List of polygons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A pentagon is a five sided polygon. A regular pentagon has 5 equal edges and 5 equal angles.

In geometry, a polygon /ˈpɒlɪɡɒn/ is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed chain. These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners.

The word polygon comes from Late Latin polygōnum (a noun), from Greek πολύγωνον (polygōnon/polugōnon), noun use of neuter of πολύγωνος (polygōnos/polugōnos, the masculine adjective), meaning "many-angled". Individual polygons are named (and sometimes classified) according to the number of sides, combining a Greek-derived numerical prefix with the suffix -gon, e.g. pentagon, dodecagon. The triangle, quadrilateral and nonagon are exceptions, although the regular forms trigon, tetragon, and enneagon are sometimes encountered as well.

Greek numbers[edit]

Polygons are primarily named by prefixes from Greek numbers.

English-Greek numbers[1][2]
English cardinal number English ordinal number Greek cardinal number Greek ordinal number
one first hena protos
two second duo deuteros
three third tria tritos
four fourth tessera tetartos
five fifth pente pemptos
six sixth hexi hektos
seven seventh hepta hebdomos
eight eighth okto ogdoös
nine ninth ennea enatos
ten tenth deka dekatos
eleven eleventh hendeka hendekatos
twelve twelfth dodeka dodekatos
thirteen thirteenth dekatria dekatos tritos
fourteen fourteenth dekatessera dekatos tetartos
fifteen fifteenth dekapente dekatos pemptos
sixteen sixteenth dekahexi dekatos hektos
seventeen seventeenth dekahepta dekatos hebdomos
eighteen eighteenth dekaokto dekatos ogdoös
nineteen nineteenth dekaennea dekatos enatos
twenty twentieth eikosi eikostos
twenty-one twenty-first eikosi hena eikostos protos
twenty-two twenty-second eikosi duo eikostos deuteros
twenty-three twenty-third eikosi tria eikostos tritos
twenty-four twenty-fourth eikosi tessera eikostos tetartos
twenty-five twenty-fifth eikosi pente eikostos pemptos
twenty-six twenty-sixth eikosi hexi eikostos hektos
twenty-seven twenty-seventh eikosi hepta eikostos hebdomos
twenty-eight twenty-eighth eikosi okto eikostos ogdoös
twenty-nine twenty-ninth eikosi ennea eikostos enatos
thirty thirtieth trianta triakostos
thirty-one thirty-first trianta triakostos protos
forty fortieth saranta tessarakostos
fifty fiftieth penenta pentekostos
sixty sixtieth hexenta hexekostos
seventy seventieth hebdomenta hebdomekostos
eighty eightieth ogdonta ogdoëkostos
ninety ninetieth enenenta enenekostos
hundred hundredth hekato hekatostos
one hundred ten one hundred tenth hekaton deka hekatostos dekatos
one hundred twenty one hundred twentieth hekaton eikosi hekatostos eikostos
two hundred two hundredth diakosia diakosiostos
three hundred three hundredth triakosia triakosiostos
four hundred four hundredth tetrakosia tetrakosiostos
five hundred five hundredth pentakosia pentakosiostos
six hundred six hundredth hexakosia hexakosiostos
seven hundred seven hundredth heptakosia heptakosiostos
eight hundred eight hundredth oktakosia oktakosiostos
nine hundred nine hundredth enneakosia enneakosiostos
thousand thousandth chilia chiliostos
two thousand two thousandth duo chiliades dischiliostos
three thousand three thousandth tria chiliades trischiliostos
four thousand four thousandth tessera chiliades tetrakischiliostos
five thousand five thousandth pente chiliades pentakischiliostos
six thousand six thousandth hexi chiliades hexakischiliostos
seven thousand seven thousandth hepta chiliades heptakischiliostos
eight thousand eight thousandth okto chiliades oktakischiliostos
nine thousand nine thousandth ennea chiliades enneakischiliostos
ten thousand ten thousandth deka chiliades dekakischiliostos
twenty thousand twenty thousandth eikosi chiliades eikosakischiliostos
thirty thousand thirty thousandth trianta chiliades triakontakischiliostos
forty thousand forty thousandth saranta chiliades tessarakontakischiliostos
fifty thousand fifty thousandth penenta chiliades pentekontakischiliostos
sixty thousand sixty thousandth hexenta chiliades hexekontakischiliostos
seventy thousand seventy thousandth hebdomenta chiliades hebdomekontakischiliostos
eighty thousand eighty thousandth ogdonta chiliades ogdoëkontakischiliostos
ninety thousand ninety thousandth enenenta chiliades enenekontakischiliostos
one hundred thousand one hundred thousandth hekato chiliades hekatontakischiliostos
two hundred thousand two hundred thousandth diakosia chiliades diakosiakischiliostos
three hundred thousand three hundred thousandth triakosia chiliades triakosiakischiliostos
one million one millionth hekatommyrio hekatommyriostos

Systematic polygon names[edit]

To construct the name of a polygon with more than 20 and fewer than 100 edges, combine the prefixes as follows. The "kai" connector is not included by some authors.

Tens and Ones final suffix
-kai- 1 -hena- -gon
20 icosi- (icosa- when alone) 2 -di-
30 triaconta- 3 -tri-
40 tetraconta- 4 -tetra-
50 pentaconta- 5 -penta-
60 hexaconta- 6 -hexa-
70 heptaconta- 7 -hepta-
80 octaconta- 8 -octa-
90 enneaconta- 9 -ennea-

Extending the system up to 999 is expressed with these prefixes.[3]

Polygon names
Ones Tens Twenties Thirties+ Hundreds
10 deca- 20 icosa- 30 triaconta- 100 hecta-
1 hena- 11 hendeca- 21 icosi-hena- 31 triaconta-hena- 200 dihecta-
2 di- 12 dodeca- 22 icosi-di- 32 triaconta-di- 300 trihecta-
3 tri- 13 triskaideca- 23 icosi-tri- 33 triaconta-tri- 400 tetrahecta-
4 tetra- 14 tetrakaideca- 24 icosi-tetra- 40 tetraconta- 500 pentahecta-
5 penta- 15 pentakaideca- 25 icosi-penta- 50 pentaconta- 600 hexahecta-
6 hexa- 16 hexakaideca- 26 icosi-hexa- 60 hexaconta- 700 heptahecta-
7 hepta- 17 heptakaideca- 27 icosi-hepta- 70 heptaconta- 800 octahecta-
8 octa- 18 octakaideca- 28 icosi-octa- 80 octaconta- 900 enneahecta-
9 ennea- 19 enneakaideca- 29 icosi-ennea- 90 enneaconta-

List of n-gons by Greek numerical prefixes[edit]

List of n-gon names [4]
Sides Names
1 henagon monogon
2 digon bigon
3 trigon triangle
4 tetragon quadrilateral
5 pentagon
6 hexagon
7 heptagon
8 octagon
9 enneagon nonagon
10 decagon
11 hendecagon undecagon
12 dodecagon
13 tridecagon
14 tetradecagon
15 pentadecagon
16 hexadecagon
17 heptadecagon
18 octadecagon
19 enneadecagon
20 icosagon
21 icosikaihenagon icosihenagon icosahenagon
22 icosikaidigon icosidigon icosadigon
23 icosikaitrigon icositrigon icosatrigon
24 icosikaitetragon icositetragon icosatetragon
25 icosikaipentagon icosipentagon icosapentagon
26 icosikaihexagon icosihexagon icosahexagon
27 icosikaiheptagon icosiheptagon icosaheptagon
28 icosikaioctagon icosioctagon icosaoctagon
29 icosikaienneagon icosienneagon icosaenneagon
30 triacontagon
31 triacontakaihenagon triacontahenagon tricontahenagon
32 triacontakaidigon triacontadigon tricontadigon
33 triacontakaitrigon triacontatrigon tricontatrigon
34 triacontakaitetragon triacontatetragon tricontatetragon
35 triacontakaipentagon triacontapentagon tricontapentagon
36 triacontakaihexagon triacontahexagon tricontahexagon
37 triacontakaiheptagon triacontaheptagon tricontaheptagon
38 triacontakaioctagon triacontaoctagon tricontaoctagon
39 triacontakaienneagon triacontaenneagon tricontaenneagon
40 tetracontagon tessaracontagon
41 tetracontakaihenagon tetracontahenagon tessaracontahenagon
42 tetracontakaidigon tetracontadigon tessaracontadigon
43 tetracontakaitrigon tetracontatrigon tessaracontatrigon
44 tetracontakaitetragon tetracontatetragon tessaracontatetragon
45 tetracontakaipentagon tetracontapentagon tessaracontapentagon
46 tetracontakaihexagon tetracontahexagon tessaracontahexagon
47 tetracontakaiheptagon tetracontaheptagon tessaracontaheptagon
48 tetracontakaioctagon tetracontaoctagon tessaracontaoctagon
49 tetracontakaienneagon tetracontaenneagon tessaracontaenneagon
50 pentacontagon pentecontagon
51 pentacontakaihenagon pentacontahenagon pentecontahenagon
52 pentacontakaidigon pentacontadigon pentecontadigon
53 pentacontakaitrigon pentacontatrigon pentecontatrigon
54 pentacontakaitetragon pentacontatetragon pentecontatetragon
55 pentacontakaipentagon pentacontapentagon pentecontapentagon
56 pentacontakaihexagon pentacontahexagon pentecontahexagon
57 pentacontakaiheptagon pentacontaheptagon pentecontaheptagon
58 pentacontakaioctagon pentacontaoctagon pentecontaoctagon
59 pentacontakaienneagon pentacontaenneagon pentecontaenneagon
60 hexacontagon hexecontagon
61 hexacontakaihenagon hexacontahenagon hexecontahenagon
62 hexacontakaidigon hexacontadigon hexecontadigon
63 hexacontakaitrigon hexacontatrigon hexecontatrigon
64 hexacontakaitetragon hexacontatetragon hexecontatetragon
65 hexacontakaipentagon hexacontapentagon hexecontapentagon
66 hexacontakaihexagon hexacontahexagon hexecontahexagon
67 hexacontakaiheptagon hexacontaheptagon hexecontaheptagon
68 hexacontakaioctagon hexacontaoctagon hexecontaoctagon
69 hexacontakaienneagon hexacontaenneagon hexecontaenneagon
70 heptacontagon hebdomecontagon
71 heptacontakaihenagon heptacontahenagon hebdomecontahenagon
72 heptacontakaidigon heptacontadigon hebdomecontadigon
73 heptacontakaitrigon heptacontatrigon hebdomecontatrigon
74 heptacontakaitetragon heptacontatetragon hebdomecontatetragon
75 heptacontakaipentagon heptacontapentagon hebdomecontapentagon
76 heptacontakaihexagon heptacontahexagon hebdomecontahexagon
77 heptacontakaiheptagon heptacontaheptagon hebdomecontaheptagon
78 heptacontakaioctagon heptacontaoctagon hebdomecontaoctagon
79 heptacontakaienneagon heptacontaenneagon hebdomecontaenneagon
80 octacontagon ogdoecontagon
81 octacontakaihenagon octacontahenagon ogdoecontahenagon
82 octacontakaidigon octacontadigon ogdoecontadigon
83 octacontakaitrigon octacontatrigon ogdoecontatrigon
84 octacontakaitetragon octacontatetragon ogdoecontatetragon
85 octacontakaipentagon octacontapentagon ogdoecontapentagon
86 octacontakaihexagon octacontahexagon ogdoecontahexagon
87 octacontakaiheptagon octacontaheptagon ogdoecontaheptagon
88 octacontakaioctagon octacontaoctagon ogdoecontaoctagon
89 octacontakaienneagon octacontaenneagon ogdoecontaenneagon
90 enneacontagon enenecontagon
91 enneacontakaihenagon enneacontahenagon enenecontahenagon
92 enneacontakaidigon enneacontadigon enenecontadigon
93 enneacontakaitrigon enneacontatrigon enenecontatrigon
94 enneacontakaitetragon enneacontatetragon enenecontatetragon
95 enneacontakaipentagon enneacontapentagon enenecontapentagon
96 enneacontakaihexagon enneacontahexagon enenecontahexagon
97 enneacontakaiheptagon enneacontaheptagon enenecontaheptagon
98 enneacontakaioctagon enneacontaoctagon enenecontaoctagon
99 enneacontakaienneagon enneacontaenneagon enenecontaenneagon
100 hectogon hecatontagon hecatogon
120 hecatonicosagon dodecacontagon
200 dihectagon diacosiagon
300 trihectagon triacosiagon
400 tetrahectagon tetracosiagon
500 pentahectagon pentacosiagon
600 hexahectagon hexacosigaon
700 heptahectagon heptacosiagon
800 octahectagon octacosiagon
900 enneahectagon enneacosiagon
1000 chiliagon
2000 dischiliagon
3000 trischiliagon
4000 tetrakischiliagon
5000 pentakischiliagon
6000 hexakischiliagon
7000 heptakischiliagon
8000 octakischiliagon
9000 enneakischiliagon
10000 myriagon
20000 dismyriagon
30000 trismyriagon
40000 tetrakismyriagon
50000 pentakismyriagon
60000 hexakismyriagon
70000 heptakismyriagon
80000 octakismyriagon
90000 enneakismyriagon
100000 decakismyriagon
200000 icosakismyriagon
300000 triacontakismyriagon
1000000 hecatontakismyriagon megagon
apeirogon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Greek and Latin words for numbers". AWE. Hull University.
  2. ^ Lozac'h, N. (1983). "Extension of Rules A-1.1 and A-2.5 Concerning Numerical Terms used in Organic Chemical Nomenclature" (PDF). iupac.org. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
  3. ^ "Naming Polygons and Polyhedra". The Math Forum. Drexel University.
  4. ^ "Naming Polygons". The Math Forum. Drexel University.