List of political term limits

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This is a list of term limits for heads of state, heads of government and other notable public office holders by country.

Africa[edit]

Country Head of state/government Other
Title Maximum number of terms Office Maximum number of terms
 Algeria President Two 5-year terms, since 2016 Constitutional Reform.
 Angola President Two 5-year terms, since 2010 Constitutional Reform.
 Benin President Two 5-year terms, since 1990 Constitution.
 Botswana President Two 5-year terms, since 1966 Constitution.
 Burkina Faso President Two 5-year terms, since 2002 Constitutional Reform.
 Burundi President Two 5-year terms, since 2005 Constitutional Reform.
 Chad President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2005 Constitutional Reform.
 Cameroon President Unlimited 7-year terms, from 2008 Constitutional Reform.
 Cape Verde President Two 5-year terms, third term only after 5 years. Prime Minister No term limits
 Central African Republic President Two 5-year terms, since 2015 Constitutional Reform.
 Comoros President Unlimited 5-year non-consecutive terms, since 2009 Constitutional Reform.
 Côte d’Ivoire President Two 5-year terms, since 2000 Constitutional Referendum.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo President Two 5-year terms, since 2005 Constitutional Referendum.
 Republic of the Congo President Three 5-year terms, since 2015 Constitutional Referendum.
 Djibouti President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2010 Constitutional Reform.
 Egypt President Two 4-year terms, since 2011 Constitutional Referendum.
 Equatorial Guinea President Two 7-year terms, starting from 2011 Constitutional Reform.
 Ethiopia President Two 6-year terms, since 1987 Constitutional Reform Prime Minister No term limits
 Eritrea President Two 5-Year terms, since 1993 Constitutional Reform.
 Gabon President Unlimited 7-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Reform.
 Ghana President Two 4-year terms, since 1992 Constitutional Referendum.
 Gambia President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 1996 Constitutional Reform.
 Guinea President Two 5-year terms, since 1996 Constitutional Reform.
 Guinea-Bissau President Two 5-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Reform. Prime Minister No term limits
 Kenya President Two 5-year terms, since 2010 Constitution
 Liberia President Two 6-year terms, since 1986 Constitutional Referendum.
 Lesotho King No set terms (Hereditary succession). Prime Minister Unlimited 5-year terms, since 1998 Constititional Reform.
 Libya Presidential Council No set terms (Transitional)
 Madagascar President Two 5-year terms, since 1992 Constitutional Referendum.
 Malawi President Two 5-year terms, since 1995 Constitutional Referendum.
 Mali President Two 5-year terms, since 1992 Constitutional Referendum.
 Mauritania President Two 5-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Referendum
 Mauritius President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Reform. Prime Minister No term limits
 Morocco King No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2011 Constitutional Reforms.
 Mozambique President Two 5-year terms, since 2004 Constitutional Reforms.
 Namibia President Two 5-year terms, since 1999 Constitutional Reforms.
 Niger President Two 5-year terms, since 2010 Constitutional Referendum.
 Nigeria President Two 4-year terms, since 1999 Constitutional Reforms.
 Rwanda President Two 5-year terms, since 2015 Constitutional Reform (from 2024).
 São Tomé and Príncipe President Two 5-year terms, since 2003 Constitution Reforms. Prime Minister No term limits
 Senegal President Two 5-year terms, since 2016 Constitutional Reform.
 Seychelles President Two 5-year terms, since 2016 Constitutional Reforms.
 Sierra Leone President Two 5-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Referendum.
 Somalia President Two 5-year terms, since 1991 Constitutional Referendum.
 South Africa President Two 5-year terms, since 1996 Constitutional Referendum.
 South Sudan President Two 5-year terms, proposed.
 Sudan President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2015 Constitutional Reform.
 Swaziland King No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2005 Constititional Reform.
 Tanzania President Two 5-year terms, since 1977 Constitutional Reform.
 Togo President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2002 Constitutional Reform.
 Tunisia President Two 5-year terms, since 2014 Constitutional Referendum.
 Uganda President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2005 Constitutional Reform.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic President No set terms (In exile)
 Zambia President Two 5-year terms, since 2006 Constitutional Reform.
 Zimbabwe President Two 5-year terms, since 2013 Constitutional Referendum.

Americas[edit]

Country Head of state/government Other
Title Maximum number of terms Office Maximum number of terms
 Argentina President Two consecutive 4-year terms. Every former President, if they have already served two consecutive terms in a row, has to wait one complete 4-year term, until they can be re-elected into two consecutive 4-year terms as President of Argentina again. Vice President Two consecutive 4-year terms. Every former Vice President, if they have already served two consecutive terms in a row, has to wait one complete 4-year term, until they can be re-elected into two consecutive 4-year terms as Vice President of Argentina again.
Senators Unlimited 6-year terms.
Deputies Unlimited 4-year terms.
 Bolivia President Two 5-year terms Vice President Two 5-year terms
 Brazil President Two consecutive 4-year terms. Every former President, if they have already served two consecutive terms in a row, has to wait one complete 4-year term, until they can be re-elected into two consecutive 4-year terms as President of Brazil again. Vice President Two consecutive 4-year terms. Every former Vice President, if they have already served two consecutive terms in a row, has to wait one complete 4-year term, until they can be re-elected into two consecutive 4-year terms as Vice President of Brazil again.
 Canada Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, but the Prime Minister must maintain the support of the House of Commons which has a maximum term of 4 years.
Premier No directly set terms, but Premiers must maintain the support of their respective provincial or territorial legislative assemblies which have a maximum term of 4 years.
 Chile President Unlimited non-consecutive 4-year terms
 Colombia President One 4-year term Vice President One 4-year term
 Costa Rica President Unlimited non-consecutive 4-year terms
 Cuba President Two 5-year terms
 Dominican Republic President Two 4-year terms Vice President Two 4-year terms
 Ecuador President Two 4-year terms Vice President Two 4-year terms
 El Salvador President One 5-year term Vice President One 5-year term
 Guatemala President One 4-year term Vice President Unlimited non-consecutive 4-year terms
 Guyana President Two 5-year terms
 Haiti President Two non-consecutive 5-year terms
 Honduras President One 4-year term Vice President One 4-year term
 Mexico President One 6-year term (sexenio)
 Nicaragua President Unlimited 5-year terms[1] Vice President Unlimited 5-year terms
 Panama President Two non-consecutive 5-year terms Vice President Two non-consecutive 5-year terms
 Paraguay President One 5-year term Vice President One 5-year term
 Peru President Unlimited non-consecutive 5-year terms
 Trinidad and Tobago President Two 5-year terms
 United States President Two 4-year terms (except after succeeding to the Presidency and serving for more than two years, in which case only one subsequent four-year term is permitted). Eligibility of former term limited presidents is unclear (see article on Twenty-Second Amendment). Vice President Unlimited 4-year terms
Senators Unlimited 6-year terms
Representatives Unlimited 2-year terms
 Uruguay President Unlimited non-consecutive 5-year terms Vice President Unlimited non-consecutive 5-year terms
 Venezuela President Unlimited 6-year terms National Assembly Unlimited 5-year terms

Asia[edit]

Country Head of state/government Other
Title Maximum number of terms Office Maximum number of terms
 Afghanistan President Two 5-year terms Chief Executive 5 years Ad hoc
 Bangladesh President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 Cambodia King No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No term limits
 Vietnam President Three 5-year terms Prime Minister Two 5-year terms
 China President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2018 Constitutional Reform. Vice President Unlimited 5-year terms, since 2018 Constitutional Reform.
Premier Two consecutive 5-year terms (Two consecutive terms of National People's Congress session)
 Hong Kong Chief Executive Two consecutive 5-year terms Members of the Legislative Council Unlimited 4-year terms
 India President Unlimited 5-year terms Prime Minister No direct term limits, however they must maintain the support of the Indian Parliament which has a term of five years
 Indonesia President Two 5-year terms Vice President Two 5-year terms
 Iran President Two consecutive and one non-consecutive 4-year terms
 Iraq President Two 4-year terms Prime Minister Unlimited 4-year terms
 Israel President One 7-year term Prime Minister Between 1948 and 1996, and since 2001: No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Knesset which has an undefined term not exceeding four years.
Between 1996 and 2001 (when the Prime Minister was directly elected): Unlimited undefined terms. Should these terms exceed seven years, the Prime Minister will not be eligible for immediate re-election.
 Japan Prime Minister 4-years term with no limit restrictions on number of terms served
Member of the House of Councillors Unlimited 6-year terms
Member of the House of Representatives Unlimited maximum 4-year terms
 Kazakhstan President Two consecutive 5-year terms (Exception for first President)
 Kyrgyzstan President One 6-year term
 Laos President Two 5-year terms
 Lebanon President Unlimited non-consecutive 6-year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 Macau Chief Executive Two consecutive 5-year terms Legislative Assembly Unlimited 4-year terms
 Malaysia Monarch Unlimited 5-Year Terms, but because the 9 Sultans of the Malayan states rotate each time between themselves, the unlimited 5-Year Terms are de facto unlimited non-consecutive 5-year terms. Prime Minister No term limits

Pakatan Harapan, the current ruling party of Malaysia, had promised to implement a two-term limit for the post of prime minister, in attempt to curb corruption

 Maldives President Two 5-year terms (starting 1998)
 Mongolia President Two 4-year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 North Korea Chairman of the State Affairs Commission Unlimited 5-Year Terms Premier Unlimited 5-Year Terms
 Pakistan President Unlimited 5-year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 Philippines President One 6-year term Vice President Two 6-year terms
Senators Three consecutive 6-year terms
Representatives of the House Three consecutive 3-year terms
All other local government officials Three consecutive 3-year terms
 South Korea President One 5-year term Prime Minister No term limits
 Singapore President Unlimited 6 year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 Sri Lanka President Two 5-year terms since 2015 Prime Minister No term limits
 Syria President Two 7-year terms
 Taiwan President Two consecutive 4-year terms since 1994[2][3] Vice President Same as the president
Members of the Legislative Yuan Unlimited 4-year terms since 2008[4]
County, city and township councilors, and village chiefs Unlimited 4-year terms[5]
County magistrates, and city and township mayors Two consecutive 4-year terms[6]
 Tajikistan President Two 7-year terms[7]
 Thailand Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No term limits
 Timor-Leste President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No term limits
 Uzbekistan President Two 5-year terms

Europe[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government (if effectively supreme to a separate head of state) and other offices
Title Maximum number of terms Title Maximum number of terms
 Albania President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Albanian Parliament which has a term of four years
Constitutional Court judges and High Court judges One 9-year term
Members of the High Council of Justice Unlimited nonconsecutive 5-year terms
Prosecutor General, Ombudsperson Unlimited 5-year terms
Governor of Central Bank and Head of the High State Audit Unlimited 7-year terms
 Armenia President One 7-year term
 Austria President Two 6-year terms. When the current President loses their re-election, they can never again be elected to the Office of Federal President of Austria. Chancellor No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Council which has a term of five years
 Azerbaijan President Unlimited 7-year terms
 Belarus President Unlimited 5-year terms
 Belgium Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Chamber of Representatives which has a term of five years
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency members Two consecutive 4-year terms
 Bulgaria President Two consecutive 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Assembly which has a term of four years
 Croatia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Sabor which has a term of four years
 Cyprus President Unlimited 5-year terms
 Czech Republic President Two consecutive 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Chamber of Deputies which has a term of four years
 Denmark Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Folketing which has a term of four years
 Estonia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Riigikogu which has a term of four years
 European Union President of the European Council Two 2.5 year terms President of the European Commission No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the European Parliament which has a term of five years (and also the European Council)
 Finland President Two consecutive 6-year terms.[8] Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Finnish Parliament which has a term of four years
 France President Two consecutive 5-year terms Prime minister No directly defined terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Assembly which has a term of five years
 Georgia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister of Georgia Unlimited 5-year terms
 Germany President Two 5-year terms Chancellor No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Bundestag which has a term of four years
 Greece President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Hellenic Parliament which has a term of four years
 Hungary President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Assembly which has a term of four years
 Iceland President Unlimited 4-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Althing which has a term of four years
 Ireland President Two 7-year terms Taoiseach (equivalent of Prime Minister) No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Dáil which has a term of five years
 Italy President Unlimited 7-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Chamber of Deputies which has a term of five years
 Kosovo President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Assembly which has a term of four years
Constitutional Court judges One 9-year term
Ombudsperson One 5-year term
Auditor General Two 5-year terms
 Latvia President Two 4-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Saeima which has a term of four years
 Lithuania President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Seimas which has a term of four years
 Luxemburg Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Chamber of Deputies which has a term of five years
 Macedonia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Assembly of Macedonia which has a term of four years
 Malta President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Maltese Parliament which has a term of five years
 Moldova President Two consecutive 4-year terms.[9] Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Moldovan Parliament which has a term of four years
 Montenegro President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Montenegrin Parliament which has a term of four years
 Netherlands Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister unlimited terms of 4 years, however they must maintain the support of the House of Representatives which has a term of 4 years
 Norway Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Storting which has a term of four years
 Poland President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Sejm which has a term of four years
 Portugal President Two consecutive 5-year terms. A former President of Portugal, however, if they have already served two consecutive terms, can also be re-elected to another unlimited non-consecutive 5-year term, after a minimum of five years out of office since the end of their last term in office. Prime Minister
Presidents of local authorities (concelho and freguesia)
No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Assembly of the Republic which has a term of less than four years
Three consecutive 4-year terms
 Romania President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Chamber of Deputies, as well as the support of the Senate, both of which have a term of less than four years
 Russia(Asia+Europe) President Two consecutive 6-year terms.[10][11][12][13] Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the State Duma which has a term of five years
 San Marino Captain-Regent Unlimited non-consecutive 6-month terms, but an outgoing Captain Regent of San Marino must wait for a minimum of three years, until they can be elected again into this office.
 Serbia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Assembly which has a term of four years
 Slovakia President Two consecutive 5-year terms.[14] Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Council which has a term of four years
 Slovenia President Two 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the National Assembly which has a term of four years
 Spain Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Congress of Deputies which has a term of four years
 Sweden Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Riksdag which has a term of four years
  Switzerland President of the Confederation Unlimited non-consecutive 1-year terms Federal Council Unlimited 4-year terms
 Turkey President Two 5-year terms[15] Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Grand National Assembly which has a term of five years
 United Kingdom Monarch No set terms (Hereditary succession) Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the House of Commons which has a term of five years
 Ukraine President Two consecutive 5-year terms Prime Minister No directly set terms, however they must maintain the support of the Verkhovna Rada which has a term of five years

Oceania[edit]

Country Head of state Other
Title Maximum number of terms Office Maximum number of terms
 Australia Governor-General No term limits, but traditionally serve for one 5-year term. Prime Minister No term limits, 3-year terms
 Federated States of Micronesia President Two 4-year terms Vice President Two 4-year terms
 Fiji President Two 5-year terms Vice President Two 5-year terms
 Kiribati President Three 4-year terms Vice President Three 4-year terms
 Marshall Islands President Two 4-year terms
 New Zealand Governor-General No term limits, but traditionally serve for one 5-year term. Prime Minister No directly set terms, however, must maintain the confidence of the House of Representatives which has 3 year terms.
 Nauru President Two 3-year terms
 Palau President Two 4-year terms Vice President Two 4-year terms
 Samoa Chief of State Two 5-year terms since 2007. Before 2007, the Chief of State of Samoa was elected for life.
 Solomon Islands Governor-General Two 5-year terms
 Vanuatu President One 5-year term

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nicaragua backs unlimited presidential terms". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  2. ^ Section 6 of Article 2 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China
  3. ^ Two consecutive six-year terms from 1947 to 1994 under Article 47 of the Constitution of the Republic of China, but unlimited six-year terms from 1960 to 1991 as superseded by the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion.
  4. ^ Article 4 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China
  5. ^ Articles 33 and 59 of the Local Government Act
  6. ^ Articles 55, 56, and 57 of the Local Government Act
  7. ^ France-Presse, Agence (2016-01-22). "Tajikistan parliament paves way for president to rule for life". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-09-07. 
  8. ^ Constitution of Finland, Chapter 5, Section 54: "The same person may be elected President for no more than two consecutive terms of office".
  9. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, Article 80.4: "No person may discharge the duties of the President of the Republic of Moldova unless for two consecutive mandates at the most".
  10. ^ Constitution of the Russian Federation, Chapter 4, Article 81.3: "One and the same person may not be elected President of the Russian Federation for more than two terms running"
  11. ^ The Definition of The Russian Federation Supreme Court, issued on 25th of September 2001 (Case N 74-Г01-34): "Thus, the prohibition to be elected President of RSFSR for more than two terms was set by article 121.2 of the RSFSR Constitution (1978, with amendment from 24th may 1991), and the same prohibition is set by article 81 of current Constitution of the Russian Federation for the President of the Russian Federation”. The original excerpt from the Definition: "Так, запрет на избрание одного и того же лица Президентом РСФСР более двух раз был установлен ст. 121.2 Конституции РСФСР 1978 г. (в редакции от 24 мая 1991 г.), а Президента РФ - ст. 81 ныне действующей Конституции РФ". Note: RSFSR stands for "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic".
  12. ^ The Definition N 134-O of The Russian Federation Constitutional Court, issued on 5th November 1998: "Two consecutive terms <…> constitute the constitutional threshold violation of which the Constitution of the Russian Federation <…> does not allow". The original excerpt from the Definition: "Два срока полномочий подряд <…> составляют конституционный предел, превышения которого Конституция Российской Федерации <…> не допускает".
  13. ^ The Head of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court V.D. Zorkin issued in 2010 the Commentary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation, where he wrote: "Establishing the two terms limitation of presidential power means the real limitation of this power <…> the two terms limitation for the President of the Russian Federation, periodical (once in six years) State Duma (Parliament Chamber) election, and the legal norm of article 81.3 of Constitution serve as a guaranty for political development of Russia". The original excerpt from the Commentary: "Утверждение принципа ограниченности во времени президентской власти двумя конституционными сроками означает и реальные ограничения этой власти. <…> ограничение занятия должности Президента двумя сроками, периодические выборы (раз в шесть лет) Государственной Думы - палаты парламента Российской Федерации, норма ч. 3 ст. 81 Конституции служит гарантией политического развития России".
  14. ^ Constitution of the Slovak Republic, Article 103.2: "The same person may be elected President for not more than two consecutive terms".
  15. ^ "Turks back direct president poll". BBC NEWS. October 21, 2007. 

Sources[edit]