List of political parties in Germany

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The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and from 2013 to 2021, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called a grand coalition.[1]

Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislatures are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

Current parties[edit]

Party membership in Germany (since 1945; East German parties joined in 1990)

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European Parliament[edit]

Party Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology Political position MdBs MEPs EP group Membership
Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Lars Klingbeil,
Saskia Esken
Social democracy
206 / 735
16 / 96
S&D 379,861
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Friedrich Merz Centre-right
152 / 735
23 / 96
EPP 371,986
Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Centre-right
45 / 735
6 / 96
EPP 132,000
Alliance 90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Ricarda Lang,
Omid Nouripour
118 / 735
21 / 96
Greens/EFA 126,451
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Conservative liberalism
91 / 735
5 / 96
RE 73,000
Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Tino Chrupalla,
Alice Weidel
Right-wing populism
National conservatism
German nationalism
80 / 735
9 / 96
ID 34,000
The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Martin Schirdewan,
Janine Wissler
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism
28 / 735
4 / 96
GUE/NGL 54,214
Bündnis Sahra Wagenknecht
BSW Sahra Wagenknecht,
Amira Mohamed Ali
Social conservatism
Left-wing populism
10 / 735
0 / 96
- 450[4]
South Schleswig Voters' Association
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Christian Dirschauer Social liberalism
Danish minority interests
Frisian minority interests
1 / 735
0 / 96
Greens/EFA 3,216
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FW Hubert Aiwanger Liberal conservatism
Soft Euroscepticism[5]
0 / 735
2 / 96
RE 6,225
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz,
Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Left-wing
0 / 735
1 / 96
- 51,078
Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christian Rechholz Green conservatism Centre-right
0 / 735
1 / 96
Greens/EFA 8,035
Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Anne Herpertz Pirate politics
Direct democracy
Social liberalism
European federalism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Greens/EFA 5,541
Volt Germany
Volt Deutschland
Volt Lara Neumann, Tim Marton Social liberalism
European federalism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Greens/EFA 4,000
Alliance Germany
Bündnis Deutschland
BD Steffen Große Conservatism Centre-right to right-wing
0 / 735
1 / 96
ECR 1,000
Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Helmut Geuking Conservatism
Social conservatism
Christian democracy
Centre-right to right-wing
0 / 735
1 / 96
EPP 705
  1. ^ A right-wing party originally starting as a centre-right alternative to the CDU/CSU, since 2015 it is considered to be part of the radical right, a subset of the far-right that does not oppose democracy.
  2. ^ BSW has been variously described as left-wing, far-left, and left-conservative; the latter label is due to its more right-wing stance on socio-cultural issues.

Regional parties represented in only one state parliament[edit]

Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology Political position MdLs State
Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB/FW Péter Vida Regionalism
5 / 88
Citizens for Thuringia [de]
Bürger für Thüringen
BfTh Ute Bergner Right-wing populism Right-wing
2 / 90

Minor parties[edit]

Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology Political position EP group Membership
Action Citizen for Justice
Aktion Bürger für Gerechtigkeit
AGB Alfred Dorn Direct democracy
Social democracy
Alternative medicine
Action Party for Animal Welfare
Aktion Partei für Tierschutz
Tierschutz hier! Thomas Schwarz Animal rights
Animal welfare
Single-issue 50
Association for Freedom and Humanity
Anton Stucki Liberalism 40[6]
Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM 1,078
Alliance for Innovation and Justice
Bündnis für Innovation und Gerechtigkeit
BIG Haluk Yildiz Political Islam 2,000
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal- and Nature Protection
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl Animal rights Single-issue 97
Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akbaş Conservatism
Political Islam
AlphaHHP - gesundheitspolitische Partei für Deutschland in Europa
AlphaHHP Anti-vaccination
Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism 2,512
Arminius – Association of the German People
Arminius – Bund des deutschen Volkes
Arminius – Bund Johann Thießen Russia German interests
German nationalism
Far-right 40
Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Martin Sonnabend Universal basic income Single-issue 350
Basic Income for All [de]
Grundeinkommen für Alle
GFA Uwe Bjorck Universal basic income Single-issue 27
Bavaria Party
BP Florian Weber Autonomism
Bavarian nationalism
Centre-right EFA 3,926
Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy
Far-left 229
German Centre Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Christian Otte Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Centre-right 300
Climate List Germany
Klimaliste Deutschland
KL Fabian Aisenbrey, Doris Vollmer Climate change mitigation
Citizen for Germany
Bürger für Deutschland
BfD Direct democracy
Citizen for Progress and Change
Bürger für Fortschritt und Wandel
BFW Uwe Hück Progressivism Centre-left 170
Civic and economic-ecological Union
Bürgerliche und wirtschaftsökologische Union
BWUnion Liberalism
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement Syncretic 556
Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism
Far-left 165
Democratic Alliance for Diversity and Awakening
Demokratische Allianz für Vielfalt und Aufbruch
DAVA Teyfik Ozcan Turkish minority interests
Democratic Union of Germany
Demokratische Vereinigung Deutschland
DVD Werner Krüger Reformism
Direct democracy
Universal basic income
Democratic Liberal LEAGUE
Demokratisch Liberale LIGA
LIGA Thomas H. Stütz Conservatism Centre-right
Democracy DIRECT!
Demokratie DIREKT!
DIE DIREKTE! Christian Rombeck Direct democracy 34
Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Democratic socialism Left-wing 224
Democratic Left
Demokratische Linke
DL Eckehart Ehrenberg Democratic socialism Left-wing 43
Ecological Left [de]
Ökologische Linke
ÖkoLinX Grassroots democracy
Left-wing to far-left 350
Ecological-Left Liberal Democratic Party
Ökolinksliberale Demokratische Partei
ÖLDP Bérangère Bultheel Social democracy
Social liberalism
European Federalism
Centre-left 70
Educate Berlin!
Bildet Berlin!
Bildet Berlin! Florian Bublys, Tamara Adamzik Education reform Single-issue 50
European Party Love [de]
Europäische Partei Liebe
LIEBE European federalism
Subsidized marriage
Feminist Party The Women
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism 400
Free Citizens' Union
Freie Bürger Union
FBU Walter Pfleiderer National liberalism
Free Citizen Central Germany
Freie Bürger Mitteldeutschland
FBM Regionalism 35
Free Horizon
Freier Horizont
FREiER HORIZONT Norbert Schumacher Anti-Wind turbine Single-issue
Free Parliamentary Alliance [de]
Freiparlamentarische Allianz
FPA Luca Piwodda Participatory democracy 200
Free Saxony
Freie Sachsen
FS Martin Kohiman Saxon monarchism
Right-wing to Far-right 1,200
From Now on... Democracy Through Referendum [de]
Ab jetzt … Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy
Right-wing 350
Z. Lasse Lorenzen Regionalism 112
future! [de]
future! Stephan Bublitz Youth interests
Garden Party
Gartenpartei Roland Zander Pro-Allotment
German Centre
Deutsche Mitte
DM Sven Hüther Right-wing populism
Right-wing 500
German Conservatives
Deutsche Konservative
Deutsche Konservative Dieter Jochim Conservatism
National conservatism
Centre-right to right-wing 380
German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism
Far-left 2,850
German Party – The Liberals
Deutsche Partei – Die Freiheitlichen
DP Gerd-Uwe Dahlmann National conservatism
German nationalism
Right-wing populism
Right-wing 250
German Protestant League
Deutsche Protestantische Liga
DEUPROLIGA Christian democracy
German Sports Party
Deutsche Sportpartei
DSP Michael Möller Grassroots democracy
Sport for social development
German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing 1,060
Germans Originating from all of Germany (Autochthons)
Aus Gesamtdeutschland stammende Deutsche (Autochthone)
AGsD Horst Zaborowski Nationalism
Direct democracy
Grassroots Democratic Party of Germany
Basisdemokratische Partei Deutschland
dieBasis Reiner Fuellmich, Viviane Fischer Anti-lockdown
Human Economy Party
HUMANWIRTSCHAFT Dieter Müller Freiwirtschaft
Party Human Environment Animal protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Aida Spiegeler Castaneda
Marcel Krohn
Robert Gabel
Animal rights
APEU 2,400
Human world - for the well-being and happiness of all
Menschliche Welt – für das Wohl und Glücklichsein aller
MENSCHLICHE WELT Michael Moritz Progressive utilization theory
INDEPENDENTS for citizen-friendly democracy
UNABHÄNGIGE für bürgernahe Demokratie
UNABHÄNGIGE Werner Fischer Independent politics
Direct democracy
Liberal Democrats – The Social Liberals
Liberale Demokraten – Die Sozialliberalen
LD Bernd Grothkopp Social liberalism 100
Lobbyists for Children
Lobbyisten für Kinder
LfK Johanna Nelkner, Fabio Libonati Children's rights 100
Lusatian Alliance
Lausitzer Allianz / Łužiska Alianca / Łužyska Alianca
Hannes Wilhelm-Kell Regionalism
Ethnic minority interests
Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism
Far-left 2,800
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
Modern Social Party
Moderne Soziale Partei
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left 400
Julijana Zita Progressivism
Green New Deal
European federalism
Direct democracy
National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Lennart Schwarzbach Neo-Nazism Far-right
neo. Wellbeing for all
neo. Wohlstand für alle
neo. Jörg Gastmann Economic Balance System
Universal basic income
Grassroots democracy
New Strength Party
Neue Stärke Partei
NSP Sara Storch, Christoph Thews Neo-Nazism Far-right
One for all - Party
Eine für Alle - Partei
Eine für Alle Grassroots democracy 13
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Regionalism 237
Party for Biomedical Rejuvenation Research
Partei für schulmedizinische Verjüngungsforschung
Verjüngungsforschung Felix Werth Single-issue politics Single-issue 289
Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
PdH Lasse Schäfer Humanism
Civil libertarianism
Social liberalism
Party of Progress
Partei des Fortschritts
PdF Grassroots democracy 220
Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Right-libertarianism
Right-wing EPIL 352
PETO Lydia Hannawald Youth interests 400
Renters Party
MIETERPARTEI Anke Hahn, Hartmut Bräunlich Anti-high rent Centre-left 50
SGV – Solidarity, Equity, Change
SGV – Solidarität, Gerechtigkeit, Veränderung
SGV Anti-corruption
Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left 276
Standing up socially just intelligent party
Aufstehen sozial gerechte intelligente Partei
Aufstehenpartei Paul Weiler Left-wing populism Centre-left to Left-wing
Statt Party
Statt Partei
STATT Robert W. Hugo Populism 200
The Justice Party – Team Todenhöfer
Die Gerechtigkeitspartei – Team Todenhöfer
Jürgen Todenhöfer Anti-militarism
The Glass clear
Die Glasklar
DGK Die Glasklar Social democracy
The Federals
DIE FÖDERALEN Maren Zaidan Liberalism
The Grays – For all Generations
Die Grauen – Für alle Generationen
Die Grauen Michael Schulz Intergenerationality 135
The Homeland
Die Heimat
HEIMAT Frank Franz Neo-Nazism
Far-right APF 3,000
The House of Germany
Das Haus Deutschland
DHD Egbert Besler Constitutionalism
Social democracy
The Reformers
Die Reformer
REFORMER Erich Schuster Liberalism
The III. Path
Der III. Weg
III. Weg Matthias Fischer Neo-Nazism
Ethnic nationalism
German nationalism
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right 642
The Modernity
die Moderne
Martin Martens Centrism Centre
The New Centre
Die Neue Mitte - Zurück zur Vernunft
NM Christoph Hörstel Sovereignism
The New Democrats
Die neuen Demokraten
The Libertarians
Die Libertären
DIE LIBERTÄREN Julian Schloddarick Libertarianism
Economic liberalism
sonstige Democratic confederalism
Left-wing 171
The Party of Sorbians
die partei der sorben
PDS Lars Krause Political satire
Sorbian Separatism
The Pink/ Alliance21
Die Pinken/Bündnis21
BÜNDNIS21 Anti-corruption 450
The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Tilo Schöne German nationalism
National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing 4,533
The Right
Die Rechte
Die RECHTE Christian Worch Neo-Nazism
Historical revisionism
Far-right 550
The Sharks – Party with bite
Die Haie – Partei mit Biss
HAIE Jan Heie Erchinger Pragmatism Centre
The Peace Party
Die Friedenspartei
Marie-José Velonjara Pacifism
The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand Social justice
The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Spiritualism
Direct democracy
Thuringian Homeland Party
Thüringer Heimatpartei
THP 56
Us Citizen
Wir Bürger
LKR Jürgen Joost Centre-right to right-wing ECR Party 1,000
V-Partei³ – Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights
Values Union
WU Hans-Georg Maaßen Conservative liberalism
National conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing 4,000[7]
Waying C
Aufbruch C
Andreas Epp Christian democracy
Right-wing 74
W2020 Wolfgang Romberg, Sonja Früh Anti-vaccinationism

Historical parties[edit]

Defunct parties in the Federal Republic of Germany[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology Est. Diss. Note
50Plus The generation alliance
50Plus Das Generationen-Bündnis
50Plus Hans Werner Müller Right-wing populism 2004 2009
Action Democratic Progress
Aktion Demokratischer Fortschritt
ADF Collective leadership Communism 1968 1969
Action Group Fourth Party
Aktionsgemeinschaft Vierte Partei
AVP Christian Ernst Dietrich Bahner National conservatism 1975 1978
Action Group of Independent Germans
Aktionsgemeinschaft Unabhängiger Deutscher
AUD Hermann Schwann (1965–1968) German nationalism
1965 1980 Merged into The Greens
Active Democracy direct
Aktive Demokratie direkt
ADd Direct democracy
2011 2016
All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights
Gesamtdeutscher Block/Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten
GB/BHE Waldemar Kraft (1951–1954) National conservatism
German nationalism
Expellee interests
1950 1961 Merged into DP
All-German Party of Germany
Gesamtdeutsche Partei Deutschlands
GPD Frank Seiboth, Herbert Schneider National conservatism
German nationalism
Expellee interests
1961 1981 Merger of GB/BHE and DP
All-German People's Party
Gesamtdeutsche Volkspartei
GVP Gustav Heinemann Anti-Western integration[de]
Christian democracy
1952 1957 Split from CDU, merged into SPD
Alliance for Health, Peace and Social Justice
Allianz für Gesundheit, Frieden und soziale Gerechtigkeit
AGFG Matthias Rath Alternative medicine 2005 2009
Alliance of Germans, Party for Unity, Peace and Freedom
Bund der Deutschen, Partei für Einheit, Frieden und Freiheit
BdD Josef Weber (1964–1968) Anti-Western integration[de]
1953 1968 Merged into DFU
Alliance of the Centre
Allianz der Mitte
ADM Hans Weide Conservatism 2004 2012 Merged into Deutsche Konservative
Automobile Taxpayers Party
Automobile Steuerzahler-Partei
ASP Motorist interests 1993 2002
Awakening of German patriots – Central Germany
Aufbruch deutscher Patrioten – Mitteldeutschland
ADPM Benjamin Przybylla Right-wing populism
National conservatism
2019 2020
Awakening for civil rights, freedom and health
Aufbruch für Bürgerrechte, Freiheit und Gesundheit
AUFBRUCH Hans Christoph Scheiner Anti-wireless expansion
Alternative medicine
1998 2012
Christian Centre
Christliche Mitte — Für ein Deutschland nach GOTTES Geboten
CM Josef Happel National conservatism
Christian conservatism
Social conservatism
1988 2016 Still exists as a think tank
Christian Falangist Party of Germany
Christlich Falangistische Partei Deutschlands
CFPD Falangism
2006 2009
Christian League - The Party for Life
Christliche Liga – Die Partei für das Leben
LIGA Ewald Jaksch Christian right
1985 1995
Citizens for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Bürger für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
BMV Michael Bertram Conservatism
2018 2018 Split from AfD, merged into Free Voters
Communist League of West Germany
Kommunistischer Bund Westdeutschland
KBW Joscha Schmierer (1973–1982) Maoism 1973 1985
Communist Party of Germany (Roter Morgen)
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Roter Morgen)
KPD (Roter Morgen) Communism
1985 2011 Split from KPD/ML
Communist Party of Germany/Marxists–Leninists
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands/Marxisten-Leninisten
KPD/ML Ernst Aust (1968–1983) Communism
1968 1986 Newspaper still exists
Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Max Reimann (1948–1956) Communism
1918 1956 Banned in 1956
Democratic Gay/Lesbian Party - The People's Party
Demokratische Schwul / Lesbische Partei - Die Bürgerpartei
DSLP Thomas Mosmann Homonationalism
2013 2016
Democratic Left
Demokratische Linke
DL Socialism 1967 1970
Democratic Socialists
Demokratische Sozialisten
DS Eurocommunism 1982 1991
Democratic Party of Germany
Demokratische Partei
DPD Markus Giersch Universal basic income
Grassroots democracy
Anti-Noise pollution
2009 2015
Drivers' and Peoples' Interest Party
Autofahrer- und Volksinteressenpartei
AViP Andreas Uhing Motorist interests
2011 2016
Drivers' and Citizens' Interest Party
Autofahrer- und Bürgerinteressenpartei Deutschlands
APD Anton K. Marth Motorist interests 1988 2002
Equality Party
G 1973 1978
European Federalist Party
Europäische Föderalistische Partei
EFP Karl Hahn European federalism 1964 1994
European Workers-Party
Europäische Arbeiter-Partei
EAP Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement 1974 1986 Succeeded by Patrioten
Expellee and Migrants Party of Germany – Unity
Aussiedler und Migranten Partei Deutschland – EINHEIT
DIE EINHEIT Dimitri Rempel Russophilia
Expellee interests
2013 ?
Federation for a Complete Germany
Bund für Gesamtdeutschland
BGD Horst Zaborowski Revanchism
1990 2017 Merged with AGsD
Free Citizens' Initiative
Freie Bürger-Initiative
FBI Dr. Thomas Kernebeck Direct democracy 1994 ?
Free German People's Party
Freiheitliche Deutsche Volkspartei
FDVP Nationalism 2000 2003 Split from DVU, merged into DP
Free German Workers' Party
Freiheitliche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
FAP Friedhelm Busse (1988-1995) Neo-Nazism
1979 1995 Banned in 1995 (as organization)
Free Union
Freie Union
FU Danny Hoffmann Conservatism
Direct democracy
Economic liberalism
2009 2019
The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests 2007 2023
German Community
Deutsche Gemeinschaft
DG Otto Hess German nationalism
1949 1965 Merged into AUD
German Conservative Party - German Right Party
Deutsche Konservative Partei – Deutsche Rechtspartei
DKP-DRP Wilhelm Jaeger (1947–1949) National conservatism 1946 1950 Merged into DRP and DP
German Democratic Party
Deutsche Demokratische Partei
ddp Thorsten Sandvoß Third way
Universal basic income
2004 2015
German Empire Party
Deutsche Reichspartei
DRP Heinrich Kunstmann, Adolf von Thadden, Alexander Andrae Neo-Nazism (after 1952)
German nationalism
1950 1956 Merger of DRP and NDP
German Freedom Party
Deutsche Freiheitspartei
DFP Heinrich Kunstmann German nationalism
1962 1964 Split from DRP, merged into AUD
German Freedom Party
Die Freiheit – Bürgerrechtspartei für mehr Freiheit und Demokratie
DIE FREIHEIT Michael Stürzenberger Classical liberalism
Direct democracy
Right-wing populism
Hard Euroscepticism
2010 2016
German Party
Deutsche Partei
DP Heinrich Hellwege German nationalism
National conservatism
Constitutional monarchism
1947 1961
German Party
Deutsche Partei
DP Adolf von Thadden (after 1967) National conservatism 1961 1980 Founded by former members of the 1947 DP
German Peace Union
Deutsche Friedens-Union
DFU Pacifism
1960 1984/90
German People's Union
Deutsche Volksunion
DVU Matthias Faust (2009–2011) Pan-Germanism
National conservatism
Right-wing populism
1971/87 2011 Split from and merged into NPD
German Reconstruction Party
Deutsche Aufbaupartei
D|A|P Tobias Stober D-Mark reintroduction 2017 2019
German Social Union
Deutsch-Soziale Union
DSU Otto Strasser Strasserism
Revolutionary nationalism
1956 1962
German Solidarity - Union for the Environment and Life Protection
Deutsche Solidarität – Union für Umwelt und Lebensschutz
Öko-Union Horst Götting National conservatism 1978 1997 Split from AVP
German Union
Deutsche Union
DU Siegfried Zoglmann National liberalism 1971 1980
Gray Panthers
Graue Panther
Graue Panther Georg Schulte 1989 2008
Humanist Party
Humanistische Partei
HP New Humanism
Social liberalism
Grassroots democracy
1984 2006
Independent Workers' Party (German Socialists)
Unabhängige Arbeiter-Partei (Deutsche Sozialisten)
UAP Ulrich Villmow (1995–2014) Strasserism
Neue Rechte
European federalism
Democratic socialism
1962 2014 Split from DSU, unofficial successor
Independent Workers' Party of Germany
Unabhängige Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands
UAPD Titoism
1950 1952
Kreuzberg Patriotic Democrats/Realistic Center
Kreuzberger Patriotische Demokraten/Realistisches Zentrum
KPD/RZ Hans Joachim Grimm Satire
1988 2016 Merged into Die PARTEI
Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative
Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative
WASG Klaus Ernst, Thomas Händel, Christine Buchholz, Axel Troost Democratic socialism
Trade unionism
2005 2007 Merged into The Left
League of German Communists
Bund Deutscher Kommunisten
BDK Communism
1972 ? Split from DKP
Liberal People's Party
Freiheitliche Volkspartei
FVP Franz Handlos National conservatism
Social conservatism
1985 1992 Split from The Republicans
Maritime Union of Germany
Maritime Union Deutschland
MUD Konrad Fischer Fishermans' interests
Social democracy
2011 2012
Mature Citizens
Die Mündigen Bürger
Mündige Bürger Erika Herbst National conservatism
Alternative medicine
1975 1994
Motorist and citizens' interest party in Germany
Autofahrer- und Bürgerinteressenpartei Deutschlands
APD Anton K. Marth (1988–1995) Motorist interests 1988 2002
Muslim Democratic Union
Muslimische Demokratische Union
MDU Islamism
2010 2014 Merged into BIG
National Liberal Action
Nationalliberale Aktion
NLA Erich Mende National liberalism 1970 1971
National Democratic Empire Party
Nationaldemokratische Reichspartei
NDRP Neo-Nazism 1950 1951 Merger of multiple smaller parties,
succeeded by Young Party
Natural Law Party
Naturgesetz-Partei, Aufbruch zu neuem Bewusstsein
NATURGESETZ Transcendental Meditation 1992 2004
New consciousness - The holistic-esoteric party of Germany
Neues Bewußtsein die ganzheitlich-esoterische Partei Deutschlands
Bewußtsein New-Age movement
1989 ?
New National Party
Neue Nationale Partei
NNP Jens Tholen Civic nationalism
Social liberalism
2014 2015
Noise torture-Environment-Politics-Honest
LUPe Klaus Zimmer Anti-Noise pollution 2013 2016
Parent Party
Eltern Werner Jock Parents' interests 2005 2010
Party for a Rule of Law Offensive
Partei Rechtsstaatlicher Offensive
PRO Ronald Schill (2000–2003) Right-wing populism
2000 2007 Commonly known as Schill-Partei
Party for Labour, Environment and Family
AUF - Partei für Arbeit, Umwelt und Familie - Christen für Deutschland
AUF Conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
2008 2015 Merged into Alliance C
Party of Bible-abiding Christians
Partei Bibeltreuer Christen
PBC Gerhard Heinzmann Christian right
Christian fundamentalism
1989 2015 Merged into Alliance C
Party of Democratic Socialism
Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus
PDS Lothar Bisky (2003–2007) Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism
1989 2007 Merged into The Left
Party of Non-Voters
Partei der Nichtwähler
Nichtwähler Werner Peters Protest party
Direct democracy
1998 2016
Party of those willing to work and the socially disadvantaged
Partei der Arbeitswilligen und Sozial Schwachen
PASS Frank Knüppel (1998–2000) Protest party
Unemployed interests
1993 2009
Patriots for Germany
Patrioten für Deutschland
Patrioten Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement
National conservatism
1986 1992 Succeeded by BüSo
Peace List
Die Friedensliste
FRIEDEN 1984–1986:
Mechtild Jansen
Manfred Coppik
Hans Mausbach
Peace movement 1984 1989
Pensioners' Party Germany
Rentner Partei Deutschland
RENTNER Günter Pfeiffer Senior citizens interests 2002 2016
Pensioners' Party
Rentnerinnen- und Rentner-Partei
RRP Manfred Link Senior citizens interests 2007 2016
Pro Germany Citizens' Movement
Bürgerbewegung pro Deutschland
pro Deutschland Manfred Rouhs Right-wing populism 2005 2017
Bürgerbewegung pro NRW
pro NRW Markus Beisicht Right-wing populism
2007 2019
Posadist Communist Party
Posadistische Kommunistische Partei
Paul Schulz Posadism 1969 2005
Sarazzist Party ━ for Referendums
Sarazzistische Partei – für Volksentscheide
SPV Kai Schulze Sarrazism
Direct democracy
2010 2011
Saxon People's Party
Sächsische Volkspartei
SVP Mirko Schmidt Nationalism 2006 2019
Social People's Party
Soziale Volkspartei
SVP Ronny Grubert Neo-Nazism
1999 1999 Split from NPD
Social People's Party of Germany
Soziale Volkspartei Deutschlands
SVD Wolfgang Staschen Social democracy
1984 1984
Socialist Reich Party
Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands
SRP Otto Ernst Remer, Fritz Dorls, Gerhard Krüger Neo-Nazism 1949 1952 Banned in 1952
Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin
Sozialistische Einheitspartei Westberlins
SEW Gerhard Danelius (1962–1978) Communism
1962 1991 Split from SED
Spartacus League
SpB Trotskyism 1974 1980s
Red October
Roter Oktober
RO Communism
2002 2009 Split from KPD (RO)
Revolutionary Socialist League
Revolutionär Sozialistischer Bund/Vierte Internationale
RSB Trotskyism 1994 2016 Merged into ISO
The Blue Party
Die blaue Partei
Blaue #TeamPetry Frauke Petry National conservatism
National liberalism
2017 2019 Split from the AfD
The Grays – Gray Panthers
Die Grauen – Graue Panther
GRAUE Anti-Ageism
Green politics
Senior citizens interests
1989 2008 Split into Die Grauen and Graue Panther
The Social Liberals
Die Sozialliberalen
SL Mikael Horstmann Social liberalism
European federalism
2014 2021 Still exists as a think tank
The Ungovernable - Autonomous List
Die Unregierbaren – Autonome Liste
U/AL Anti-fascism
Direct action
1989 2009
Union of Free Citizens
Bund freier Bürger
BFB Manfred Brunner National liberalism
Right-wing populism
1994 2000
Union of Free Germany
Bund Freies Deutschland
BFD Right-wing populism 1973 1977
United Socialist Party
Vereinigte Sozialistische Partei
VSP Socialism 1986 2000
West German Women's Peace Movement
Westdeutsche Frauenfriedensbewegung
WFFB Klara Marie Faßbinder German reunification
1952 1974
Woman's Party
Frauen Sibylle Schücking-Helfferich Feminism 1979 1989
Work for Bremen and Bremerhaven
Arbeit für Bremen und Bremerhaven
AFB Centrism 1995 2004
Workers' Party of Germany
Partei der Arbeit Deutschlands
PdAD Michael Koth Juche
National Bolshevism
1995 1998
Workers' Party of Germany
Partei der Arbeit Deutschlands
PdAD Simon Bärmann Social democracy
Progressive conservatism
2017 2020
Young Party
Junge Partei
1951 1951/2
Youth and Development Party of Germany
Jugend- und Entwicklungspartei Deutschlands
JED Till Müller, Lukas Ostermann Youth interests
Social liberalism
Cannabis legalization
2017 2019

Defunct parties in Allied-occupied Germany[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology Active Note
Democratic People's Party
Demokratische Volkspartei
DVP Theodor Heuss Liberalism 1946–1948 Merged into FDP
German Conservative Party
Deutsche Konservative Partei
DKP Eldor Borck, Otto Schmidt-Hannover National conservatism 1946–1950 Merged into DKP-DRP
German Reconstruction Party
Deutsche Aufbaupartei
DAP Monarchism
German nationalism
1945–1946 Merged into DKP-DRP
Lower Saxony State Party
Niedersächsische Landespartei
Christian conservatism
Establishment of Lower Saxony
1945–1947 Merged into DP
National Democratic Party
Nationaldemokratische Partei
NDP Heinrich Leuchtgens National conservatism 1945–1950 Only active in Hesse, merged into DRP
Radical Social Freedom Party
Radikal-Soziale Freiheitspartei
RSF Richard Batz, Peter Thielen Freiwirtschaft
Border abolition
1946–1950 Succeeded by HUMANWIRTSCHAFT

Parties in East Germany[edit]

Bloc Logo Name Abbr. Ideology Note
National Front
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschland
SED Stalinism
"Leading Role" per 1968 Constitution, succeeded by PDS
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDUD Christian socialism
Social conservatism
Merged into the CDU
Liberal Democratic Party of Germany
Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands
LDPD Liberal socialism Merged into Association of Free Democrats (partly)
Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany
Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands
DBD Agrarianism
Agrarian socialism
Merged into CDUD
National Democratic Party of Germany
National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands
NDPD Conservatism
National conservatism
Merged into FDP

During transition (1989–90)[edit]

Alliance Logo Name Abbr. Ideology Note
Alliance 90
Democracy Now
Demokratie Jetzt
DJ Democratic socialism Merged into Alliance 90/The Greens
Initiative for Peace and Human Rights
Initiative für Frieden und Menschenrechte
IFM Anti-Communism
New Forum
Neues Forum
NF Progressivism
Alliance for Germany
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDUD Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Merged into the CDU
Democratic Beginning
Demokratischer Aufbruch
DA Liberal democracy
Christian democracy
Merged into CDUD
German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU National conservatism
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Still exists, see Minor parties
Association of Free Democrats
Liberal Democratic Party of Germany
Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands
LDPD Liberalism Merged into FDP
German Forum Party
Deutsche Forumpartei
DFP Liberalism
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Liberalism
Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany
Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands
DBD Agrarianism Merged into CDUD
Green Party
Grüne Partei
Die Grünen Green politics Merged into Alliance 90/The Greens
National Democratic Party of Germany
National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands
NDPD Centrism
National liberalism
Merged into FDP
Social Democratic Party in the GDR
Sozialdemokratische Partei in der DDR
SPD Social democracy Merged into SPD
Socialist Unity Party of GermanyParty of Democratic Socialism
Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands━Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus
SED-PDS Democratic socialism Later renamed to PDS
United Left
Vereinigte Linke
VL Communism

Parties in the Saar Protectorate[edit]

Name Abbr. Ideology Active Note
Christian People's Party of Saarland
Christliche Volkspartei des Saarlandes
CVP Christian democracy
1946–1959 Later merged with the CDU
Christian Social Union
Christlich-Soziale Union
CSU-S Christian democracy
1955–1959 Unofficial counterpart of the CSU
Communist Party of Saarland
Kommunistische Partei Saar
KP Communism
1945–1957 Counterpart of the KPD
Democratic Party of Saarland
Demokratische Partei des Saarlandes
DPS Conservative liberalism
National conservatism
1946–1957 Later merged into the FDP
German Democratic Union
Deutsche Demokratische Union
DDU Left-wing politics 1955–1968 Later merged with the DFU
German Social Democratic Party
Deutsche Demokratische Union
DSP Social democracy 1952–1956 Split from the SPS, later merged with the SPD
Social Democratic Party of Saarland
Sozialdemokratische Partei des Saarlandes
SPS Social democracy
Democratic Socialism
1946–1956 Counterpart of the SPD
Supranational European People's Party Saar
Übernationale Europäische Volkspartei saar
ÜEVPS 1955–?

Parties in Weimar Republic[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Ideology Political position Active Note
Bavarian People's Party
Bayerische Volkspartei
BVP Political Catholicism
Bavarian regionalism
Constitutional monarchism
Right-wing 1918–1933
Centre Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
Zentrum Christian democracy
Political catholicism
Centre to centre-right 1870–
Christian Social People's Service
Christlich-Sozialer Volksdienst
CSVD Agrarainism
Political Protestantism
Centre-right 1929–1933
Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Communism
Far-left 1918–1956 (West)
1918–1946 (East)
Banned in West Germany, merged in East Germany
Communist Party of Germany (Opposition)
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Opposition)
KPO Communism
Left-wing, Far-left 1929–1939
Conservative People's Party
Konservative Volkspartei
KPV Conservatism
Christian democracy
Right-wing 1930–1933
German Democratic Party
Deutsche Demokratische Partei
DDP Social liberalism
Centre-left 1918–1930
German National People's Party
Deutschnationale Volkspartei
DNVP Monarchism
National conservatism
German nationalism
Right-wing to Far-right 1918–1933
German People's Party
Deutsche Volkspartei
DVP National liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Constitutional monarchism
Centre-right 1918–1933
German Völkisch Freedom Party
Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei
DVFP German nationalism
Völkisch movement
Far-right 1922–1925
German State Party
Deutsche Staatspartei
DStP Liberalism
Centre-right 1930–1933 Short-lived merger of the DDP and Young German Order
German Workers' Party
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
DAP Pan-Germanism
German nationalism
Far-right 1919–1920 Predecessor of the Nazi Party
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Left-wing 1917–1931
National Socialist German Workers' Party
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
NSDAP National Socialism Far-right 1920–1945
Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands
SAPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Far-left 1931–1945

Parties founded before World War I[edit]

Name Abbr. Ideology Active
Bavarian Peasants' League BB Agrarianism 1893–1933
Centre Party Zentrum Christian democracy 1870–
Christian Social Party CSP Traditionalist conservatism
Christian democracy
Democratic Union DV Liberalism
Free Conservative Party FKP National conservatism 1867–1918
Free-minded People's Party FVP Liberalism
Free-minded Union FV National liberalism 1893–1910
General German Workers' Association ADAV Social democracy
Democratic socialism
German Conservative Party DKP Conservatism
Economic liberalism
German Fatherland Party DVLP German nationalism
German-Hanoverian Party DHP Conservatism
German People's Party DtVP Social liberalism
German Progress Party DFP Liberalism
German Free-minded Party DFP Liberalism
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Liberal Union LV Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
National Liberal Party NLP National liberalism 1867–1918
National-Social Association NSV Christian socialism
Social liberalism
Progressive People's Party FVP Social liberalism
Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD Social democracy 1875–present
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP Social democracy
Marxist socialism

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chronik: Bundestagswahlen von 1949 bis 2002 | Deutschland | Deutsche Welle | 02.10.2005". Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 24 August 2009, retrieved 12 October 2009, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ "Erster Bundesparteitag der Wagenknecht-Partei BSW begonnen" [First federal party conference of the Wagenknecht party BSW begins]. Deutschlandfunk (in German). 27 January 2024. Auf der eintägigen Veranstaltung, zu der die 450 Gründungsmitglieder geladen waren, soll zunächst der Parteivorstand gewählt werden. [At the one-day event, to which the 450 founding members were invited, the party executive committee is to be elected first.]
  5. ^ Skiadas, Christos H.; Bozeman, James R. (7 March 2019). "14: Visualizing the Political Spectrum of Germany by Contiguously Ordering the Party Policy Profiles". John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119579533. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  6. ^ "| Zeitpunkt".
  7. ^ "CDU-Konservative: Was die Werteunion ist und was sie will - ZDFheute". 13 February 2020. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2024.

External links[edit]