List of political parties in Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brazil has a multi-party system since 1979, when the country's military dictatorship disbanded an enforced two-party system and allowed the creation of multiple parties.[1]

Above the broad range of political parties in Brazilian Congress, the Workers' Party (PT), the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB), the Liberal Party (PL), the Progressives (PP) and the Brazil Union (UNIÃO) together control the absolute majority of seats in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies.[2] Smaller parties often make alliances with at least one of these five major parties.[3] The number of political parties reached 35 on its apex on 2018, 30 of which were represented in congress after the 2018 Brazilian general election.[4][5][6] However, an electoral threshold introduced on 2017 has resulted in the culling and merger of many parties, as it cuts access to party subsidies and free party political broadcasts.[4][7]

Brazilian parties have access to party subsidies in form of the Fundo Partidário (lit.'Party Fund') and the Fundo Eleitoral (lit.'Electoral Fund') for elections.[8] And a system of free party political broadcasts during election time known as the horário eleitoral gratuito.[9]

Since 1982, Brazilian political parties have been given an electoral number to make it easier for illiterate people to vote. Initially, it was a one-digit number: 1 for PDS, 2 for PDT, 3 for PT, 4 for PTB, and 5 for PMDB. When it became clear that there was going to be more than nine parties, two-digit numbers were assigned, with the first five parties having a "1" added to their former one-digit number (PDS becoming number 11, PDT 12, PT 13, PTB 14, and PMDB 15). Political parties often change their names; however, they can retain their number.

Active political parties[edit]

Parties represented in the National Congress[edit]

Party Abbr. Leader Position Ideology Deputies[10] Senators[11]
Liberal Party
Partido Liberal
PL
Valdemar Costa Neto Right-wing to far-right Right-wing populism
Social conservatism
Bolsonarism
96 / 513
12 / 81
Workers' Party
Partido dos Trabalhadores
PT
Gleisi Hoffmann Centre-left Social democracy
Progressivism
Populism
68 / 513
8 / 81
Brazil Union
União Brasil
UNIÃO
Luciano Bivar Centre-right Catch-all party
Liberal conservatism
59 / 513
7 / 81
Progressistas
PP
Ciro Nogueira Centre-right Catch-all party
Liberal conservatism
50 / 513
6 / 81
Brazilian Democratic Movement
Movimento Democrático Brasileiro
MDB
Baleia Rossi Centre to centre-right Catch-all party
44 / 513
11 / 81
Social Democratic Party
Partido Social Democrático
PSD
Gilberto Kassab Centre to centre-right Catch-all party
44 / 513
15 / 81
Republicans
Republicanos
Marcos Pereira Right-wing Conservatism
Economic liberalism
41 / 513
4 / 81
Democratic Labour Party
Partido Democrático Trabalhista
PDT
Carlos Lupi Centre-left to left-wing Labourism
Social democracy
Brazilian nationalism
18 / 513
2 / 81
Podemos
PODE
Renata Abreu Centre-right Liberal conservatism
Anti-corruption
Direct democracy
15 / 513
7 / 81
Brazilian Social Democracy Party
Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira
PSDB
Marconi Perillo Centre Liberalism
14 / 513
2 / 81
Brazilian Socialist Party
Partido Socialista Brasileiro
PSB
Carlos Siqueira Centre-left Social democracy
Progressivism
Parliamentarism
14 / 513
5 / 81
Socialism and Liberty Party
Partido Socialismo e Liberdade
PSOL
Paula Coradi Left-wing to far-left Socialism of the 21st century
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism
13 / 513
0 / 81
Avante
Luis Tibé Centre Labourism
Brazilian nationalism
Christian solidarism
7 / 513
0 / 81
Communist Party of Brazil
Partido Comunista do Brasil
PCdoB
Luciana Santos Left-wing to far-left Communism
Developmentalism
7 / 513
0 / 81
Green Party
Partido Verde
PV
José Luiz Penna Centre-left Green politics
Municipalism
6 / 513
0 / 81
Solidarity
Solidariedade
Euripedes Júnior Centre to centre-left Humanism
Labourism
Progressivism
6 / 513
0 / 81
Democratic Renewal Party
Partido Renovação Democrática
PRD
Ovasco Resende Right-wing to far-right Right-wing populism
National conservatism
4 / 513
0 / 81
Cidadania
Comte Bittencourt Centre Social liberalism
Parliamentarism
Federalism
3 / 513
0 / 81
New Party
Partido Novo
NOVO
Eduardo Ribeiro Right-wing Classical liberalism
Right-libertarianism
3 / 513
1 / 81
Sustainability Network
Rede Sustentabilidade
REDE
Heloísa Helena Centre-left Green liberalism
Direct democracy
1 / 513
0 / 81

Other parties[edit]

Party Abbr. Leader Position Ideology
Agir
Daniel Tourinho Centre Autistic people's interests
Brazilian Communist Party
Partido Comunista Brasileiro
PCB
Edmilson Costa Far-left Marxism-Leninism
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party
Partido Renovador Trabalhista Brasileiro
PRTB
Leonardo de Araújo Right-wing to far-right Right-wing populism
National conservatism
Labourism
Brazilian Woman's Party
Partido da Mulher Brasileira
PMB
Suêd Haidar Right-wing Social conservatism
Anti-feminism
Anti-abortion
Christian Democracy
Democracia Cristã
DC
José Maria Eymael Centre-right Christian democracy
National Mobilization
Mobilização Nacional
MOBILIZA
Antonio Massarollo Centre-right Brazilian nationalism
Third-worldism
Agrarianism
Popular Unity
Unidade Popular
UP
Leo Péricles Far-left Revolutionary socialism
Anti-imperialism
Anti-racism
United Socialist Workers' Party
Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado
PSTU
Zé Maria Far-left Trotskyism
Workers' Cause Party
Partido da Causa Operária
PCO
Rui Costa Pimenta Far-left Trotskyism

Historical parties[edit]

Imperial Brazil[edit]

First Republic and Vargas Era[edit]

Fourth Republic[edit]

Military Dictatorship and Sixth Republic[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sousa, Ana Cristina Augusto de; Silva, Lays Correa da (6 August 2021). "Redemocratização no Brasil: continuidade ou ruptura?". Topoi (Rio de Janeiro) (in Portuguese). 22 (47): 570–575. doi:10.1590/2237-101X02204713. ISSN 1518-3319. S2CID 238849517.
  2. ^ Freedom House report on Brazil, 2007
  3. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados". tse.jus.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Número de partidos na Câmara deve cair após ápice da fragmentação em 2018". Poder360 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 February 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  5. ^ "Brasil tem 75 partidos políticos em processo de formação".[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Brasil vai às urnas em outubro com 35 partidos". Senado Federal (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  7. ^ "Perspectiva é de fusão entre partidos". Valor Econômico (in Brazilian Portuguese). 4 October 2022. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  8. ^ Fundo Partidário (estudo) Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Por Miriam Campelo de Melo Amorim. Brasília: Biblioteca Digital da Câmara dos Deputados, outubro de 2005.
  9. ^ "L9504". www.planalto.gov.br. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  10. ^ "Bancadas atuais da Câmara dos Deputados". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 March 2024.
  11. ^ "Senadores em Exercício". Senado Federal (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 March 2024.