List of political parties in Romania

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This article lists Political Parties in Romania.

Overview[edit]

Romania has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining parliamentary majority alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. The current system was established following the Romanian Revolution of 1989 and the adoption of a new constitution in 1991; prior to these events, Romania was a single-party state under the Communist Party of Romania.

Since the early 1990s, Romanian politics saw a gradual decrease in the number of parties entering Parliament and a relative consolidation of existing parties along ideological lines. Major parties can be roughly grouped into liberal, social democratic or conservative "families".[1] Extremist groups have a relatively low political profile in Romania, despite a surge in popularity of far right and Eurosceptic parties across Europe in the 2010s.[2] Party switching (traseism politic) remains an issue, however, as does corruption, leading to an overall low level of public trust in political parties (12% in December 2014).[3] To counter this perception, the two largest parties as of 2015 (the Social Democrats and National Liberals) have initiated a series of internal reforms to strengthen their integrity criteria and impose disciplinary sanctions on party members investigated or convicted on corruption charges.[4][5][6]

Legal framework[edit]

Article 40 of the Constitution of Romania states that citizens can freely associate into political parties, with the exception of judges, military and police personnel and other civil servants which are apolitical by law.[7] The same article bans parties which campaign against political pluralism, the rule of law, and Romania's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Romania's party system is regulated by Law no. 14/2003 on political parties; the law initially mandated a list of 25,000 supporters, residing in at least 18 counties and the Municipality of Bucharest, for a party to be formally registered. However, in February 2015, the unregistered Pirate Party of Romania filed a complaint with the Constitutional Court, arguing that the list requirement is a violation of the constitutional provisions on freedom of association. The Court subsequently struck down the requirement as unconstitutional, and on 6 May 2015, the Romanian Parliament approved a modified version of the law, which allows the formation of a political party with 3 signatures.[8][9]

Parties represented in Parliament[edit]

Present-day political parties with parliamentary representation, in order of the number or representatives they have in the Chamber of Deputies (governing coalition in bold):

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Position Deputies Senators MEPs
Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat
PSD Liviu Dragnea Social democracy
Third Way
Center-left 135 59 14
National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal
PNL Alina Gorghiu
Vasile Blaga
Liberalism Center-right 113 63 10
National Union for the Progress of Romania
Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României
(merging into PMP)[10]
UNPR Valeriu Steriu Social democracy
Progressivism
Center-left 24 13 2
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților
ALDE Călin Popescu Tăriceanu
Daniel Constantin
Liberalism Center-right 23 12 0
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România
Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség
UDMR Hunor Kelemen Hungarian minority interests
Regionalism
Various 16 8 2
People's Movement Party
Partidul Mișcarea Populară
PMP Traian Băsescu Christian democracy Center-right 13 1 1
National Democratic Party
Partidul Național Democrat
PND Daniel Fenechiu Economic liberalism
Social conservatism
Center-right 11 0 0
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
Partidul Național Țărănesc Creștin-Democrat
PNȚCD Aurelian Pavelescu Agrarianism
Christian democracy
Center-right 1 1 0
Green Party
Partidul Verde
PV Remus Cernea Green politics Center 1 1 0
New Republic
Noua Republică
NR George Mioc Classical liberalism
Christian democracy
Conservatism
Center-right 0 1 0

In addition, ethnic minority parties are guaranteed eighteen seats: one for each recognised minority (except Hungarians, who are already represented by the UDMR). However, they are not considered major parties, and are treated below.

Minor parties[edit]

Ethnic minority organizations[edit]

Association of Italians of Romania Asociația Italienlor din România, Associazione degli Italiani di Romania
Bulgarian Union of the Banat - Romania Uniunea Bulgară din Banat - România, Български съюз на Банат - Румъния
Community of the Lippovan Russians in Romania Comunitatea Rușilor Lipoveni din România, Община русских-липован Румынии
Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania Uniunea Culturală a Rutenilor din România, Културне Товариство Русинів Романії
Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România, Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania Uniunea Democratică a Slovacilor și Cehilor din România, Demokratický svaz Slováků a Čechů v Rumunsku, Demokratický zväz Slovákov a Čechov v Rumunsku
Democratic Union of Turco-Islamic Tatars of Romania Uniunea Democrată a Tătarilor Turco-Musulmani din România, Romanya Müslüman Tatar Türklerĭ Demokrat Bĭrlĭgĭ
Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania Federația Comunităților Evreiești din România
Hellenic Union of Romania Uniunea Elenă din România, Ένωση Ελλήνων της Ρουμανίας
League of Albanians of Romania Liga Albanezilor din România, Liga e shqiptarëve në Rumani
Party of the Roma Partida Romilor, Partida le Romenge
Turkish Democratic Union of Romania Uniunea Democrată Turcă din România, Romanya Türk Demokrat Birliği
Union of Armenians of Romania Uniunea Armenilor din România, Հայերի միությունը Ռումինիայի
Union of Croatians of Romania Uniunea Croaților din România, Savez Hrvata u Rumunjskoj
Union of Poles of Romania Uniunea Polonezilor din România "Dom Polski", Związek Polaków w Rumunii "Dom Polski"
Union of Serbs of Romania Uniunea Sârbilor din România, Савез Срба у Румунији
Union of Slavonic Macedonians of Romania Asociația Macedonenilor Slavi din România, Сојуз на словенски Македонци на Романија
Union of Ukrainians of Romania Uniunea Ucrainienilor din România, Союз українців Румунії

Parties with elected representation at local and county level[11][edit]

Party Local councillors County councillors
Coalition for Baia Mare 11 5
Hungarian People's Party of Transylvania 207 6
"National Unity Bloc" Party 17 0
"Movement for Medgidia" Party 1 0
Farmers' Party of Romania 6 0
Romani Democratic Alliance Party 4 0
"Alliance for Domnești" Party 2 0
Hungarian Civic Party 158 6
Social Justice Party 8 0
Romanian Ecologist Party 210 8
"Forța Moldova" Party 5 0
National Identity and Dignity Front 6 0
Party of Ialomițans 26 0
M10 92 0
Party of Maramureșans 3 0
Liberal Movement Party 3 0
Social Liberal Movement Party 1 0
NeoSocialist Party 1 0
New Right Party 4 0
Free People Party 5 0
Party for Argeș and Muscel 67 2
"Youth Civic Action" Platform 12 0
Humanist Power Party 105 0
Republican Party of Romania 2 0
Greater Romania Party 141 0
United Romania Party 169 0
Party of Democratic Romani 10 0
Romanian Social Party 318 7
Romanian Socialist Party 18 0
Christian Democratic Union of Romania 6 0
Save Bucharest Union 39 15
UpR Party 3 0
United for Șiria 3 0
Independent Union for Sighișoara 6 0
Save Sebiș Union 3 0

Parties without elected representation[edit]

Defunct parties[edit]

Parties no longer active:

Parties active 1859−1918[edit]

Conservative Party Partidul Conservator Active 1880-1918
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908-1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naționalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916-cca. 1935
Constitutional Party Partidul Constituțional Active 1891-1907
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naționalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party; active 1910-1938
Free and Independent Faction Fracțiunea liberă și independentă Active 1866-1875; merged into the National Liberal Party[12]
National Liberal Party Partidul Național-Liberal Active 1875-1947
National Party Partida Națională Active 1856-1859
Peasants' Party Partida Țărănească Active 1895[13]
Radical Party Partidul Radical An offshoot of the National Liberal Party, led by C. A. Rosetti; active c. 1884[12]
Social Democratic Party of Romania Partidul Social Democrat din România (PSDR) Active 1910-1916, groups active illegally 1916-1918; Transformed into the Socialist Party of Romania
Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party Partidul Social-Democrat al Muncitorilor din România (PSDMR) Active 1893-1899; most of its leadership joined the National Liberal Party, with others members eventually joining the Social Democratic Party of Romania

Parties active 1918−1947[edit]

The following parties were all active in Romania in the interwar period and, in some cases, through and after World War II. Dates of founding and dissolution are given, where known. Failing that, the earliest and latest dates known for activities are given.

This period saw the proliferation of numerous extremist parties inspired by fascism, socialism and Communism. The latter were effectively banned in 1924 by the so-called Mârzescu law.[14] A succession of coups drastically altered the political landscape as Romania went through a single-party dictatorship under the National Renaissance Front (1938−1940), then a military dictatorship without political parties (1940−1944), then briefly returning to multiparty democracy before finally becoming a people's republic (1944−1947).

Agrarian League Liga Agrară Offshoot of the People's Party; active 1929-1938
Agrarian Party Partidul Agrar Led by Constantin Argetoianu; active 1932-1938[15]
Bessarabian Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc din Basarabia () Founded in the Moldavian Democratic Republic; most of it merged into the Peasants' Party in 1921, a wing led by Ion Inculeț kept the name and later joined the National Liberal Party; active 1918-1923[16]
Bolshevik Leninist Group of Romania Grupul Bolșevic Leninist din România A Trotskyist grouping led by David Korner; active 1935.[17]
Citizen Bloc Blocul Cetățenesc A nationalist party led by Grigore Forțu; active 1934[18]
Citizen Committees-Dem. I. Dobrescu Comitetele Cetățenești Dem. I. Dobrescu A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1935-1938[19]
Communist Party of Romania Partidul Comunist din România (PCdR) Founded in 1921 as the Socialist-Communist Party (Partidul Socialist-Comunist), a group that emerged from the Socialist Party of Romania; after 1944 Romanian Communist Party (Partidul Comunist Român (PCR)); active 1921-1948. Absorbed the Social Democratic Party and renamed itself the Romanian Workers' Party
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908-1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naționalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916-c. 1935
Crusade of Romanianism Cruciada Românismului Fascist party; active 1935-1936.[20]
Democratic Bloc / Democratic Union Blocul democratic / Uniunea democratică Anti-fascist political organizations under the influence of the Romanian Communist Party, active 1935-1936, 1937-1939
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naționalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party, active 1910-1938
Democratic Peasants' Party–Stere Partidul Țărănesc-Democrat Constantin Stere (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged with the Radical Peasants' Party; active 1930-1933[21]
Democratic Peasants' Party–Lupu Partidul Țărănesc-Democrat Nicolae L. Lupu (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1946-1948[22]
Fire Swastika Svastica de Foc Fascist party, an offshoot of the National-Christian Defense League; active 1935-1938[15]
German Party Partidul German din România (PGR) / Deutsche Partei in Rumänien Generally backing the party in government, it became strongly influenced by National Socialism after 1936; active 1919-1944[23]
German People's Party Partidul Poporului German din România (PPGR) / Deutsche Volkspartei in Rumänien (DVPR) An offshoot of the German Party, active 1935-1938
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSZ) An offshoot of the Magyar Party, created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania' (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1934-1953
Independent Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Independent (PSDI) A dissident wing of the Social Democratic Party, led by Constantin Titel Petrescu; active 1946-1947[24]
Iron Guard Garda de Fier The usual name of the group founded as the Legion of the Archangel Michael (Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail or Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail), running in election first as the "Corneliu Codreanu" Grouping (Gruparea "Corneliu Codreanu") and then as the "Everything For the Fatherland" Party (Partidul "Totul pentru Țară" (TPȚ)) - fascist party active between 1927 and c. 1944-1945 (with minor groups claiming heritage to this day)
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1946-1948[25]
Jewish Party Partidul Evreiesc Active 1923-1938[26]
Laborer Party Partidul Muncitor Active 1918; merged into the Peasants' Party[27]
League against Usury Liga Contra Cametei Active 1929-c. 1931[28]
Liberal Democratic Party Partidul Liberal-Democrat (PLD) Founded as "Free Man" Grouping (Gruparea "Omul Liber") - a dissident wing of the National Liberal Party, led by Jean Th. Florescu; active 1931-1935.[29]
Magyar Party Partidul Maghiar Active 1922-1938[30]
National-Agrarian Action Acțiunea Național-Agrară (ANA) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the National Union for Work and Reconstruction; active 1946-1947[31]
National Agrarian Party Partidul Național Agrar (PNA) An offshoot of the People's Party, merged into the National Christian Party; active c.1931-1935[32]
National Awareness Guard Garda Conștiinței Naționale (GCN) A fascist party formed around Constantin Pancu; active 1919-1922[33]
National-Christian Defense League Liga Apărării Național-Creștine (LANC) A far right proto-fascist party, merged into National Christian Party; active 1920-1935
National Christian Party Partidul Național-Creștin (PNC) Fascist party, active 1935-1938
National-Corporatist League Liga Național-Corporatistă A fascist party, led by Mihail Manoilescu; active 1932-1938[34]
National Fascist Movement Mișcarea Națională Fascistă (MNF) Active cca. 1923
National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement Mișcarea Națională Culturală și Economică Italo-Română Fascist party, merged into the National Fascist Movement; active 1921-1923[35]
National Liberal Party Partidul Național-Liberal (PNL) Active 1875-1947; the present-day PNL claims to be the successor of this party.
National Liberal Party-Brătianu Partidul Național Liberal-Brătianu (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1931-1935
National Liberal Party-Tătărescu/National Liberal Party-Bejan Partidul Național-Liberal-Tătărescu (PNL) / Partidul Național-Liberal-Bejan (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1944-1948
National Peasants' Party Partidul Național Țărănesc (PNȚ) Merger of the Romanian National Party and the National Peasants' Party; active 1926-1947
National Peasants' Party–Alexandrescu Partidul Național Țărănesc-Anton Alexandrescu (PNȚ) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1945-1948[36]
National Renaissance Front Frontul Renașterii Naționale (FRN) Renamed Party of the Nation (Partidul Națiunii) in 1940, created as the fascist-inspired single official corporatist party by King Carol II; active 1938-1940
National Romanian Fascia Fascia Națională Română Merged into the National Fascist Movement; active c.1920-1923[37]
National Socialist Party Partidul Național-Socialist Fascist party; active 1933[38]
National Union for Work and Reconstruction Uniunea Națională Muncă și Refacere (UNMR) Led by Constantin Argetoianu, partly merged into the Union of Patriots and the Ploughmen's Front; active 1947[31]
Peasant Workers' Bloc Blocul Muncitoresc-Țărănesc (BMȚ) An umbrella group for the banned Communist Party of Romania; active 1925-1933
Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc () Founded 1918, merged with the Romanian National Party into the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Peasants' Party–Lupu Partidul Țărănesc Nicolae L. Lupu (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1927-1934[39]
People's Party Partidul Poporului (PP) Founded under the name People's League (Liga Poporului); active 1918-1929
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933-1953
Progressive Conservative Party Partidul Conservator-Progresist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Alexandru Marghiloman; active in 1918
Radical Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc-Radical (PȚR) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1933-1938[40]
Romanian Front Frontul Român (FR) Far right offshoot of National Peasants' Party; active 1935-c.1944[41]
Romanian National Party Partidul Național Român (PNR) Founded inside Austria-Hungary in 1881, merged with the Peasants' Party to form the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat (PSD or PSDR) Created from the merger of the parties forming the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, merged into the Romanian Communist Party; active 1927-1948
Social Democratic Party of Bukovina Partidul Social Democrat din Bucovina Founded inside Austria-Hungary, briefly joined into the Socialist Party of Romania, before separating again and becoming an autonomous section of the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, which evolved into the Social Democratic Party; active 1896-1920, 1921-1927
Socialist Party (Popovici) Partidul Socialist (PS) An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party, led by Constantin Popovici, merged with the Independent Socialist Party to create the Unitary Socialist Party, only to break from the latter and ultimately join the Union of Patriots; active 1933, 1935-1944
Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat / Socialist Party of Transylvania and Banat Partidul Social Democrat din Transilvania și Banat / Partidul Socialist din Transilvania și Banat Founded inside Austria-Hungary, it emerged from the Hungarian Social Democratic Party, and briefly joined into the Socialist Party of Romania, before separating again and becaming an autonomous section of the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, which evolved into the Social Democratic Party; active 1906-1920, 1921-1927
Socialist Democratic Party Partidul Socialist Democrat (PSD) Created by Ioan Flueraș and George Grigorovici; active 1945-1946[42]
Socialist Party of Romania Partidul Socialist din România (PS) Formed by members of the Social Democratic Party, it absorbed the Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat and the Romanian Social Democratic Party of Bukovina; active 1918-1921
Socialist Peasants' Party Partidul Socialist-Țărăneasc (PSȚ) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1943-1944[43]
Socialist Workers Party / Independent Socialist Party Partidul Socialist al Muncitorilor (PSM) / Partidul Socialist Independent (PSI) An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party, led by Leon Ghelerter, merged with the Socialist Party (Popovici) to create the Unitary Socialist Party; active 1928-1933
Union of Patriots/National Popular Party Uniunea Patrioților / Partidul Național-Popular (PNP) In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1942-1948[44]
Ukrainian Workers' Party of Romania Партія українських працюючих Румунії "Визволення"/Vîzvolenia An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party of Bukovina, it closely collaborated with the Worker-Peasant Bloc; active primarily in northern Bukovina, in 1929-1934.
Unitary Socialist Party Partidul Socialist Unitar (PSU) Merger of the Independent Socialist Party and the Socialist Party (Popovici), merged into the Social Democratic Party; active 1933-1938, 1944[45]
Vlad Țepeș League Liga "Vlad Țepeș" Offshoot of the People's Party, led by Grigore Filipescu; active 1929-1938

Communist-era parties (1947−1989)[edit]

Although distinct parties in the communist era were not politically relevant, the following were the officially recognized political forces:

Romanian Communist Party Partidul Comunist Român (PCR) Known as Romanian Workers' Party (Partidul Muncitoresc Român (PMR)) between 1948 and 1965; disestablished in 1989
Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy Frontul Democrației și Unitații Socialiste (FDUS) An organization created as an outlet of the PCR; active 1968-1989
General Union of Romanian Trade Unions Uniunea Generală a Sindicatelor din România (UGSR) Active 1948-1989
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSZ) Created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1934-1953
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1946-1953[25]
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933-1953

Other parties were allowed to exist, with unclear status, until mid-1948.[46]

Post−1989 parties[edit]

Alliance for Romania Alianța pentru România (APR) Absorbed into National Liberal Party;active June 1997 - August 2001
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party Partidul Național Țărănesc Creștin Democrat (PNȚ-CD) Refounded as the Christian-Democratic People's Party; active 1989-2005
Civic Alliance Party Partidul Alianța Civică (PAC) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1991-1998
Civic Force Forța Civică (FC) Absorbed into Democratic Liberal Party in 2014
Conservative Party Partidul Conservator (PC) Absorbed into Alliance of Liberals and Democrats in 2015
Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party Partidul Democrat Agrar din România (PDAR)  
Democratic Liberal Party Partidul Liberal Democrat (PDL) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 2007–2014
Ecologist Union of Romania Party Partidul Uniunea Ecologistă din România (PUER) Absorbed into Ecologist Party of Romania; active March–August 2012
Free Trade Party Partidul Liber-Schimbist (PL-S) Active 1990-1996
Liberal Party 1993 Partidul Liberal 1993 (PL 1993) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1993-1995
Liberal Reformist Party Partidul Liberal Reformator Absorbed into Alliance of Liberals and Democrats in 2015
National Christian Democratic Alliance Alianța Natională Creștin Democrată (ANCD) Absorbed into Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
National Christian Democratic Party Partidul Național Creștin Democrat (PNCD) Active 1990–2014.
National Initiative Party Partidul Inițiativa Națională (PIN) Absorbed into the National Union for the Progress of Romania in February 2012
National Liberal Party-Câmpeanu Partidul Național-Liberal-Câmpeanu (PN-L-C) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1995-2003
National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention Partidul Național Liberal - Convenţia Democrată (PNL-CD) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; 1991–1993
National Liberal Party Youth Wing Partidul Național-Liberal Aripa Tînără (PNLAT) Merged into the Liberal Party 1993; active 1990-1992
Party of Liberty and Social Unity Partidul Libertății și Unității Sociale (PLUS) Active 1993-1996
Party of Unity of the Romanian Nation Partidul Unității Națiunii Române Absorbed into Conservative Party in 2006
Party of Romanian Life Partidul Vieții Românești (PVR)  
People's Action Acțiunea Populară (AP)  
People's Party Partidul Popular (PP)  
People's Party – Dan Diaconescu Partidul Poporului – Dan Diaconescu (PP-DD) Absorbed into National Union for the Progress of Romania in 2015
Republican Party Partidul Republican (PR) Dissolved in 2008
Romanian National Unity Party Partidul Unității Naționale a Românilor (PUNR)
Romanian Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Român (PSDR) Absorbed into Social Democratic Party in 2001
Social Protection People's Party Partidul Popular și al Protecției Sociale Absorbed into National Union for the Progress of Romania in 2011; active 1994–2011
Socialist Party of Labour Partidul Socialist al Muncii (PSM) One section absorbed into Social Democratic Party in July 2003, another reconstituted as the Socialist Alliance Party
Union for Romanian Reconstruction Uniunea pentru Reconstrucția României (URR) Absorbed into Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party in December 2004
Union of Right-Wing Forces Uniunea Forțelor de Dreapta (UFD) Founded in 1996 as Alternative for Romania Party (Partidul Alternativa României, PAR), changed its name to UFD in 2000, absorbed into National Liberal Party in April 2003
United Left Party Partidul Stângii Unite Absorbed into the Socialist Alliance Party in October 2008
Workers' Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat al Muncitorilor (PSDM) Dissolved in 2013.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Ideological Institutionalization of the Romanian Party System". Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "The Extreme Right in Contemporary Romania" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  3. ^ "Crește încrederea în Președinție și Armata, scade în Biserica și presa - sondaj INSCOP". Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "PSD și PNL se întrec în demonstrații de reformă internă, să-i excludă pe membrii corupți". Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Modificare statut PSD: Membrii condamnați în primă instanță pentru corupție, suspendați din partid". Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "PNL a definitivat modificările la Statut, în privința criteriilor de integritate". Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "ARTICLE 40". Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  8. ^ "Partidul Pirat din România schimbă legea partidelor politice la CCR: nu mai e nevoie de minimum 25.000 de membri fondatori". Retrieved 14 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "Camera Deputaților a adoptat trei legi electorale: legea finanțarii partidelor reexaminata, legea partidelor politice și legea alegerilor locale". Retrieved 14 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "PMP şi UNPR fuzionează după negocieri care au durat două săptămâni". Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  11. ^ "Rezultate finale 5 iunie 2016". Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Ornea
  13. ^ Niculae, et al., p. 39
  14. ^ "Mârzescu Law". Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Veiga, p.215
  16. ^ Niculae et al., p.12
  17. ^ "How the Bolshevik-Leninist Group of Romania was Founded" (with introduction), at the Marxists Internet Archive; retrieved 19 July 2007
  18. ^ Gruber, Cap. V
  19. ^ Niculae et al., p.15
  20. ^ Veiga, p.228-230
  21. ^ Niculae et al., p.14
  22. ^ Frunză, p.299; Niculae et al., p.16, 45; Videnie, p.46
  23. ^ "Germanii", on Divers.ro
  24. ^ Frunză, p.282
  25. ^ a b Ștefan
  26. ^ "Evreii", on Divers.ro
  27. ^ Niculae et al., p.9
  28. ^ Mihailov
  29. ^ Tineretul Liberal Gorj; Marian Ștefănescu, Jean Th. Florescu și misiunea sa la Madrid
  30. ^ "Maghiarii", on Divers.ro
  31. ^ a b Otu
  32. ^ Veiga, p.215, 224
  33. ^ Veiga, p.45-49
  34. ^ Veiga, p.214
  35. ^ Veiga, p.163
  36. ^ Frunză, p.118-119, 299; Niculae et al., p.16; Videnie, p.46
  37. ^ Veiga, p.179
  38. ^ Veiga, p.133, 163, 254, 255
  39. ^ Niculae et al., p.14, 15
  40. ^ Niculae et al., p.14-15
  41. ^ Niculae et al., p.15; Veiga, p.215
  42. ^ 110 ani de social-democrație, p. 6, 24
  43. ^ Frunză, p.116, 125, 187
  44. ^ Frunză, p.117; Marin, "II. Viața și opera lui G. Călinescu sub comunism"
  45. ^ 110 ani de social-democrație, p.5, 21; Frunză, p.203-204, 214
  46. ^ Frunză, p.357

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