List of political parties in Bangladesh

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This article lists political parties in People's Republic of Bangladesh.

Bangladesh has a fading two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of another party.

However, though the center-left Awami League (AL) and center-right Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) dominated Bangladesh politics for a long time, currently both are heading coalitions of like-minded parties with the AL leading the secular and liberal elements while BNP is rallying the right-of-centre parties.

A party is recognised as a registered party only if it fulfils any two of the conditions listed below:[1]
  1. A party needs to secure at least one seat with its electoral symbol in two previous parliamentary elections.
  2. Securing of five percent of total votes cast in the constituencies in which its candidates took part in any of the aforesaid parliamentary elections.
  3. It needs to set up a functional central office, by whatever name it may be called with a central committee, having offices at least in one-third administrative districts, and offices at least in 100 upazilas or metropolitan thanas. And the party must have a minimum 200 voters as its members in each upazila.

Currently in the Parliament[edit]

These are all of the political parties that holds at least a seat in the Bangladeshi Parliament

Name Founded Ideology Leader MPs Most MPs (numerically) Most MPs (proportionally) Political position
Bangladesh
বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ
1949 Capitalism, Social Democracy ,Secularism Sheikh Hasina 298 298 (2018) 76.88% (2018) Centre to centre left
Bangladesh Nationalist Party 
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল
1978 National Conservatism, Economic liberalism,Bangladeshi Nationalism Khaleda Zia 7 300 (1996) 100% (1996) Centre right to Right-wing
Jatiya Party (Ershad)
জাতীয় পার্টি
1986 Nationalism, Islamic Democracy, Economic Liberalism GM Quader 26 256 (1988) 68.4% (1988) Centre right
Workers Party of Bangladesh 1980 Communism ,Marxism-Leninism Rashed Khan Menon 4 Far-left
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal 1972 Socialism Hasanul Haque Inu 2 Left-wing
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh 2004 Secularism, Social liberalism A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury 2 Centre
Gano Forum
গণফোরাম
1992 Secularism Kamal Hossain 2 Centre
Jatiya Party (Manju)
2014 Anwar Hossain Manju 1 Centre right
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation 2005 Islamism Syed Nazibul Bashar Maizvandary 1 right wing

Alliances[edit]

Grand Alliance[edit]

The Grand Alliance (মহাজোট) also known as 14 Party Alliance is a coalition government in Bangladesh that formed in 2008 and consisted of the Bangladesh Awami League, Jatiya Party, Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal- JASAD, Workers Party, Liberal Democratic Party and nine other parties.

The Liberal Democratic Party left the Grand Alliance before the election and contested independently. It joined the 18 Party Alliance in 2012.

20 Party Alliance[edit]

The 20 Party Alliance is an alliance of some Bangladeshi political parties led by Bangladesh Nationalist Party and other right wing parties. It was formed on 2014 in Dhaka, extending its predecessor the 18 Party Alliance.[2] The 20 Party Alliance is formed as an effort to strengthen the anti-government movement demanding restoration of the caretaker government system.

Left Democratic Alliance[edit]

The Left Democratic Alliance is an alliance of 8 Leftist Political parties including Communist Party of Bangladesh, Basad, Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh, United Communist League Of Bangladesh, Ganatantrik Biplobi Party, Bam Gonotantrik Andolon and Gonoshonghoti Andolon.[3]

Jatio Oikko Front[edit]

The Jatio Oikko Front is a newly formed alliance Consisting of Four political parties including Bangladesh Nationalist Party.Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD, Gano Forum And Mahmudur Rahman Manna's Nagorik Oikko Bangladesh. This Alliance is trying to build up a National Unity Along with other democratic parties ahead of The 11th Jatiya Sangsad Elections.This is the biggest association of political parties in Bangladesh .

Major parties[edit]

Bangladesh Awami League[edit]

বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগের পতাকা.svg

The Bangladesh Awami League (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from English: Bangladesh People's League) is one of the two largest political parties of Bangladesh. It is the country's current governing party, after winning a majority in heavily criticized 2014 parliamentary elections where the majority of seats were uncontested.[4] The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was founded in Dhaka, the capital of the Pakistani province of East Bengal, in 1949 by Bengali nationalists Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, Yar Mohammad Khan, Shamsul Huq, and later Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. In 1953, the party's council meeting voted to drop the word "Muslim" from its name in order to give it a more secular outlook, owing to the need to include the province's large Hindu population in Pakistani politics. Amongst the leaders of the Awami League, five have become the President of Bangladesh, four have become the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and one became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. His daughter and also the incumbent Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, has headed the party since 1981.

Bangladesh Nationalist Party[edit]

The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated: Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl), often abbreviated as BNP was founded on 1 September 1978 by Bangladeshi President Ziaur Rahman, politician and physician A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, human rights activist and lawyer Moudud Ahmed and leftist politician Mashiur Rahman as the key people. BNP has won the second, fifth, sixth and eighth national elections and two presidential elections, in 1978 and 1981 respectively. The party also holds the record of being the largest opposition in the history of parliamentary elections of the country with 116 seats in the seventh national election of 1996.[5] The party does not have any representation in the parliament after its boycott of the national election of 2014 which the party had termed a scandalous farce and was marked by a very low turnout.[6]

Jatiya Party (Ershad)[edit]

The Jatiya Party (Ershad) (National Party (Ershad)) was established by President Hussain Mohammad Ershad on 1 January 1986. The Army Chief Lieutenant General Hussain Muhammad Ershad had usurped the state power by a coup d'état on 24 March 1982, and ruled the country as chief martial law administrator till December 1983. Political parties and activity had been prohibited during the state of emergency, when Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was appointed President of Bangladesh.

The Jatiya Party had a rift in leadership and an internal wrangle in 2000. The three factions were headed by General Ershad, Anwar Hossain Manju and Naziur Rahman Manju. In the general elections of 2001, the Ershad group of the Jatiya Party won 14 seats, and the Anwar Hossain group won one seat.

Minor parties[edit]

These are the minor parties of which not all are registered at the Bangladesh Election Commission:[7]

  1. Communist Party of Bangladesh - CPB
  2. Bangladesh Jasod - Sharif Nurul Ambia
  3. Socialist Party of Bangladesh - SPB
  4. Workers Party of Bangladesh
  5. Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh
  6. Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal - Jasod
  7. Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD
  8. Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist) (Barua)
  9. Bangladesh National Awami Party
  10. Bangladesh National Awami Party - Bangladesh NAP
  11. Gano Forum
  12. Gano Front
  13. Krishak Sramik Janata League
  14. Liberal Democratic Party - LDP
  15. Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh
  16. Jatiya Party (Manju)
  17. Bangladesh Jatiya Party
  18. Bangladesh Jatiya Party – BJP
  19. National People's Party - NPP
  20. Progressive Democratic Party - PDP
  21. Ganotantry Party
  22. Jatiya Ganatantrik Party
  23. Bangladesh Sanskritic Muktijot
  24. Bangladesh Kalyan Party
  25. Bangladesh Nationalist Front
  26. Zaker Party
  27. Bangladesh Islamic Front
  28. Islamic Front Bangladesh
  29. Bangladesh Tarikat Federation
  30. Islami Andolan Bangladesh
  31. Islami Oikya Jote
  32. Jamiat Ulema-e Islam
  33. Khelafat Majlish
  34. Bangladesh Khelafat Majlish
  35. Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan
  36. Bangladesh Muslim League
  37. Bangladesh Janakallyan Party
  38. Bangladesh GonoSokti Andolon-BPM
  39. Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party
  40. Bangladesh Green Party (Mukherjee)
  41. Bangladesh Justice Party

Regional parties[edit]

Unregistered parties[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Political Party Registration Act 2020" (PDF) (in Bengali). Election Commission of Bangladesh. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  2. ^ "BNP-led 18-Party Alliance emerges". bdnews24.com. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  3. ^ "Leftist parties form new Left Democratic Alliance as general election nears". Bdnews24.com. 19 July 2018.
  4. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh's Governing Party Wins Vote Amid Unrest". The New York Times.
  5. ^ "Bangladesh Election Results". Bangladesh Election Commission. 10 April 2008.
  6. ^ "Bangladesh's ruling Awami League wins boycotted poll". BBC News. 6 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2016-05-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)