List of political parties in Israel
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Israel's political system, based on proportional representation, allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties represented in the 120-seat Knesset. This article lists the political parties in Israel.
Due to the low election threshold of 3.25% (and only 1% from 1949 until 1988), a typical Knesset includes a large number of factions represented. In the 2015 elections, for instance, 10 parties or alliances cleared the threshold, and five of them won at least 10 seats. The low threshold, in combination with the nationwide party-list system, make it all but impossible for a single party to win the 61 seats needed for a majority government. No party has ever won a majority of seats in an election, the most being 56, won by the Alignment grouping in the 1969 elections (the Alignment had briefly held a majority of seats before the elections following its formation in January 1969). As a result, while only three parties (or their antecedents) have ever led governments, all Israeli governments as of 2015[update] have been coalitions comprising two or more parties.
Parties with Knesset seats
The following parties are represented following the 2015 elections:
The following parties do not have Knesset seats at present:
- Ale Yarok
- Brit Olam
- Da'am Workers Party, Organization for Democratic Action
- Eretz Hadasha
- Green Movement
- Holocaust Survivors and Grown-Up Green Leaf Party
- Kadima (held seats from 2005 to 2015)
- Koah HaKesef
- Koah LeHashpi'a
- Lev LaOlim
- Man's Rights in the Family Party
- Meimad (held seats between 1999 and 2009)
- Otzma Yehudit (held seats between 2012 and 2013)
- Sons of the New Testament
- The Greens
- Tzomet (held seats between 1987 and 1999)
- U'Bizchutan— founded in 2015 as an Orthodox Jewish women's party 
- Yisrael Hazaka
- Yisrael HaMithadeshet
Parties with Knesset seats
Parties without Knesset seats
- Atid Ehad—ran in the 2006 elections.
- Hatzohar—the original Revisionist Zionist party, disbanded after failing to cross the electoral threshold in the 1949 elections.
- Popular Arab Bloc—Arab satellite list that ran in the 1949 elections.
- Tafnit—ran in the 2006 elections.
- Women's Party—ran in the 1977 elections.
- Yamin Yisrael—broke away from Moledet, another right-wing party, prior to 1996 elections, but failed to cross the electoral threshold.
The following parties changed their names
- Banai became Tehiya-Bnai then Tehiya
- Emunim became Tkuma
- Equality in Israel-Panthers became the Unity Party
- Flatto-Sharon became Development and Peace
- Hitkhabrut became the Renewed Religious National Zionist Party, then Ahi
- Israel in the Centre became the Centre Party
- Meretz became Yachad then Meretz-Yachad, then Meretz again
- Movement for Change and Initiative became Shinui
- Mizrachi-Hapoel HaMizrachi became the National Religious Front, then Mafdal (National Religious Party), then The Jewish Home
- National Responsibility became Kadima
- National Unity - National Progressive Alliance became Progressive National Alliance
- Parliamentary Group of Bronfman and Tsinker became Makhar, then the Democratic Choice
- Party for the Advancement of the Zionist Idea became the New Liberal Party
- Rafi – National List became Ometz
- Rakah became Maki
- Secular Faction became Hetz
- Social-Democratic Faction became the Independent Socialist Faction
- Shinui - Centre Party became Shinui - the Secular Movement, then Shinui - Party for the Secular and the Middle Class, but is generally known as Shinui
Zionist youth movements
- Betar (associated with Herut and then Likud)
- Bnei Akiva (Sons of Akiva, associated with Mafdal (National Religious Party))
- Habonim Dror (The Builders - Freedom, socialist Zionist youth movement associated with the Israeli Labor Party)
- Hashomer Hatzair (The Young Guard, socialist Zionist youth movement associated with Mapam and unofficially with Meretz)
- Magshimey Herut (associated with Herut)
- HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed (The Learning and Working Youth,socialist Zionist youth movement, sister movement to Habonim Dror, associated with the Israeli Labor Party and the Histadrut)
- Noar Avoda (Labour Youth, associated with Labour)
- Noar Moledet (Moledet Youth, associated with Moledet)
- Tzeiri Meretz (Young Meretz for 18- to-35-year-olds) and Noar Meretz (Meretz Youth for under 18s, associated with Meretz)
- Politics of Israel
- List of political parties by country
- Liberalism in Israel
- Labour Zionism
- Revisionist Zionism
- Daniel Tauber (13 August 2010). "Ze'ev Jabotinsky (1880–1940)". Likud Anglos. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011.
Jabotinsky's movement and teachings, which can be characterized as national-liberalism, form the foundation of the Likud party.
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The Likud Party, the party of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, is a national-liberal party, while the Labor Party, led by Shimon Peres, is more left-wing and identified as social-democratic.
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The two main political parties—Likud, essentially national-liberal and Labor, essentially social-democratic—have historical roots and traditions pre-dating the establishment of the State in 1948.
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A national-liberal political movement (center-right, in Israeli terms) that was established as an alliance of parties that united into a single party in 1984.
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- Amnon Rapoport (1990). Experimental Studies of Interactive Decisions. Kluwer Academic. p. 413. ISBN 0792306856.
Likud is a liberal-conservative party that gains much of its support from the lower and middle classes, and promotes free enterprise, nationalism, and expansionism.
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Likud, despite defections, had joined Labor in accepting the inevitability of territorial compromise.... Revolutionary as it may seem, Likud's abandonment of its maximalist vision has in fact been evolving for years.
- Ethan Bronner (20 February 2009). "Netanyahu, Once Hawkish, Now Touts Pragmatism". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
Likud as a party has made a major transformation in the last 15 years from being rigidly committed to retaining all the land of Israel to looking pragmatically at how to retain for Israel defensible borders in a very uncertain Middle East....
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Both Meretz and Hatnuah are known for their progressive platforms on matters of religion and state.
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- Kimmerling, Baruch; Migdal, Joel S. (2003). The Palestinian People: A History. Harvard University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0674011298.
- Guide to Israel's political parties, BBC, 21 January 2013
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- Israel election: Who are the key candidates?, BBC (14 March 2015)
- Bernard Avishai, Kerry's Miscalculation on the U.N. Palestine Resolutions, The New Yorker, 31 December 2014
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- The Israel Project: Political Parties in Israel
- Party registrar, list of registered political parties Ministry of Justice
- Parties participating in the 2006 elections Knesset website (English)
- All parliamentary groups Knesset website (English)