Politics of Tuscany

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The Politics of Tuscany, Italy takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005.

Prior to the rise of Fascism, most of the deputies elected in Tuscany were part of the liberal establishment (see Historical Right and Liberals), which governed Italy for decades. The eastern and northern provinces of the region were anyway an early stronghold of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). At the 1924 general election, which opened the way to the Fascist authoritarian rule, Tuscany was one of the few regions which did not return an absolute majority to the National Fascist Party (PNF).

After World War II, Tuscany became a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was especially strong in rural areas. The PCI and its successors have governed the region since 1970. The region is now a stronghold of the "centre-left coalition" led by the Democratic Party (PD). The coalition has governed the region since 1995, under President Enrico Rossi since 2010.

Legislative branch[edit]

The Regional Council of Tuscany is composed of 41 members.

Councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. The Florence constituency is further divided into 4 sub-constituencies. Preferential voting is allowed: a maximum of two preferences can be expressed for candidates of the same party list and provided the two chosen candidates are of different gender. In this system parties are grouped in alliances, supporting a candidate for the post of President of Tuscany. The candidate receiving at least 40% of the votes is elected to the post and his/her list (or the coalition) is awarded a majority in the Regional Council. If no candidate gets more than 40% of the votes, a run-off is held fourteen days after, with only the two top candidates from the first round allowed. The winning candidate is assured a majority in the Regional Council.[1]

The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent clause introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.

Executive branch[edit]

Main article: President of Tuscany

The Regional Cabinet (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by 10 members: the President and 9 regional assessors (Assessori, literally "aldermen"), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente), while under-secretaries (Sottosegretari) help the President but have not right of vote when the cabinet meets.[2]

List of Presidents[edit]

The current President of Tuscany is Enrico Rossi, who is serving his first term after winning the 2010 regional election.

Local government[edit]


Tuscany is divided in ten provinces, which are a traditional form of local administration in the region.

Socialist and communist ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in eastern rural provinces, especially Siena and Arezzo, while Christian Democracy used to be strong in the north-western part of the Region.

The city of Florence is now one of major national strongholds of Democratic Party. The Province of Siena is also called the "red province of Italy", because the Italian Communist Party has always governed it with the 60% of the votes since 1945 to its dissolution in 1991.

Province Inhabitants established President Party Election
Arezzo 348,327 1826 Roberto Vasai Democratic Party 2009
Florence 991,862 1848 Andrea Barducci Democratic Party 2009
Grosseto 227,063 1766 Leonardo Marras Democratic Party 2009
Livorno 341,453 1861 Giorgio Kutufà Democratic Party 2009
Lucca 392,182 1849 Stefano Baccelli Democratic Party 2011
Massa 203,642 1859 Osvaldo Angeli Democratic Party 2008
Pisa 414,154 1849 Andrea Pieroni Democratic Party 2009
Pistoia 292,108 1927 Federica Fratoni Democratic Party 2009
Prato 248,174 1992 Lambarto Nazzareno Gestri Democratic Party 2009
Siena 270,333 1849 Simone Bezzini Democratic Party 2009


Tuscany is also divided in 287 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 13 comuni have more than 50,000 inhabitants, of which all but one are ruled by the centre-left.

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Florence 370,702 Dario Nardella Democratic Party 2014
Prato 187,994 Matteo Biffoni Democratic Party 2014
Livorno 161,084 Filippo Nogarin Five Stars Movement 2014
Arezzo 100,140 Giuseppe Fanfani Democratic Party 2011
Pistoia 90,226 Samuele Bertinelli Democratic Party 2012
Pisa 88,332 Marco Filippeschi Democratic Party 2008
Lucca 84,928 Alessandro Tambellini Democratic Party 2012
Grosseto 82,284 Emilio Bonifazi Democratic Party 2011
Massa 71,006 Alessandro Volpi Democratic Party 2013
Carrara 65,612 Angelo Zubbani Italian Socialist Party 2012
Viareggio 64,564 Leonardo Betti Democratic Party 2013
Siena 54,561 Bruno Valentini Democratic Party 2013
Scandicci 50,304 Sandro Fallani Democratic Party 2014

Parties and elections[edit]

Latest regional election[edit]

In the latest regional election, which took place on 31 May 2015, Enrico Rossi of the Democratic Party was re-elected for a second term. Claudio Borghi of Lega Nord came distant second. The Democrats were by far the largest party with 46.3% of the vote.

e • d 
Candidates Regional lists Provincial lists Total
votes % seats Parties votes % swing seats party group
Enrico Rossi 656,920 48.0 1 Democratic Party 614,869 46.3 +4.1 24 25 25
Tuscan People–Reformists 2020 (incl. PSI) 22,760 1.7 new -
Claudio Borghi 273,795 20.0 2 Lega Nord Toscana 214,430 16.2 +9.7 4 6 7
Brothers of Italy 51,152 3.9 new 1 1
Giacomo Giannarelli 205,818 15.0 1 Five Star Movement 200,771 15.1 new 4 5 5
Stefano Mugnai 124,432 9.1 1 Forza Italia 112,658 8.5 -18.6 1 2 2
Tuscan LeagueMore Tuscany 7,996 0.6 new -
Tommaso Fattori 85,870 6.3 1 Left Ecology Freedom 83,187 6.3 +2.5 1 2 2
Giovanni Lamioni 17,146 1.3 - Independent 15,837 1.2 new - -
Gabriele Chiurli 3,621 0.3 - Independent 3,319 0.3 new - -
Total candidates 1,367,602 100.0 5+1 Total parties 1,326,979 100.0 = 35 40+1 40+1


External links[edit]