Politics of Tuscany
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politics and government of
The Politics of Tuscany, Italy takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005.
Prior to the rise of Fascism, most of the deputies elected in Tuscany were part of the liberal establishment (see Historical Right and Liberals), which governed Italy for decades. The eastern and northern provinces of the region were anyway an early stronghold of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). At the 1924 general election, which opened the way to the Fascist authoritarian rule, Tuscany was one of the few regions which did not return an absolute majority to the National Fascist Party (PNF).
After World War II, Tuscany became a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was especially strong in rural areas. The PCI and its successors have governed the region since 1970. The region is now a stronghold of the "centre-left coalition" led by the Democratic Party (PD). The coalition has governed the region since 1995, under President Enrico Rossi since 2010.
The Regional Council of Tuscany is composed of 41 members.
Councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. The Florence constituency is further divided into 4 sub-constituencies. Preferential voting is allowed: a maximum of two preferences can be expressed for candidates of the same party list and provided the two chosen candidates are of different gender. In this system parties are grouped in alliances, supporting a candidate for the post of President of Tuscany. The candidate receiving at least 40% of the votes is elected to the post and his/her list (or the coalition) is awarded a majority in the Regional Council. If no candidate gets more than 40% of the votes, a run-off is held fourteen days after, with only the two top candidates from the first round allowed. The winning candidate is assured a majority in the Regional Council.
The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent clause introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.
The Regional Cabinet (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by 10 members: the President and 9 regional assessors (Assessori, literally "aldermen"), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente), while under-secretaries (Sottosegretari) help the President but have not right of vote when the cabinet meets.
List of Presidents
|This section is outdated. (June 2014)|
Socialist and communist ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in eastern rural provinces, especially Siena and Arezzo, while Christian Democracy used to be strong in the north-western part of the Region.
The city of Florence is now one of major national strongholds of Democratic Party. The Province of Siena is also called the "red province of Italy", because the Italian Communist Party has always governed it with the 60% of the votes since 1945 to its dissolution in 1991.
|Arezzo||348,327||1826||Roberto Vasai||Democratic Party||2009|
|Florence||991,862||1848||Andrea Barducci||Democratic Party||2009|
|Grosseto||227,063||1766||Leonardo Marras||Democratic Party||2009|
|Livorno||341,453||1861||Giorgio Kutufà||Democratic Party||2009|
|Lucca||392,182||1849||Stefano Baccelli||Democratic Party||2011|
|Massa||203,642||1859||Osvaldo Angeli||Democratic Party||2008|
|Pisa||414,154||1849||Andrea Pieroni||Democratic Party||2009|
|Pistoia||292,108||1927||Federica Fratoni||Democratic Party||2009|
|Prato||248,174||1992||Lambarto Nazzareno Gestri||Democratic Party||2009|
|Siena||270,333||1849||Simone Bezzini||Democratic Party||2009|
Tuscany is also divided in 287 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 13 comuni have more than 50,000 inhabitants, of which all but one are ruled by the centre-left.
|Florence||370,702||Dario Nardella||Democratic Party||2014|
|Prato||187,994||Matteo Biffoni||Democratic Party||2014|
|Livorno||161,084||Filippo Nogarin||Five Stars Movement||2014|
|Arezzo||100,140||Giuseppe Fanfani||Democratic Party||2011|
|Pistoia||90,226||Samuele Bertinelli||Democratic Party||2012|
|Pisa||88,332||Marco Filippeschi||Democratic Party||2008|
|Lucca||84,928||Alessandro Tambellini||Democratic Party||2012|
|Grosseto||82,284||Emilio Bonifazi||Democratic Party||2011|
|Massa||71,006||Alessandro Volpi||Democratic Party||2013|
|Carrara||65,612||Angelo Zubbani||Italian Socialist Party||2012|
|Viareggio||64,564||Leonardo Betti||Democratic Party||2013|
|Siena||54,561||Bruno Valentini||Democratic Party||2013|
|Scandicci||50,304||Sandro Fallani||Democratic Party||2014|
Parties and elections
Latest regional election
In the latest regional election, which took place on 31 May 2015, Enrico Rossi of the Democratic Party was re-elected for a second term. Claudio Borghi of Lega Nord came distant second. The Democrats were by far the largest party with 46.3% of the vote.
|Candidates||Regional lists||Provincial lists||Total|
|Enrico Rossi||656,920||48.0||1||Democratic Party||614,869||46.3||+4.1||24||25||25|
|Tuscan People–Reformists 2020 (incl. PSI)||22,760||1.7||new||-|
|Claudio Borghi||273,795||20.0||2||Lega Nord Toscana||214,430||16.2||+9.7||4||6||7|
|Brothers of Italy||51,152||3.9||new||1||1|
|Giacomo Giannarelli||205,818||15.0||1||Five Star Movement||200,771||15.1||new||4||5||5|
|Stefano Mugnai||124,432||9.1||1||Forza Italia||112,658||8.5||-18.6||1||2||2|
|Tuscan League–More Tuscany||7,996||0.6||new||-|
|Tommaso Fattori||85,870||6.3||1||Left Ecology Freedom||83,187||6.3||+2.5||1||2||2|
|Total candidates||1,367,602||100.0||5+1||Total parties||1,326,979||100.0||=||35||40+1||40+1|