List of political parties in New Zealand

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Zealand national politics have featured a pervasive party system since the early 20th century. Usually, all members of Parliament's unicameral House of Representatives belong to a political party. Independent MPs do not occur often.

While two major parties (namely Labour and National) have dominated the New Zealand national political landscape since the 1930s, the introduction of proportional representation in 1996 led to a multi-party system, such that smaller parties have substantial representation in Parliament and can now reasonably expect to gain seats in government. As of 2021, five parties have MPs in the 53rd Parliament.


New Zealand's party system did not arise until the late 19th century. Prior to this, members of Parliament stood as independent candidates, and while some MPs joined factions, these typically were formed around prominent individuals such as Julius Vogel, and did so after election not before.[1]

The Liberal Party, which was formed in 1891, was New Zealand's first 'modern' political party.[2] It was the country's sole political party until the formation of the more conservative Reform Party in 1909.[1] The Labour Party was founded in 1916, and by 1919 these three parties dominated New Zealand politics.[1]

The Liberal Party was succeeded by the United Party in 1928.[3] The United and Reform parties found themselves working together more often, and they formed a coalition in 1931.[3] After Labour won office in 1935,[1] United and Reform formally amalgamated in 1936 to form the National Party.[4] The first-past-the-post (FPP) plurality voting system (in use before the 1990s) entrenched a two-party system, since the two major parties usually won far more seats than their share of the overall vote.[5]

Over the years, a number of third parties or so-called minor parties developed, notably the Social Credit Party, the New Zealand Party, the Values Party, and the Alliance.[6] However, the FPP electoral system meant that regardless of how many votes a party gained nationwide, it could not win a seat without a plurality in a particular electorate.[5] For example, the Social Credit Party won over 11% of the votes cast in the 1954 election but did not have a plurality in any electorate so won no seats. Similarly, in the 1984 election, the New Zealand Party received over 12% of the votes cast but also won no seats.[7] Under such conditions, minor parties mostly performed poorly in terms of making an impact in Parliament.

In 1993, the Electoral Act 1993 was passed, introducing the mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 election. Now, any party that won at least 5% of the party vote entered Parliament, as well as the previous electorate pathway.[8] This made it much easier for smaller parties to enter Parliament, but more difficult to gain elected as a non-party independent.[citation needed] Since then New Zealand has been a multi-party system, with at least five parties elected in every election since.

Registration of parties[edit]

Political parties in New Zealand can be either registered or unregistered. Registered parties must have five-hundred paying members, each eligible to vote in general elections, and party membership rules.[9]

If a party registers, it may submit a party list, enabling it to receive party votes in New Zealand's MMP electoral system. Unregistered parties can only nominate candidates for individual electorates.[10]

As of 2020, registered political parties are also able to spend up to $1,169,000 during the campaign for the party vote and $27,500 per electorate seat. Unregistered entities are able to spend up to $330,000 on general election advertising.[11]

Current parties[edit]

Parties represented in Parliament[edit]

There are five parliamentary parties in the 53rd New Zealand Parliament.[12] The default order of this list corresponds to the number of MPs they currently have.[13]

Party Leader(s) Founded Represented Position Ideology Seats
Labour Party Chris Hipkins 1916 1916–present Centre-left Social democracy
62 / 119
National Party Christopher Luxon 1936 1936–present Centre-right Conservatism, liberalism
34 / 119
Green Party James Shaw and Marama Davidson 1990 1997–present Left-wing Green politics,
social democracy
9 / 119
ACT David Seymour 1994 1996–present Right-wing Classical liberalism, conservatism
10 / 119
Te Pāti Māori Rawiri Waititi and Debbie Ngarewa-Packer 2004 2004–2017
Left-wing[14] Indigenous rights, tino rangatiratanga
2 / 119

Registered parties outside Parliament[edit]

Parties listed in alphabetical order:[15]

Party Leader(s) Founded Position Ideology
Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party Maki Herbert and Michael Appleby 1996 Cannabis legalisation
DemocracyNZ Matt King 2022 Anti-vaccine mandate[16]
Freedoms New Zealand Brian Tamaki and Sue Grey 2022 Far-right Anti-establishment, big tent
Heartland New Zealand Party Mark Ball 2020 Centre-right Agrarianism
New Conservative Helen Houghton and Ted Johnston 2011 Right-wing Social conservatism
New Nation Party Michael Jacomb 2022 Anti-vaccine mandate
NZ First Winston Peters 1993 Centre (economic), right-wing (social) Nationalism, populism
ONE Party Ian Johnson, Kariana Black, and Allan Cawood 2020 Christian fundamentalism, social conservatism
NZ Outdoors & Freedom Party Sue Grey and Donna Pokere-Phillips 2015 Anti-vaccination, Anti-lockdown, Environmentalism
The Opportunities Party (TOP) Raf Manji 2016 Radical centre Radical centrism, environmentalism
Vision NZ Hannah Tamaki 2019 Far-right Christian nationalism, right-wing populism

Unregistered parties[edit]

An accurate list of active unregistered parties can be difficult to determine. Any person may announce a political party, but these parties may or may not gain followers, receive any media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics.

The list below lists active and notable parties.

Party Leader(s) Founded Position Ideology
Attica Project Mike Iles and Michael Kay 2020 Anti-neoliberalism
Communist League 1969 Far-left Communism, Marxism-Leninism
Harmony Network NZ 2020 Environmentalism
The Integrity Party of Aotearoa New Zealand (TIPANZ) Helen Cartwright 2020 Centre Green liberalism, progressivism
Mana Movement Hone Harawira 2011 Left-wing Māori rights
Money Free Party Richard Osmaston 2014
New Zealand Momentum Party[17] Gaurav Sharma 2022 Centre Centrism
New Zealand People's Party Anil Sharma 2015 Minority rights
Progressive Party of Aotearoa New Zealand Bruce Dyer 2020 Syncretic Progressive utilization theory
Social Credit Party Vacant 1953 Social credit
Socialist Aotearoa Anu Kaloti 2008 Far-left Revolutionary socialism, Neo-Trotskyism
Tea Party New Zealand John Hong and Susanna Kruger 2020 Centre Anti-racism, fiscal conservatism

Historical parties[edit]

Parties that held seats[edit]

Party Founded Disbanded In Parliament Description
Liberal Party 1891 1927 1891–1927 New Zealand's first political party. It provided the country with a number of prominent Prime Ministers, including John Ballance and Richard Seddon. With much of its traditional support undercut by the growing Labour Party, the remnants of the Liberals (known as the United Party) eventually merged with the Reform Party to form the modern National Party.
New Liberal Party 1905 1908 1905–1908 A party formed by Liberal Party dissidents. Its members were opposed to Liberal leader, Richard Seddon, seeing him as an autocrat. The party proposed a more "progressive" policy seeing the current Liberal policy as too cautious and orthodox. The New Liberals lost much support after the infamous "voucher incident", leaving them discredited.
Independent Political Labour League 1905 1910 1908–1910 A small and short-lived left-wing party. It was the third organised party to win a seat in Parliament, with David McLaren winning the seat of Wellington East. In Parliament, the IPLL co-operated with the governing Liberal Party.
Reform Party 1909 1936 1909–1936 New Zealand's second major political party, established as a more conservative opponent to the Liberal Party. Its founder, William Massey, became its most prominent leader. It eventually merged with its former rivals, United, to form the modern National Party.
Labour Party (original) 1910 1912 1910–1912 A short-lived successor to the Independent Political Labour League. It functioned as one of the more moderate workers' parties, opposing more radical groups like the Socialist Party. It should not be confused with the modern Labour Party, although a certain degree of continuity links the two.
United Labour Party 1912 1916 1912–1916 A reformed continuation of the original Labour Party. The party existed only a short time before merging with the Socialist Party to form the Social Democratic Party, although a faction rejected the new SDP as too extreme and continued on under the United Labour Party banner eventually likewise merging in 1916.
Social Democratic Party 1913 1922 1913–1916 An early left-wing party established at a "Unity Congress" in July 1913 as an attempt to bring together the various labour groups of the time. The party eventually amalgamated with the modern Labour Party.
Country Party 1922 1938 1928–1938 A party established by members of the Farmers' Union to promote the interests of the rural sector. It reflected to an extent social credit monetary theory, and believed that farmers were not treated fairly by banks and the corporate world.
United Party 1927 1936 1927–1936 A party formed from the remnants of the Liberal Party. United governed between 1928 and 1935, initially with Labour support and later in coalition with the Reform Party. It eventually merged with Reform to establish the modern National Party.
Democratic Labour Party 1940 1949 1940–1943 A splinter from the Labour Party led by dissident MP John A. Lee. Lee, a socialist and social creditist, believed that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Labour Party hierarchy had expelled him after he repeatedly criticised its leadership.
NewLabour Party 1989 2000 1989–1991 A left-wing party established by former Labour MP Jim Anderton. It contested one election before joining with several other parties to establish the Alliance.
Christian Heritage NZ 1990 2006 1999 A party that advocates Christian conservative values. It supported policies to strengthen marriage and opposed abortion and same-sex unions.
Alliance 1991 2015 1991–2002 A left-wing party supporting the welfare state, free education, environmental protection, and Māori interests. The Progressive Party formed as a splinter group from the Alliance when Jim Anderton, former Alliance leader, left.
Liberal Party 1991 1998 1991-1992 A short-lived splinter from the National Party, formed by Hamish McIntyre and Gilbert Myles, two dissident National MPs who disagreed with the economic policies of Ruth Richardson. The Liberal Party quickly joined the Alliance, which the two saw as the principal opponent of Richardson and her ideological allies.
New Zealand Conservative Party 1994 1996 1994–1996 Initially called the Right of Centre Party, it was founded by breakaway National MP, Ross Meurant. After the general election of 1996, the remnants of the party amalgamated with the United Party.
Future New Zealand 1994 1995 1994–1995 A short-lived party established by Peter Dunne after he left the Labour Party. It integrated into the United New Zealand party. Not to be confused with a later party of the same name.
Christian Democrats 1995 1998 1995–1996 A Christian party established by sitting National MP Graeme Lee. After briefly establishing the Christian Coalition (see above) with the Christian Heritage Party, the Christian Democrats secularised themselves, adopting the name "Future New Zealand". Future New Zealand merged with United (see below) to form United Future New Zealand.
United New Zealand 1995 2000 1995–2000 A centrist party established by moderate MPs from both National and Labour. The party did not achieve electoral success, with only one of the seven founding MPs managing to remain in Parliament. United later merged with the Future New Zealand party to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata 1998 2001 1998–1999 A short-lived Māori feminist party established by Alliance (Mana Motuhake) defector Alamein Kopu. The party contested only one general election before vanishing.
Mauri Pacific 1999 2001 1999 A party established by several New Zealand First MPs shortly after a coalition between New Zealand First and the National Party broke down. Mauri Pacific remained allied to the National government, giving it crucial support, but none of the party's MPs gained re-election in the 1999 election.
United Future 2000 2017 2000–2017 A centrist party, originally with a strong Christian background: it described its platform as "common sense". It had a particular focus on policies concerning the family and social issues.
Progressive Party 2002 2012 2002–2011 A left-wing party with a focus on job creation and regional development, formed by Jim Anderton after his split from the Alliance.
Pacific Party 2008 2010 2008 A small party established by Taito Phillip Field aimed at advancing Pacific Peoples, as well as Christian and family values and social justice.
NZ Independent Coalition 2014 2016 2012–2014 A party emphasising local electorate representation, formed by MP Brendan Horan who became independent from New Zealand First in 2012.

Parties that never held seats[edit]

Because New Zealand does not require political parties to be registered, any person can announce a political party, though may not receive media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when such parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics. The list below is limited to notable parties understood to no longer be operating.

Parties listed by date of founding:

Party Founded Disbanded Description
Socialist Party 1901 1913 One of the more prominent Marxist parties in early New Zealand, strongly associated with the Federation of Labour (the "Red Fed"). It eventually merged with the more moderate United Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party.
Communist Party 1929 1994 Probably New Zealand's most prominent and long-lived communist organisation. The party generally pursued hard-line doctrines, successively following Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao Zedong's China, and Enver Hoxha's Albania. In 1993, the party moderated its stance, adopting Trotskyism. It later merged with another party to form the group now known as Socialist Worker.
New Zealand Legion 1930 1934? A short-lived crypto-fascist political movement advocating conservative political reform and opposition to party politics and state bureaucracy. It was associated with John Ormond and later Robert Campbell Begg and did not see itself as a political party.
World Socialist Party 1930 1996 A party established by former members of the New Zealand Marxian Association, a Marxist group. Its founders created it as an alternative to the mainstream labour movement, claiming that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The World Socialist Party was rebranded from its founding name; the Socialist Party.
Democrat Party 1934 1936 A party established to promote the interests of the commercial sector and to oppose "socialist" legislation. The party contested the 1935 election, but failed to win any seats. Ironically, the votes which the Democrats took from the governing coalition may have assisted the victory of the left-wing Labour Party that year. The Democrat Party should not be confused with the modern Democratic Party.
People's Movement 1940 ? A right-wing organisation which supported reductions in the size of government and a reform of the party system. It was a strong supporter of individualism, saying that the government of the time was advocating the subordination of the individual to the state.
Real Democracy Movement 1942 ? A Social Credit theory based party which advocated economic security combined with individual liberty. It also advocated that all returned servicemen should be paid the average wage until they were re-integrated into civil employment.
Co-operative Party 1942 1943? A short-lived party established by Albert Davy, a prominent anti-socialist political organiser. It was primarily a breakaway from the larger People's Movement, and Davy rejoined the Movement the year after the Co-operative Party was established.
New Zealand Liberal Federation 1956 1958? A party formed by ex-National and Social Credit candidates who wished to revive "Seddon liberalism" via a third party.
Liberal Party 1962 ? A party which campaigned in the 1963 election on a platform of reducing the size of the government, introducing a written constitution, and restoring the upper house of Parliament.
Phoenix Party 1960s 1970s A small Dunedin-based grouping, founded by Gerald Williams, who saw the then Labour Party as moribund and in need of a phoenix-like resurrection. Williams became an effective propagandist, penning campaign literature disguised as parodies of well-known songs. He later transferred his efforts to the Values Party.
Socialist Unity Party 1966 ? A splinter group of the Communist Party (see above). It was formed by Communist Party members who rejected their party's decision to take China's side in the Sino-Soviet split. The Socialist Unity Party became one of the more prominent communist parties in New Zealand.
Republican Party 1967 1974 A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. It was founded by left-wing activist Bruce Jesson, and was the product of the Republican Association, an anti-royal protest group founded by Jesson in 1966.
National Front 1968 ? A far-right, ultranationalist and white nationalist organisation.[18] It acted as a political party around the 2000s.
Liberal Reform Party 1968 1972? A party initially launched as a revival of the decades earlier Country Party by the New Zealand Free Enterprise Movement in 1968 it was renamed the Liberal Reform Party in 1970 after failure at the 1969 election and contested the 1972 election under this name.
National Socialist Party 1969 ? A party founded by prominent far-right activist Colin King-Ansell. It is sometimes considered the first noteworthy far-right party in New Zealand.
Values Party 1972 1990 Sometimes called the world's first national-level green party. Elements of the Values Party eventually contributed to the formation of the modern Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand.
New Democratic Party 1972 1973 A short-lived splinter group of the Social Credit Party, founded by ousted Social Credit leader John O'Brien. It placed fifth in the 1972 election, but failed to win any seats.
Imperial British Conservative Party 1974 ? A joke party founded by Ian Brackenbury Channell, better known as "The Wizard of New Zealand". True to its name, it claimed to support imperialism, British people, and conservatism.
Mana Motuhake 1979 2005 The most prominent Māori-based party until the creation of the modern Māori Party. Mana Motuhake held a number of seats as part of the Alliance (see above), but most of its support has now been incorporated into the Māori Party.
McGillicuddy Serious Party 1983 1999 A joke party intended to satirise politics in general. Among other deliberately absurd policies it advocated the "Great Leap Backwards", a project to reverse the industrial revolution and to re-establish a medieval way of life.
New Zealand Party 1983 1993 A party established by property tycoon Bob Jones to promote free market economic policies and liberal social policies. It gained twelve percent of the vote in its first election, but then vanished almost completely. Some regard the modern ACT party as the New Zealand Party's ideological successor, but not everyone accepts this view.
Social Credit-NZ 1988 1993 A splinter party of Democrat Party, founded by former leader Bruce Beetham, believing the Democrats had abandoned Social Credit policies. It contested the 1990 election, but failed to win any seats.
Socialist Party of Aotearoa 1990 ? Formed in 1990 through a split in the Socialist Unity Party, the party was best known through the influence of its late founder Bill Andersen, a well-known trade unionist who served as president of the Auckland Trades Council, national secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, and president of the National Distribution Union.
Mana Māori Movement 1993 2005? A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's indigenous Māori inhabitants, founded by Eva Rickard, a prominent Māori activist and a former Mana Motuhake candidate.
Natural Law Party 1993 2001? A party which based its principles on the concept of natural law as promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his theory of Transcendental Meditation. It drew most of its support from the New Age movement.
Kiwis Against Further Immigration 1994 1998? An anti-immigration party founded as the New Zealand Defence Movement to contest the 1993 election it changed its name to Kiwis Against Further Immigration in 1994.
Advance New Zealand 1995 1997 A party that advocated for multiculturalism and the interests of ethnic minorities, with a substantial segment of its membership came from New Zealand's Pasifika communities.[19][20] Advance New Zealand merged into United New Zealand in 1997.[19][20][21] Not to be confused with the unrelated party of the same name founded in 2020.
Libertarianz 1995 2014 A libertarian party dedicated to laissez-faire capitalism and keeping government as small as possible.
Republican Party 1995 2002 A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. The party contested the 1999 election, but only won 250 votes. Should not be confused with The Republic of New Zealand Party or the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand.
Progressive Green Party 1995 ? An environmentalist party established in opposition to the generally left-wing policies of the larger Green Party. It contested only one election before vanishing, although many of its members became active in the National Party.
Christian Coalition 1996 1997 A brief alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. It narrowly missed entering Parliament in the 1996 election, and disbanded shortly afterwards.
Animals First 1996 2000 A party dedicated to animal rights and animal welfare. It received 0.17% of the vote in 1996[22] and 0.16% of the vote in 1999,[23] deregistered in 2000.
Nga Iwi Morehu Movement 1996 2011 A small Maori-based party which has been active in a number of elections
Ethnic Minority Party 1996 1997 A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's immigrant community, particularly Chinese and Indians. The popularity of New Zealand First, a party which opposed immigration, was a significant factor in its creation. It merged into United New Zealand, but little trace of it remains today.
Asia Pacific United Party 1996 1999 A party which attempted to gain support from Asian and Pasifika immigrants. It contested the 1996 election, but has since dissolved.
Green Society 1996 2001 A small environmentalist party. The Green Society believed that a true green party needed to be focused solely on the environment, and believed that the Green Party (then part of the Alliance) and the Progressive Green Party were both mistaken to take sides in economic and social debates.
Future New Zealand 1998 2002 A reconfiguration of the former Christian Democrat Party. Future New Zealand retained the same family values principles as the Christian Democrats, but abandoned the explicit religious basis. Future New Zealand merged with United New Zealand to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
South Island Party ? 2002 A regionalist party which called for more autonomy for the South Island, the less populous of New Zealand's two main islands. It drew support predominantly from Otago and Southland.
Aotearoa NZ Youth Party 1998 2011 A platform for campaigner Robert Terry, who stood for electorate seats four times under this banner.
Freedom Movement 1999 ? A registered party which contested the 1999 general elections, receiving 454 party votes.[24]
NMP 1999 2003 NMP sought to abolish all political parties, among other policies.[25][non-primary source needed] It contested two elections before disbanding.[26]
Te Tawharau 1999 2007 A Māori party which split off from the Mana Māori Movement. It lapsed with the formation of the Māori Party.
One New Zealand Party 1999 2006 A small party modelled on Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party in Australia. It opposes all special policies towards Māori.
People's Choice Party 1999 2002 A small party which was registered for the 1999 election, but which is currently unregistered. It campaigned against MMP and in favour of reducing the size of Parliament.
Outdoor Recreation NZ 2001 2007 A party dedicated to promoting the interests of the hunting, fishing, and shooting communities. Outdoor Recreation New Zealand contested the 2005 election under the banner of the United Future party, although the parties did not actually merge. This working arrangement met with disappointing results.
Workers Party 2002 2011 Formerly known as the Anti-Capitalist Alliance. A coalition of socialists and anti-globalisation activists.
Destiny New Zealand 2003 2007 A party based in the Destiny Church, a Christian religious organisation. The party mostly campaigned on a family values platform, and strongly opposed legislative changes such as the creation of same-sex civil unions and the legalisation of prostitution.
Residents Action Movement 2003 2010 A left-wing party aiming to bring together social liberals, community activists, social democrats and left-wing radicals.
WIN Party 2004 2006 A single-issue party devoted to overturning the recently introduced smoking ban in bars and restaurants.
Patriot Party ? 2005 A small Auckland-based party established by Sid Wilson, a senior member of the National Front. The party later merged back into the Front.
99 MP Party 2005 2006 A party primarily focused on reducing the total number of MPs from 120 to 99. It also believed that all constitutional changes should be put to a referendum.
Direct Democracy Party 2005 2009 A party which seeks to increase the participation of ordinary citizens in the political process. It advocates a system of referendums similar to that used by Switzerland.
Family Rights Protection Party 2005 2007 A party established by a group of Pasifika who claim that larger parties are taking the support of Pasifika for granted, and do not do enough to help them.
The Republic of New Zealand Party 2005 2009 A party focused on establishing a Republic in New Zealand. It also supports the adoption of a written constitution, the holding of referendums on major issues, and the abolition of race-specific government institutions.
Freedom Party 2005 2005 A party established by two former members of ACT New Zealand. Its policies were intended to be similar to those of ACT, but the party's founders said that the Freedom Party will be more democratic and accountable to its members.
Equal Values Party 2005 2008 A left-wing party active during the 2005 election. It supported free education and healthcare, an increase to social welfare benefits, and the establishment of compulsory superannuation schemes.
Family Party 2007 2010 A small Christian party established by the former Destiny New Zealand.
Kiwi Party 2007 2012 A revival of the Christian Democrats / Future New Zealand brand. The party advocates
more representative direct democracy through referendums and a return to the "Judeo-Christian ethic in democracy".
Hapu Party 2008 2008 A Māori-based party established to challenge the Māori Party.
Bill and Ben Party 2008 2010 A joke party run by Bill and Ben, hosts of the TV show Pulp Sport.
New World Order Party 2008 2011 A party promoting global peace through a unified World Government
Representative Party 2008 2010 The New Zealand Representative Party was led by Reg Turner, a former candidate for the ACT Party. The party claimed to have no policies, favouring seeking the opinions of voters on issues, and opposed traditional left-right politics.[27] However, it also promoted populist referenda, deregulation, compulsory military service, "stopping the culture for young unmarried women to have babies", and restricting the welfare state.[28] The party ran only a single candidate, Turner, in the 2008 election. By 2010, its website was defunct and it did not run any candidates in the 2011 election.
No Commercial Airport at Whenuapai Airbase Party 2008 2008 A local party which grew out of the movement opposing a commercial airport at Auckland's Whenuapai airbase.
New Zealand Liberals 2008 ? A small party modelled on the old New Zealand Liberal Party and the UK Liberal Democrats. It advocates constitutional reform, republicanism, and civil rights.
Pirate Party of New Zealand 2009 2017 A copyright reform party based on the Swedish Pirate Party, with a focus on technological issues, like net neutrality.
New Citizen Party 2010 2012 A short-lived party formed to represent Chinese New Zealanders. It came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, but dissolved before contesting a general election.
Join Australia Movement Party 2011 2011 A party advocating union with Australia.
Sovereignty Party 2011 ? A nationalist party which contest the 2011 election
Reform New Zealand 2011 ? A right-wing party advocating free market economics, low taxation, and reduced government. It was established by dissatisfied members of ACT New Zealand, and advocates similar policies of low taxation, privatisation, and reduced government. It never attempted to register with the New Zealand Electoral Commission and did not stand any candidates.
OurNZ Party 2011 2011 A party advocating a new currency, binding referenda, and a written constitution.
New Economics Party 2011 ? A party advocating substantial economic reform such as a universal basic income and multiple currencies. It stood a single candidate in one election.
Thrive New Zealand 2012 2013 Party logo registered in August 2013. Advocated Direct Democracy via an online tool called RealVoice.
Focus NZ 2012 2016 A party aimed at representing rural New Zealand.
1Law4All Party 2013 2015 A party aimed at overturning the Treaty of Waitangi.
Civilian Party 2013 2015 A joke party which arose from a popular New Zealand satirical website.
Expatriate Party 2014 2014 A party related to issues facing New Zealanders outside New Zealand.
NZ Climate Party 2014 2017 A party which advocated greater action on climate change.
Ban 1080 Party 2014 2018 A party that opposed the use of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poison.
Internet Party 2014 2018 A party advocating for less surveillance, copyright reform and cheap internet. The Internet Party contested the 2014 general election in an alliance called Internet Party and Mana Movement, and contested the 2017 election on its own.
GOdsownNZ 2017 2018 A "non-PC" Christian conservative party.
Sustainable New Zealand Party 2019 2021 A Green Liberal party founded by former Green and National Member Vernon Tava. Considered to be "teal" or "blue-green" by the Media.
New Zealand Public Party 2020 2021 A component party of Advance New Zealand.[29] Founded in June 2020 by Billy Te Kahika Jr. At its launch, Te Kahika said that the COVID-19 pandemic would enable globalist leaders to implement UN agendas that would totally control people's lives, and that billionaires had developed weaponised viruses and patented treatments for the viruses they had made, in order to enslave humanity.[30][31][32][33][34] It merged with Advance New Zealand in July 2020.[35]
Advance New Zealand 2020 2021 A party founded by former National Party MP Jami-Lee Ross.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Curtin, Jennifer; Miller, Raymond (21 July 2015). "The party system develops, 1891 to 1935". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  2. ^ Wilson, John (1 April 2020). "Liberal to Labour". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b Daniels, John Richards Sinclair (1966). "United Party". In McLintock, Alexander Hare (ed.). An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand.
  4. ^ Raymond, Miller (2005). Party Politics in New Zealand. Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 32.
  5. ^ a b "First past the post". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  6. ^ Curtin, Jennifer; Miller, Raymond (21 July 2015). "Political parties". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  7. ^ Matthews, Philip (28 April 2021). "1984: Politics and boxing lessons". Stuff. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  8. ^ Curtin, Jennifer; Miller, Raymond (21 July 2015). "Small parties under MMP". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  9. ^ "For starting a political party". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  10. ^ "Political parties in New Zealand". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Limits on election-related spending begin - New Zealand Parliament". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Parliamentary parties". New Zealand Parliament. 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  13. ^ "2017 General Election - Preliminary Count". Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  14. ^ "NZ Election 2020: John Tamihere picks unlikely preferred coalition partner for Māori Party". Newshub. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  15. ^ "Register of political parties". Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  16. ^ Piper, Denise (18 March 2022). "'We stand for democracy': Ex-National MP Matt King launches anti-mandate party". Stuff. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  17. ^ Pearse, Adam (4 November 2022). "Hamilton West byelection: Gaurav Sharma claims raid of Labour manpower as new party revealed". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 6 November 2022. Resigned MP Dr Gaurav Sharma claims most of his core campaign team who helped him win the Hamilton West seat in 2020 with Labour, have left to join his new political party, the New Zealand Momentum Party, ahead of the electorate's byelection.
  18. ^ "New Zealand National Front Homepage". Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  19. ^ a b Sheppard, Simon (26 December 1997). "United Party Awaiting Opportunities". Otago Daily Times.
  20. ^ a b Edwards, Bryce (2002). Political Parties in New Zealand: A Study of Ideological and Organisational Transformation. University of Canterbury.
  21. ^ Orsman, Bernard (16 July 2002). "The man for whom the worm turned up trumps". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Part I - Summary of Party List and Electorate Candidate Seats". Electoral Commission. 1997. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  23. ^ "Summary of Overall Results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  24. ^ "Summary of Overall Results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  25. ^ "NMP - New Millennium Partnership". Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Registration of political party cancelled". 14 March 2003. Archived from the original on 23 April 2003. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Logo no go, Nelson no go, and same goes for 1080". Stuff. 31 January 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  28. ^ "NZRP Website". Retrieved 17 September 2008.[dead link]
  29. ^ "Register of political parties". Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  30. ^ "New Zealand Public Party kicks off". Māori Television. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  31. ^ Mark Peters (10 July 2020). "Global 'plandemic'". Gisborne Herald. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  32. ^ "COVID-19 gives Billy TK the UN red flag blues". Waatea News. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  33. ^ Charlotte Jones (9 July 2020). "Public party preaches to Opotiki". Opotiki News. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Public Party praying for electoral lifeline". Waatea News. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  35. ^ Thomas Coughlan (26 July 2020). "Jami-Lee Ross looks to Te Tai Tokerau as he plots journey back to Parliament". Stuff. Retrieved 26 July 2020.

External links[edit]