List of political parties in Germany

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This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislatures are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

Current parties[edit]

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European Parliament[edit]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Political position EP group
SPD logo.svg Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Norbert Walter-Borjans,
Saskia Esken
Social democracy[4]
Pro-Europeanism
206 / 735
16 / 96
Centre-left S&D
Union[A]
Cdu-logo.svg Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Armin Laschet Christian democracy[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
Pro-Europeanism
151 / 735
23 / 96
Centre-right[5] EPP
CSU Logo since 2016.svg Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Christian democracy[4]
Conservatism[4]
45 / 735
6 / 96
Centre-right[6][7][8] EPP
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo (transparent).svg Alliance 90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Annalena Baerbock,
Robert Habeck
Green politics[4]
Pro-Europeanism
118 / 735
21 / 96
Centre-left Greens/EFA
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism[4]
Classical liberalism[9][10]
92 / 735
5 / 96
Centre to centre-right RE
AfD-Logo-2017.svg Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Jörg Meuthen,
Tino Chrupalla
German nationalism[11][12]
Right-wing populism[13]
83 / 735
11 / 96
Right-wing to far-right ID
Die Linke logo.svg The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Janine Wissler,
Susanne Hennig-Wellsow
Democratic socialism[4]
Left-wing populism
39 / 735
7 / 96
Left-wing to far-left GUE/NGL
Ssw-logo.svg South Schleswig Voters' Association[B]
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism
Ethnic minority politics
Social liberalism[14]
1 / 735
0 / 96
Centre Greens/EFA
Die PARTEI Logo.svg Die PARTEI
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz,
Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire
0 / 735
2 / 96
Apolitical None;
Greens/EFA
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FW Hubert Aiwanger Conservatism[15]
Regionalism
0 / 735
2 / 96
Centre-right RE
OEDP Logo CMYK.svg Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christian Rechholz Green conservatism[16]
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right Greens/EFA
Piratenpartei Deutschland Logo 01.svg Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Carsten Sawosch Pirate politics
Social liberalism[17]
0 / 735
1 / 96
Syncretic Greens/EFA
Logo Volt Europa.svg Volt Germany
Volt Deutschland
Volt Damian Boeselager European federalism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre to centre-left Greens/EFA
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Maria Hartmann Social conservatism
Christian democracy
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right to right-wing ECR
LKR Logo 2020.svg Liberal Conservative Reformers
Liberal-konservative Reformer
LKR Jürgen Joost Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
Soft Euroscepticism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right to right-wing ECR
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.
B Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. As a party representing ethnic minorities, it is not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Other parties represented in state parliaments[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in state (Seats) Position Notes
Bürger in Wut Logo.svg Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
Logo-BVB-FREIE-WAEHLER.svg Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Regionalism Brandenburg (3)

Minor parties[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political position EP-group
Action Party for Animal Welfare - the Original
Aktion Partei für Tierschutz – das Original
Tierschutz hier!
Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Conservation
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl
Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akbaş Conservatism
Political Islam
APPD-Logo.svg Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
Arminus - Association of the German people[18]
Arminus – Bund des deutschen Volkes
Arminus – Bund Johann Thießen Russlanddeutsche interests
German nationalism
Far-right[18]
BGE Logo neu.png Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Martin Sonnabend Universal basic income Single-issue none
Bayernpartei Logo.svg Bavaria Party
Bayernpartei
BP Florian Weber Autonomism
Bavarian nationalism
Regionalism
Conservatism
Centre-right EFA
Cropped-logo-seite.png Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy
Dadaism
Far-left none
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement
Conspiracism
Syncretic none
Zentrumspartei Logo.png German Centre-Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Klaus Brall Political Catholicism
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Centre-right none
Kpd-flagge-icon.png Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Stalinism
Far-left none
DiB Logo.jpg Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Left-wing none
Feministische Partei Die Frauen Logo.svg Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism none
From Now on... Democracy Through a Referendum
Ab jetzt … Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy none
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei Logo.svg German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left none
Logo Deutsche Soziale Union.png German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
Logo Liberale Demokraten - Die Sozialliberalen.svg Liberal Democrats – The Social Liberals
Liberale Demokraten – Die Sozialliberalen
LD Bernd Grothkopp Social liberalism
Progressivism
Centre-left none
Logo Lausitzer Allianz.png Lusatian Alliance
Lausitzer Allianz / Łužiska Alianca / Łužyska Alianca
Hannes Wilhelm-Kell Regionalism
Progressivism
Ethnic minority interests
none
MLPD Logo 2011 (2).svg Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Communism
Far-left none
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
Mut logo.jpg mut
mut
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left none
NPD-Logo-2013.svg National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revanchism
Far-right[16] APF
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy none
PDH Logo Redesign.svg Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
Die Humanisten Alexander Mucha Humanism
Secularism
Civil libertarianism
Social liberalism
none
Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
Tierschutzpartei-Logo.svg Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Matthias Ebner
Sandra Lück
Horst Wester
Animal rights
Environmentalism
Syncretic GUE/NGL
Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
Social Liberal Democratic Party
Sozialliberale Demokratische Partei
SLDP Bérangère Bultheel Social liberalism
Anti-fascism
Secularism
Social democracy
European Federalism
LDF2010.png The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
An oak wreath on logo of the German party "The Third Path" - Parteilogo "Der III. Weg.jpg The III. Path
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism
German nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right none
REP Logo Claim.svg The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Tilo Schöne German nationalism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revisionism
Far-right none
The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand none
Die Violetten Logo 20190515.jpg The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Social liberalism
Spiritualism
none
Schriftzug-v-partei.png V-Partei³ – Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights
Environmentalism
none

Historical parties[edit]

Parties existing up to World War I[edit]

Name Abbr. Ideology
Bavarian Peasants' League BB Agrarianism
Centre Party Zentrum Christian democracy
Christian Social Party CSP Traditionalist conservatism
Christian democracy
Anti-Semitism
Democratic Union DV Liberalism
Laïcité
Free Conservative Party FKP National conservatism
Free-minded People's Party FVP Liberalism
Progressivism
Parliamentarism
Laicism
Free-minded Union FV National liberalism
General German Workers' Association ADAV Social democracy
Democratic socialism
German Conservative Party DKP Conservatism
Economic liberalism
Anti-Catholicism
German Fatherland Party DVLP German nationalism
Monarchism
Militarism
Volksgemeinschaft
German-Hanoverian Party DHP Conservatism
Federalism
German People's Party DtVP Social liberalism
Federalism
Laïcité
Parliamentarism
German Progress Party DFP Liberalism
Federalism
German Free-minded Party DFP Liberalism
Progressivism
Parliamentarism
Laïcité
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Pacifism
Liberal Union LV Liberalism
Parliamentarism
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
National Liberal Party NLP National liberalism
National-Social Association NSV Christian socialism
Social liberalism
Nationalism
Progressive People's Party FVP Social liberalism
Parliamentarism
Laïcité
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP Social democracy
Marxist socialism

Parties in Weimar Republic[edit]

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany[edit]

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court[edit]

Parties in (former) East Germany[edit]

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)[edit]

During transition (1989–90)[edit]

Parties founded from 1989[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-08. Retrieved 2009-10-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  5. ^ "Armin Laschet elected new leader of Germany's CDU party". Euronews. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  6. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the center-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Center-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  7. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  8. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  9. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.
  10. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.
  11. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016.
  13. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
  14. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.
  15. ^ Peter, Laurence (9 April 2021). "Markus Söder: Star Trek fan who could boldly go and lead Germany". BBC News. Retrieved 17 April 2021. He had to share power with the small conservative Free Voters party.
  16. ^ a b William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
  17. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  18. ^ a b Wagschal, Prof Dr Uwe. "Arminus - Bund des deutschen Volkes (Arminus - Bund) | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-06-14.

External links[edit]