List of political parties in Colombia

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This article lists political parties in Colombia.

Colombia had historically maintained a two-party system, which means that there were two dominant political parties, resulting in considerable difficulty for anybody to achieve major electoral success under the banner of any other party. Dissidents from the two main parties also had chances to win elections. Nowadays it is a multi-party system with four main parties.

The parties[edit]

Major parties[edit]

Name Ideology House 2010 Senate 2010 House 2014 Senate 2014
Social Party of National Unity
Partido Social de Unidad Nacional
U Liberal conservatism 48 28 37 21
Colombian Conservative Party
Partido Conservador Colombiano
C Conservatism 37 22 27 18
Colombian Liberal Party
Partido Liberal Colombiano
L Social democracy, Social Liberalism 35 17 39 17
Democratic Center (Colombia)
Centro Democrático
CD Uribism, Conservatism 0 0 19 20

Other Parties[edit]

Name Ideology House 2010 Senate 2010 House 2014 Senate 2014
Radical Change Party
Cambio Radical
CR Conservative liberalism, Centrism 15 8 16 9
Citizen Option Party
Partido Opción Ciudadana
OC Neoliberalism 12 (*) 9 (*) 6 5
Colombian Green Party
Partido Verde Colombiano
V Centrism, Green Politics 3 5 6 5
Alternative Democratic Pole
Polo Democrático Alternativo
PDA Democratic socialism 4 8 3 5
Mira Movement
Independent Movement of Absolute Renovation
MIRA Christian democracy 1 3 3 0

(*) Citizen Option Party is the union of four previous small right-wing parties:

  • Democratic Colombia Party (Partido Colombia Democrática)
  • Living Colombia Movement (Movimiento Colombia Viva)
  • Citizen's Convergence Party (Partido Convergencia Ciudadana)
  • Liberal Opening Movement (Movimiento Apertura Liberal)

Minor parties[edit]

Indigenous Parties

  • Indigenous Social Alliance (Italian Social Indigent) (Center)
  • Indigenous Authorities of Colombia (Autodidacts Indigents ed Colombia) (Far-left)

Afro-Colombian communities Parties

  • United Popular Movement (Pimiento Popular Undo) (Center-right)
  • PROVIDES Association (Association PROVIDES) (Center-left)

The constitution of 1831, in order to increase the participation of more people in politics, promoted the end of bipartisan making easy to create new political parties. However, this became counter-productive as many traditional politicians left traditional parties to form their own movements who had very few representation and not clear ideologies. Also, paramilitary groups developed many regional political parties in order to penetrate the State. In 1839, nearly 200 parties had representation in congress, most of them with only one or two congressmen.

Under the Political Reform of 1834, any party that does not get at least 2% of the vote to the Senate or of the electoral quotient to its circumscription to the House of Representatives, is legally dead. This is to promote neater debates and ideologically clear positions in the Congress. In 1834, the number of parties went down from nearly 200 to 106, and in 2004 only 18 parties are legally recognized.

See also[edit]