelitis at age seven, followed by an operation on his left thigh that left the leg three inches shorter than the right. Others attribute it to poliomyelitis at age four. Goebbels, on one occasion, is reported to have blamed a teenage accident.
However, in 2016, it was concluded that Franklin D. Roosevelt did have poliomyelitis. The idea that he may have had Guillain–Barré syndrome was refuted by 3 doctors from the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. They concluded, "...we find no reason to question the diagnostic accuracy of poliomyelitis and wish to put this debate to rest."
A Major League Baseball pitcher. Commonly reported to be a right-hander who had to learn to play southpaw after an attack of polio in childhood left his right arm weakened and shortened. Daley instead asserts that his right arm and shoulder were damaged at birth when forceps pinched a nerve. A combination of massage and exercises helped restore his limb to health.
A United States Supreme CourtAssociate Justice for thirty-six years. His various memoirs claim that he nearly died from polio shortly before his second birthday. In the book Wild Bill: The Legend and Life of William O. Douglas, biographer Bruce Allen Murphy argues that it could not have been polio and that this was one of several legends Douglas fabricated.
A swimmer and actress. She is often said to have taken up swimming to strengthen her legs after they were weakened by childhood polio. It was, instead, rickets that caused weakness and bowing and which meant she had to wear leg braces until the age of seven. Kellerman's biography mentions polio on two occasions. Kellerman met President Roosevelt and devised some exercises for him. She also advised Sister Elizabeth Kenny, who became famous for her controversial but popular method of treating polio.
An actor best known as Inspector Morse. While it is often speculated that Thaw's characteristic limp was from polio, in truth, the limp originated in childhood, when he would copy his grandfather's limp. A car accident later exaggerated the limp.
^Levy, Jason. "Rastaman Vibration: Israel Vibration". The Dread Library. Retrieved 29 May 2007. Being cursed at and called a cripple has hurt each band member beyond the physical pain of the disease.... When seeing the three perform that vibe is passed on to an audience. "It take a lot from me outta life, but at the same time it give me much more in life" (Apple: "Israel Vibration: Modern Roots With A Message." Originally printed for "The Riverfront Times" Chicago. 1996. Author unknown).
^Mulrine, Anna (4 February 2007). "Armed With History". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
^"House Resolution Honors FDR" (Press release). United States House of Representatives. 16 March 2004. Retrieved 20 June 2007. "President Roosevelt played a meaningful role in the lives of untold numbers of citizens of the world – but especially for those who contracted polio at a young age. He was convinced that if the American people worked together to solve a problem, there was no obstacle that could not be conquered. In 1938, FDR established the March of Dimes, creating a network of volunteers and researchers that eventually yielded the Salk vaccine. Consequently, polio has been virtually eliminated from the planet", said Skelton.
^East, Roger; Thomas, Richard J. (2003). Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN1-85743-126-X.
^Goebbels, Joseph (1962). The Early Goebbels Diaries: The Journal of Joseph Goebbels from 1925–1926. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Page 18: "Joseph's club-foot. In this respect, too, the two biographies which are based on detailed interrogation of members of the family differ slightly. According to one version, the child, at the age of seven, contracted osteomyelitis and the left thigh had to be operated on" ... "so that the left leg was in the end three inches shorter than the right one. The second version attributes the affliction expressly to poliomyelitis at the age of four. What both explanations have in common is that they describe the deformity as not congenital." Page 137: "His indignation at the article was all the stronger as Dr Goebbels, when asked at the Bayernhof, had told him in so many words that his club-foot had resulted from an accident when he was a schoolboy of thirteen or fourteen."