List of popes

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This article is about the Catholic Church. For popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church, see List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria. For popes of the Legio Maria, see List of Legio Maria Popes. For Palmarian popes, see Palmarian Catholic Church § Popes. For a graphical representation of this list, see List of Popes (graphical).
Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.[1] The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.[2]

The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.[3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. The first 31 popes, with the exception of Zephyrinus, died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

Chronological list[edit]

1st millennium[edit]

1st century[edit]

Popes of the 1st century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
1 1 April 33
– 29 June 67
(34 years, 89 days)
1-St.Peter.jpg St Peter
PETRUS
Šimʻōn Kêpâ
(Simon Peter)
Bethsaida, Galilea, Roman Empire 32 / 66 Apostle of Jesus from whom he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18–19. Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. He is recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4]
2 29 June 67
– 23 September 76
(9 years, 86 days)
2-St.Linus.jpg St Linus
Papa LINUS
Linus Volterra, Italia, Roman Empire 57 / 66 Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
3 23 September 76
– 26 April 88
(11 years, 216 days)
3-St.Cletus.jpg St Anacletus
(Cletus)
Papa ANACLETUS (Cletus)
Anacletus Athens, Greece, Roman Empire 51 / 63 Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus.[5]
4 26 April 88
– 23 November 99
(11 years, 211 days)
4-St.Clement I.jpg St Clement I
Papa CLEMENS
Clemens Rome, Roman Empire 53 / 64 Feast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
5 23 November 99
– 27 October 107
(7 years, 338 days)
5-St.Evaristus.jpg St Evaristus
Papa EVARISTUS
Evaristus Bethlehem, Judea, Roman Empire 49 / 55 Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century[edit]

Popes of the 2nd century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
6 27 October 107
– 3 May 115
(7 years, 188 days)
6-St.Alexander I.jpg St Alexander I
Papa ALEXANDER
Alexander Rome, Roman Empire 30 / 40 Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
7 3 May 115
– 3 April 125
(9 years, 335 days)
7-St.Sixtus I.jpg St Sixtus I
Papa XYSTUS
Xystus Rome, Roman Empire 73 / 83 Feast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8 3 April 125
– 5 January 136
(10 years, 277 days)
8-St.Telesphrous.jpg St Telesphorus
Papa TELESPHORUS
Telesphorus Terranova da Sibari, Italia, Roman Empire 58 / 69 Feast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St. Irenaeus called him a great martyr.
9 5 January 136
– 11 January 140
(4 years, 6 days)
9-St.Hyginus.jpg St Hyginus
Papa HYGINUS
Ygínos Athens, Greece, Roman Empire 58 / 62 Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 11 January.
10 11 January 140
– 11 July 155
(15 years, 181 days)
10-St.Pius I.jpg St Pius I
Papa PIUS
Pius Aquileia, Italia, Roman Empire 59 / 74 Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
11 11 July 155
– 20 April 166
(10 years, 283 days)
11-St.Anicetus.jpg St Anicetus
Papa ANICETUS
Anicitus Emesa, Syria, Roman Empire 63 / 74 Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
12 20 April 166
– 22 April 174
(8 years, 2 days)
12-St.Soter.jpg St Soter
Papa SOTERIUS
Soterius Fondi, Aquileia, Roman Empire 46 / 55 Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
13 22 April 174
– 26 May 189
(15 years, 34 days)
13-St.Eleuterus.jpg St Eleuterus
Papa ELEUTHERIUS
Eleutherius Nicopoli, Epirus, Roman Empire 45 / 59 Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 6 May.
14 26 May 189
– 28 July 199
(10 years, 63 days)
14-St.Victor I.jpg St Victor I
Papa VICTOR
Victor Africa, Roman Empire 34 / 44 Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
15 28 July 199
– 20 December 217
(18 years, 145 days)
15-St.Zephyrinus.jpg St Zephyrinus
Papa ZEPHYRINUS
Zephyrinus Rome, Roman Empire 39 / 57 Combated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus the Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus, the Money Changer and Asclepiodotus.

Although not physically martyred, he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.

3rd century[edit]

Popes of the 3rd century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
16 20 December 217
– 14 October 222
(7 years, 298 days)
16-St.Callixtus I.jpg St Callixtus I
Papa CALLISTUS
Callistus Rome, Roman Empire 62 / 67 Martyred; feast day 14 October.
17 14 October 222
– 23 May 230
(7 years, 221 days)
17-St.Urban I.jpg St Urban I
Papa URBANUS
Urbanus Rome, Roman Empire 47 / 55 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
18 21 August 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years, 38 days)
18-St.Pontian.jpg St Pontian
Papa PONTIANUS
Pontianus Rome, Roman Empire 55 / 60 First to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[6][7]
19 21 November 235
– 3 January 236
(13 days)
19-St.Anterus.jpg St Anterus
Papa ANTERUS
Anterus Petilia, Italia, Roman Empire 55 / 56 Feast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
20 10 January 236
– 20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
20-St.Fabian.jpg St Fabian
Papa FABIANUS
Fabianus Rome, Roman Empire 36 / 50 Divided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
21 6 March 251
– 25 June 253

(2 years, 111 days)
21-St.Cornelius.jpg St Cornelius
Papa CORNELIUS
Cornelius Rome, Roman Empire 71 / 73 Died a martyr through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
22 25 June 253
– 5 March 254

(253 days)
22-St.Lucius I.jpg St Lucius I
Papa LUCIUS
Lucius Rome, Roman Empire 48 / 49 Feast day 5 March.
23 12 March 254
– 2 August 257
(3 years, 143 days)
23-St.Stephen I.jpg St Stephen I
Papa STEPHANUS
Stephanus Rome, Roman Empire 54 / 57 Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
24 30 August 257
– 6 August 258

(341 days)
24-St.Sixtus II.jpg St Sixtus II
Papa XYSTUS Secundus
Sixtus Athens, Greece, Roman Empire 42 / 43 Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
25 22 July 259
– 26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
25-St.Dionysius.jpg St Dionysius
Papa DIONYSIUS
Dionysius Terranova da Sibari, Italia, Roman Empire 59 / 68 Feast day 26 December.
26 5 January 269
– 30 December 274
(5 years, 359 days)
26-St.Felix I.jpg St Felix I
Papa FELIX
Felix Rome, Roman Empire 63 / 68  
27 4 January 275
– 7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
27-St.Eutychian.jpg St Eutychian
Papa EUTYCHIANUS
Eutychianus Luni, Italia, Roman Empire 35 / 43  
28 17 December 283
– 22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
28-St.Caius.jpg St Caius
Papa CAIUS
Gaius Salona, Dalmatia, Roman Empire 38 / 51 Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
29 30 June 296
– 26 April 304
(7 years, 301 days)
29-St.Marcellinus.jpg St Marcellinus
Papa MARCELLINUS
Marcellinus Rome, Roman Empire 46 / 54 Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century[edit]

Popes of the 4th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
30 27 May 308
–16 January 309
(234 days)
30-St.Marcellus I.jpg St Marcellus I
Papa MARCELLUS
Marcellus Italia, Roman Empire 53 / 54 Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
31 18 April 309
– 17 August 309
(121 days)
31-St.Eusebius.jpg St Eusebius
Papa EUSEBIUS
Eusebius Sardinia, Roman Empire 54 / 54 Banished by the emperor Maxentius, and died in exile.
32 2 July 311
– 10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
32-St.Miltiades.jpg St Miltiades
(Melchiades)
Papa MILTIADES
Miltiades
(or Melchiades)
Africa, Roman Empire 41 / 44 First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
33 31 January 314
– 31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
33-St.Sylvester I.jpg St Sylvester I
Papa SILVESTER
Silvester Sant'Angelo a Scala, Apulia et Calabria, Roman Empire 29 / 50 Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea (325). Under him was built: the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Donation of Constantine.
34 18 January 336
– 7 October 336
(263 days)
(290 - 7 October 336)
34-St.Mark.jpg St Mark
Papa MARCUS
Marcus Rome, Roman Empire 46 / 46 One of Mark's undertakings was to compile stories of the lives of martyrs and bishops before his time. There is some reason to believe he founded two churches in the area of Rome. One of them is still known to this day as the Church of San Marco, although it is greatly changed since his time. The other church was at the Catacomb of Balbina, a cemetery. Emperor Constantine gave gifts of land and furnishing for both buildings. Feast day 7 October.
35 6 February 337
– 12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
35-St.Julius I.jpg St Julius I
Papa IULIUS
Iulius Rome, Roman Empire 57 / 72 Arian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
36 17 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
36-Liberius.jpg Liberius
Papa LIBERIUS
Liberius Rome, Roman Empire 42 / 56 Earliest pope not canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[8]
37 1 October 366
– 11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
37-St.Damasus I.jpg St Damasus I
Papa DAMASUS
Damasus Egitania, Lusitania, Roman Empire 60 / 78 Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome (382).
38 17 December 384
– 26 November 399
(14 years, 344 days)
38-St.Siricius.jpg St Siricius
Papa SIRICIUS
Sicirius Rome, Roman Empire 50 / 65 His famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions on baptism, consecration, ordination, penance, and continence. Siricius’ important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject.[9]
39 27 November 399
– 19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
39-St.Anastasius I.jpg St Anastasius I
Papa ANASTASIUS
Anastasius Rome, Roman Empire 59 / 61 Instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.

5th century[edit]

Popes of the 5th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
40 21 December 401
– 12 March 417
(15 years, 81 days)
40-St.Innocent I.jpg St Innocent I
Papa INNOCENTIUS
Innocentius Albano, Latium et Campania, Roman Empire 41 / 57 Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric.
41 18 March 417
– 26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
41-St.Zosimus.jpg St Zosimus
Papa ZOSIMUS
Zosimas Mesoraca, Lucania et Bruttii Roman Empire 47 / 48  
42 28 December 418
– 4 September 422
(3 years, 250 days)
42-St.Boniface I.jpg St Boniface I
Papa BONIFACIUS
Bonifacius Rome, Roman Empire 43 / 47  
43 10 September 422
– 27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
43-St.Celestine I.jpg St Celestine I
Papa COELESTINUS
Coelestinus Campania, Roman Empire 42 / 52 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
44 31 July 432
– 18 August 440
(8 years, 18 days)
44-St.Sixtus III.jpg St Sixtus III
Papa SIXTUS Tertius
Sixtus Rome, Roman Empire 42 / 50  
45 29 September 440
– 10 November 461
(21 years, 42 days)
45-St.Leo I.jpg St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
Papa LEO MAGNUS
Leo Etruria, Roman Empire 50 / 71 Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
46 19 November 461
– 29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
46-St.Hilarius.jpg St Hilarius
Papa HILARIUS
Hilarius Sardinia, Western Roman Empire 46 / 53  
47 3 March 468
– 10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
47-St.Simplicius.jpg St Simplicius
Papa SIMPLICIUS
Simplicius Tivoli, Western Roman Empire 38 / 53  
48 13 March 483
– 1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
48-St.Felix III.jpg St Felix III (Felix II)
Papa FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
Felice Rome, Western Roman Empire 43 / 52 Sometimes called Felix II.
49 1 March 492
– 21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
49-St.Gelasius I.jpg St Gelasius I
Papa GELASIUS
Gelasius Kabylie, Africa, Western Roman Empire 82 / 86 The last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ".[10]
50 24 November 496
– 19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
50-Anastasius II.jpg Anastasius II
Papa ANASTASIUS Secundus
Anastasius Rome, Western Roman Empire 51 / 53 Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
51 22 November 498
– 19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
51-St.Symmachus.jpg St Symmachus
Papa SYMMACHUS
Simmaco Sardinia, Western Roman Empire 38 / 54  

6th century[edit]

Popes of the 6th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
52 20 July 514
– 6 August 523
(9 years, 17 days)
52-St.Hormisdas.jpg St Hormisdas
Papa HORMISDAS
Hormisdas Frosinone, Latium et Campania, Western Roman Empire 39 / 48 Father of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
53 13 August 523
– 18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
53-St.John I.jpg St John I
Papa IOANNES
Giovanni Siena, Etruria, Western Roman Empire 53 / 56  
54 12 July 526
– 22 September 530
(4 years, 72 days)
54-St.Felix IV.jpg St Felix IV
(Felix III)
Papa FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
Felice Samnium, Kingdom of Odoacer 36 / 40 Sometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
55 22 September 530
– 17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
55-Boniface II.jpg Boniface II
Papa BONIFATIUS Secundus
Bonifacio Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 40 / 42 Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
56 2 January 533
– 8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
56-John II.jpg John II
Papa IOANNES Secundus
Mercurio Rome, Western Roman Empire 63 / 65 First pope not to use his personal name. This was because of the Roman god, Mercury.
57 13 May 535
– 22 April 536
(356 days)
57-St.Agapetus I.jpg St Agapetus I
Papa AGAPITUS
Agapito Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 45 / 46 Feast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
58 8 June 536
– 11 March 537
(276 days)
58-St.Silverius.jpg St Silverius
Papa SILVERIUS
Silverius Ceccano, Ostrogothic Kingdom 36 / 37 Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas.
59 29 March 537
– 7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
59-Vigilius.jpg Vigilius
Papa VIGILIUS
Vigilius Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 37 / 55  
60 16 April 556
– 4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
60-Pelagius I.jpg Pelagius I
Papa PELAGIUS
Pelagius Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 51 / 56 Credited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
61 17 July 561
– 13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
61-John III.jpg John III
Papa IOANNES Tertius
Catelinus Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 41 / 54  
62 2 June 575
– 30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
62-Benedict I.jpg Benedict I
Papa BENEDICTUS
Benedictus Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 50 / 54  
63 26 November 579
– 7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
63-Pelagius II.jpg Pelagius II
Papa PELAGIUS Secundus
Pelagius Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 59 / 70 Ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
64 3 September 590
– 12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
64-St.Gregory I.jpg St Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
Papa GREGORIUS MAGNUS
Gregorio
O.S.B.
Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 50 / 64 The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th century[edit]

Popes of the 7th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
65 13 September 604
– 22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
65-Sabinian.jpg Sabinian
Papa SABINIANUS
Sabinianus Blera, Eastern Roman Empire 74 / 76  
66 19 February 607
– 12 November 607
(266 days)
66-Boniface III.jpg Boniface III
Papa BONIFATIUS Tertius
Bonifacio Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 67 / 67  
67 15 September 608
– 8 May 615
(6 years, 235 days)
67-St.Boniface IV.jpg St Boniface IV
Papa BONIFATIUS Quartus
Bonifacio
O.S.B.
Marsica, Eastern Roman Empire 48 / 55 First pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
68 13 November 615
– 8 November 618
(2 years, 360 days)
68-St.Adeodatus I.jpg St Adeodatus I
(Deusdedit)
Papa ADEODATUS sive DEUSDEDIT
Adeodatus
(or Deusdedit)
Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 45 / 48 Sometimes called Deusdedit, as a result Pope Adeodatus II is sometimes called Pope Adeodatus without a number. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called Papal bulls.
69 23 December 619
– 25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
69-Boniface V.jpg Boniface V
Papa BONIFATIUS Quintus
Bonifacio Naples, Eastern Roman Empire 44 / 50  
70 27 October 625
– 12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
70-Honorius I.jpg Honorius I
Papa HONORIUS
Onorio Campania, Eastern Roman Empire 40 / 53 Named a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople. (680)
71 28 May 640
– 2 August 640
(66 days)
71-Severinus.jpg Severinus
Papa SEVERINUS
Severino Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 55  
72 24 December 640
– 12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
72-John IV.jpg John IV
Papa IOANNES Quartus
Giovanni Zadar, Dalmatia, Eastern Roman Empire 40 / 42
73 24 November 642
– 14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
73-Theodore I.jpg Theodore I
Papa THEODORUS
Theodoro Jerusalem, Eastern Roman Empire 32 / 39 The last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
74 5 July 649
– 12 November 655
(6 years, 130 days)
74-St.Martin I.jpg St Martin I
Papa MARTINUS
Martino Near Todi, Umbria, Eastern Roman Empire 59 / 65 Last pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
75 10 August 654
– 2 June 657
(2 years, 296 days)
75-St.Eugene I.jpg St Eugene I
Papa EUGENIUS
Eugenio Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
39 / 42  
76 30 July 657
– 27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
76-St.Vitalian.jpg St Vitalian
Papa VITALIANUS
Vitaliano Segni, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
57 / 72  
77 11 April 672
– 17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
77-Adeodatus II.jpg Adeodatus II
Papa ADEODATUS Secundus
Adeodatus
O.S.B.
Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
51 / 55 Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) in reference to Pope Adeodatus I sometimes being called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
78 2 November 676
– 11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
78-Donus.jpg Donus
Papa DONUS
Dono Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
66 / 68  
79 27 June 678
– 10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
79-St.Agatho.jpg St Agatho
Papa AGATHO
Agatho Palermo, Eastern Roman Empire 101 / 104 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
80 17 August 682
– 3 July 683
(320 days)
80-St.Leo II.jpg St Leo II
Papa LEO Secundus
Leone Aidone, Eastern Roman Empire 71 / 72 Feast day 3 July.
81 26 June 684
– 8 May 685
(316 days)
81-St.Benedict II.jpg St Benedict II
Papa BENEDICTUS Secundus
Benedetto Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
49 / 50 Feast day 7 May.
82 23 July 685
– 2 August 686
(1 year, 10 days)
82-John V.jpg John V
Papa IOANNES Quintus
Giovanni Syria, Eastern Roman Empire 50 / 51  
83 21 October 686
– 21 September 687
(335 days)
83-Conon.jpg Conon
Papa CONON
Conon Thrace, Eastern Roman Empire 56 / 57  
84 15 December 687
– 8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
84-St.Sergius I.jpg St Sergius I
Papa SERGIUS
Sergorio Palermo, Eastern Roman Empire 37 / 51 Introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass.[10]

8th century[edit]

Popes of the 8th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
85 30 October 701
– 11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
85-John VI.jpg John VI
Papa IOANNES Sextus
Giovanni Ephesus, Eastern Roman Empire 46 / 50  
86 1 March 705
– 18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
86-John VII.jpg John VII
Papa IOANNES Septimus
Giovanni Rossano, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 57 The second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
87 15 January 708
– 4 February 708
(20 days)
87-Sisinnius.jpg Sisinnius
Papa SISINNIUS
Sisinius Syria, Rashidun Caliphate 58 / 58  
88 25 March 708
– 9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
88-Constantine.jpg Constantine
Papa COSTANTINUS sive CONSTANTINUS
Constantinus Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 44 / 51 Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
89 19 May 715
– 11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
89-St.Gregory II.jpg St Gregory II
Papa GREGORIUS Secundus
Gregorio Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
46 / 62 Feast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
90 18 March 731
– 28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
90-St.Gregory III.jpg St Gregory III
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius
Gregorio Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 41 / 51 The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Was previously the last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
91 3 December 741
– 22 March 752
(10 years, 110 days)
91-St.Zachary.jpg St Zachary
Papa ZACHARIAS
Zacharias Santa Severina, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire 62 / 73 Feast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
(never con-
secrated)
22 March 752
– 25 March 752
(3 days)
(Never took office as pope)
Cristobal antipapa.jpg Pope-elect Stephen
(Stephen II)
Papa Electus STEPHANUS
(STEPHANUS Secundus)
Stephano Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
52 / 52 Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election; never receiving episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
92 26 March 752
– 26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
92-Stephen II.jpg Stephen II
(Stephen III)
Papa STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
Stephano Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
38 / 43 Sometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul I.
93 29 May 757
– 28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
93-St.Paul I.jpg St Paul I
Papa PAULUS
Paolo Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
57 / 67 Brother of Stephen II.
94 7 August 768
– 24 January 772
(3 years, 170 days)
94-Stephen III.jpg Stephen III
(Stephen IV)
Papa STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
Stefano Syracuse, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
45 / 49 Sometimes called Stephen IV. The Lateran Council (769).
95 1 February 772
– 26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
95-Adrian I.jpg Adrian I
Papa HADRIANUS
Adriano Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
60 / 83  
96 26 December 795
– 12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
96-St.Leo III.jpg St Leo III
Papa LEO Tertius
Leone Rome, Papal States 45 / 66 Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy.

9th century[edit]

Popes of the 9th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
97 22 June 816
– 24 January 817
(216 days)
97-Stephen IV.jpg Stephen IV
(Stephen V)
Papa STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
Stefano Rome, Papal States 46 / 47 Sometimes called Stephen V.
98 25 January 817
– 11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
98-St.Paschal I.jpg St Paschal I
Papa PASCHALIS
Pasquale Rome, Papal States 42 / 49 Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
99 8 May 824
– 27 August 827
(3 years, 111 days)
99-Eugene II.jpg Eugene II
Papa EUGENIUS Secundus
Eugenio Rome, Papal States 44 / 47  
100 31 August 827
– 10 October 827
(40 days)
100-Valentine.jpg Valentine
Papa VALENTINUS
Valentino Rome, Papal States 47 / 47  
101 20 December 827
– 25 January 844
(16 years, 36 days)
101-Gregory IV.jpg Gregory IV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus
Gregorio Rome, Papal States 37 / 54 Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
102 25 January 844
– 27 January 847
(3 years, 2 days)
102-Sergius II.jpg Sergius II
Papa SERGIUS Secundus
Sergorio Rome, Papal States 54 / 57  
103 10 April 847
– 17 July 855
(8 years, 98 days)
103-St.Leo IV.jpg St Leo IV
Papa LEO Quartus
Leo
O.S.B.
Rome, Papal States 57 / 65 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
104 29 September 855
– 7 April 858
(2 years, 190 days)
104-Benedict III.jpg Benedict III
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius
Benedetto Rome, Papal States 45 / 48  
105 24 April 858
– 13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
105-St.Nicholas I.jpg St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
Papa NICOLAUS MAGNUS
Niccolò Rome, Papal States 39 / 48 Encouraged missionary activity.
106 14 December 867
– 14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
106-Adrian II.jpg Adrian II
Papa HADRIANUS Secundus
Adriano Rome, Papal States 75 / 80  
107 14 December 872
– 16 December 882
(10 years, 2 days)
107-John VIII.jpg John VIII
Papa IOANNES Octavus
Giovanni Rome, Papal States 52 / 62  
108 16 December 882
– 15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
108-Marinus I.jpg Marinus I
Papa MARINUS
Marino Gallese, Papal States 52 / 54 Sometimes also known as and called "Martin II."
109 17 May 884
– 15 September 885
(1 year, 121 days)
109-St.Adrian III.jpg St Adrian III
Papa HADRIANUS Tertius
Adriano Rome, Papal States 49 / 50  
110 14 September 885
– 4 September 891
(5 years, 355 days)
110-Stephen V.jpg Stephen V
(Stephen VI)
Papa STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
Stefano Rome, Papal States 45 / 51 Sometimes called Stephen VI.
111 6 October 891
– 4 April 896
(4 years, 181 days)
111-Formosus.jpg Formosus
Papa FORMOSUS
Formoso Ostia, Papal States 75 / 80 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod.
112 11 April 896
– 26 April 896
(15 days)
112-Boniface VI.jpg Boniface VI
Papa BONIFATIUS Sextus
Bonifacio Rome, Papal States 90 / 90  
113 22 May 896
– 14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
113-Stephen VI.jpg Stephen VI
(Stephen VII)
Papa STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
Stefano Rome, Papal States 46 / 47 Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
114 14 August 897
– November 897
(92 days)
114-Romanus.jpg Romanus
Papa ROMANUS
Romano Gallese, Papal States 47 / 47  
115 December 897
- 20 December 897
(20 days)
115-Theodore II.jpg Theodore II
Papa THEODORUS Secundus
Theodoro Rome, Papal States 57 / 57  
116 18 January 898
– 5 January 900
(1 year, 352 days)
116-John IX.jpg John IX
Papa IOANNES Nonus
Giovanni
O.S.B.
Tivoli, Papal States 58 / 60 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.

10th century[edit]

Popes of the 10th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
117 1 February 900
– 30 July 903
(3 years, 179 days)
117-Benedict IV.jpg Benedict IV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus
Benedetto Rome, Papal States 60 / 63  
118 30 July 903
– December 903
(123 days)
118-Leo V.jpg Leo V
Papa LEO Quintus
Leone Ardea, Papal States 58 / 58  
119 29 January 904
– 14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
119-Sergius III.jpg Sergius III
Papa SERGIUS Tertius
Sergorio Rome, Papal States 44 / 51 "Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
120 14 April 911
– June 913
(2 years, 47 days)
120-Anastaius III.jpg Anastasius III
Papa ANASTASIUS Tertius
Anastasio Rome, Papal States 46 / 48  
121 7 July 913
– 5 February 914
(213 days)
121-Lando.jpg Lando
Papa LANDUS
Lando Sabina, Papal States 48 / 49  
122 March 914
– 28 May 928
(14 years, 89 days)
122-John X.jpg John X
Papa IOANNES Decimus
Giovanni Tossignano, Romagna (formally part of the Papal States) 54 / 68  
123 28 May 928
– December 928
(186 days)
123-Leo VI.jpg Leo VI
Papa LEO Sextus
Leone Rome, Papal States 48 / 48  
124 3 February 929
– 13 February 931
(2 years, 10 days)
124-Stephen VII.jpg Stephen VII
(Stephen VIII)
Papa STEPHANUS Septimus (Octavus)
Stefano Rome, Papal States 49 / 51 Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
125 15 March 931
– December 935
(4 years, 260 days)
125-John XI.jpg John XI
Papa IOANNES Undecimus
Giovanni Rome, Papal States 21 / 25  
126 3 January 936
– 13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
126-Leo VII.jpg Leo VII
Papa LEO Septimus
Leone
O.S.B.
Rome, Papal States 41 / 44 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
127 14 July 939
– 30 October 942
(3 years, 108 days)
127-Stephen VIII.jpg Stephen VIII
(Stephen IX)
Papa STEPHANUS Octavus (Nonus)
Stefano Rome, Papal States 39 / 42 Sometimes called Stephen IX.
128 30 October 942
– 1 May 946
(3 years, 183 days)
128-Marinus II.jpg Marinus II
Papa MARINUS Secundus
Marino Rome, Papal States 42 / 46  
129 10 May 946
– 8 November 955
(9 years, 182 days)
129-Agapetus II.jpg Agapetus II
Papa AGAPITUS Secundus
Agapito Rome, Papal States 41 / 50  
130 16 December 955
– 6 December 963
(8 years, 356 days)
130-John XII.jpg John XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
Ottaviano dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 18 / 26 Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
  6 December 963
– 26 February 964
(82 days)
132-Leo VIII.jpg Antipope Leo VIII
Antipapa LEO Octavus
Leone Rome, Papal States 48 / 49 Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true pope after Benedict V was deposed.
130 26 February 964
– 14 May 964
(78 days)
130-John XII.jpg John XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
Ottaviano dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 27 / 27 Murdered in 964.
131 22 May 964
– 23 June 964
(32 days)
131-Benedict V.jpg Benedict V
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus
Benedictto Rome, Papal States 49 / 49 Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
132 23 June 964
– 1 March 965
(251 days)
132-Leo VIII.jpg Leo VIII
Papa LEO Octavus
Leone Rome, Papal States 49 / 50 Became the true pope after Benedict V was deposed.
133 1 October 965
– 6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
133-John XIII.jpg John XIII
Papa IOANNES Tertius Decimus
Giovanni dei Crescenzi Rome, Papal States 45 / 52 Chronicled after his death as "the Good".
134 19 January 973
– 8 June 974
(1 year, 140 days)
134-Benedict VI.jpg Benedict VI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus
Benedictto Rome, Papal States 48 / 49 Deposed and murdered.
135 October 974
– 10 July 983
(8 years, 283 days)
135-Benedict VII.jpg Benedict VII
Papa BENEDICTUS Septimus
Benedictto Rome, Papal States 44 / 53  
136 December 983
– 20 August 984
(264 days)
136-John XIV.jpg John XIV
Papa IOANNES Quartus Decimus
Pietro Canepanova Pavia, Kingdom of Italy, Holy Roman Empire 43 / 44 First Pope since John III not to use his personal name.
137 20 August 985
– 1 April 996
(10 years, 225 days)
137-John XV.jpg John XV
Papa IOANNES Quintus Decimus
Giovanni di Gallina Alba Rome, Papal States 35 / 46 The first pope to formally canonize a saint.
138 3 May 996
– 18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
138-Gregory V.jpg Gregory V
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus
Bruno von Kärnten
(Bruno of Carinthia)
Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire 24 / 27 First German Pope.
139 2 April 999
– 12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
139-Sylvester II.jpg Sylvester II
Papa SILVESTER Secundus
Gerbert d'Aurillac Belliac, France 53 / 57 The first French pope.

2nd millennium[edit]

11th century[edit]

Popes of the 11th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
140 16 May 1003
– 6 November 1003
(174 days)
140-John XVII.jpg John XVII
Papa IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone
Secchi
Rome, Papal States 48 / 48  
141 25 December 1003
– 18 July 1009
(5 years, 205 days)
141-John XVIII.jpg John XVIII
Papa IOANNES Duodevi-
cesimus
Giovanni
Fasano
Rapagnano,
Papal States
43 / 49  
142 31 July 1009
– 12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
142-Sergius IV.jpg Sergius IV
Papa SERGIUS Quartus
Pietro Boccadiporco, O.S.B. Rome, Papal States 44 / 47  
143 18 May 1012
– 9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
143-Benedict VIII.jpg Benedict VIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Octavus
Teofilatto dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 32 / 44  
144 14 May 1024
– 6 October 1032
(8 years, 145 days)
144-John XIX.jpg John XIX
Papa IOANNES Undevices-
imus
Romano dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 49 / 57  
145 21 October 1032
– 31 December 1044
(12 years, 71 days)
145、147、150-Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Teofilatto dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 20 / 32 1st Term.
146 13 January 1045
– 10 March 1045
(56 days)
146-Sylvester III.jpg Sylvester III
Papa SILVESTER Tertius
Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottaviani Rome, Papal States 45 / 45 Validity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
147 10 March 1045
– 1 May 1045
(52 days)
145、147、150-Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Teofilatto dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 33 / 33 2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
148 5 May 1045
– 20 December 1046
(1 year, 229 days)
148-Gregory VI (2).jpg Gregory VI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus
Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni Rome, Papal States 45 / 46 Deposed at the Council of Sutri.
149 24 December 1046
– 9 October 1047
(289 days)
149-Clement II.jpg Clement II
Papa CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire 41 / 42 Appointed by Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor.
150 8 November 1047
– 17 July 1048
(252 days)
145、147、150-Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Teofilatto dei Conti di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 35 / 36 3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated.
151 16 July 1048
– 9 August 1048
(24 days)
151-Damasus II.jpg Damasus II
Papa DAMASUS Secundus
Poppo Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 48  
152 12 February 1049
– 19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
152-St.Leo IX.jpg St Leo IX
Papa LEO Nonus
Bruno von Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheim, Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire 47 / 51 In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.[11]
153 13 April 1055
– 28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
153-Victor II.jpg Victor II
Papa VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard II von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschberg Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire 37 / 39  
154 2 August 1057
– 29 March 1058
(239 days)
154-Stephen IX.jpg Stephen IX
(Stephen X)
Papa STEPHANUS Nonus (Decimus)
Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B. Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire 37 / 38 Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
155 6 December 1058
– 27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
155-Nicholas II.jpg Nicholas II
Papa NICOLAUS Secundus
Gerard de Bourgogne Château de Chevron, County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire 63 / 66 In 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
156 30 September 1061
– 21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
156-Alexander II.jpg Alexander II
Papa ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggio Baggio, Milan
Holy Roman Empire
46 / 58 Authorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
157 22 April 1073
– 25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
157-St.Gregory VII.jpg St Gregory VII
Papa GREGORIUS Septimus
Ildebrando Aldo-
brandeschi

di Soana
O.S.B.
Sovana, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 60 Initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome.[4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with German Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
158 24 May 1086
– 16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
158-Blessed Victor III.jpg Bl. Victor III
Papa VICTOR Tertius
Dauferio o Desiderio
O.S.B.
Benevento, Duchy of Benevento 60 / 61 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
159 12 March 1088
– 29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
159-Blessed Urban II.jpg Bl. Urban II
Papa URBANUS Secundus
Odon de Lagery,
O.S.B.
Châtillon-sur-Marne, County of Champagne, France 46 / 57 Preached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
160 13 August 1099
– 21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
160-Paschal II.jpg Paschal II
Papa PASCHALIS Secundus
Raniero Ranieri
O.S.B.
Bleda, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 49 / 68 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.

12th century[edit]

Popes of the 12th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
161 24 January 1118
– 29 January 1119
(1 year, 5 days)
161-Gelasius II.jpg Gelasius II
Papa GELASIUS Secundus
Giovanni dei Caetani, O.S.B. Gaeta, Duchy of Gaeta 57 / 58 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
162 2 February 1119
– 13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
162-Callixtus II.jpg Callixtus II
Papa CALLISTUS Secundus
Gui de Bourgogne, Comte de Bourgogne Quingey, Franche-Comté 59 / 64 Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
163 21 December 1124
– 13 February 1130
(5 years, 54 days)
163-Honorius II.jpg Honorius II
Papa HONORIUS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fiagnano, Can.Reg. Fiagnano, Romagna, Holy Roman Empire 64 / 70 Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
164 14 February 1130
– 24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
164-Innocent II.jpg Innocent II
Papa INNOCENTIUS Secundus
Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg. Rome, Papal States 48 / 61 Canon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
165 26 September 1143
– 8 March 1144
(164 days)
165-Celestine II.jpg Celestine II
Papa COELESTINUS Secundus
Guido da Castello Città di Castello, Papal States 58 / 59  
166 12 March 1144
– 15 February 1145
(340 days)
166-Lucius II.jpg Lucius II
Papa LUCIUS Secundus
Gherardo Caccianemici dall'Orso, Can.Reg. Bologna, Holy Roman Empire 49 / 50 Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca.
167 15 February 1145
– 8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
167-Blessed Eugene III.jpg Bl. Eugene III
Papa EUGENIUS Tertius
Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno, O.Cist.[12] Montemagno, Republic of Pisa 44 / 52 Member of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
168 12 July 1153
– 3 December 1154
(1 year, 144 days)
168-Anastasius IV.jpg Anastasius IV
Papa ANASTASIUS Quartus
Corrado della Suburra Rome, Papal States 80 / 81  
169 4 December 1154
– 1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
169-Adrian IV.jpg Adrian IV
Papa HADRIANUS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear, Can.Reg. Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England 54 / 59 First and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery .
170 7 September 1159
– 30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
170-Alexander III.jpg Alexander III
Papa ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Bandinelli Siena, Republic of Siena 59 / 81 Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179.
171 1 September 1181
– 25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
171-Lucius III.jpg Lucius III
Papa LUCIUS Tertius
Ubaldo Allucignoli Lucca, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 84 / 88  
172 25 November 1185
– 20 October 1187
(1 year, 329 days)
172-Urban III.jpg Urban III
Papa URBANUS Tertius
Uberto Crivelli Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire 65 / 67  
173 21 October 1187
– 17 December 1187
(57 days)
173-Gregory VIII.jpg Gregory VIII
Papa GREGORIUS Octavus
Alberto de Morra, Can.Reg. Benevento, Papal States 79 / 79 Canon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
174 19 December 1187
– 20 March 1191[13]
(3 years, 91 days)
174-Clement III.jpg Clement III
Papa CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolari Rome, Papal States 57 / 61  
175 Orsini-roma-stemma.jpg 30 March 1191
– 8 January 1198
(6 years, 284 days)
175-Celestine III.jpg Celestine III
Papa COELESTINUS Tertius
Giacinto Bobone Orsini Rome, Papal States 85 / 92 Confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.
176 C o a Innocenzo III.svg 8 January 1198
– 16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
176-Innocent III (2).jpg Innocent III
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius
Lotario dei Conti di Segni Gavignano, Papal States 37 / 55 Motto: Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis ("Going in Thy path")

Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities.[14]

13th century[edit]

Popes of the 13th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
177
C o a Onorio IV.svg
18 July 1216
– 18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
177-Honorinus III.jpg Honorius III
Papa HONORIUS
Tertius
Cencio Savelli Rome, Papal States  – Initiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
178
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
19 March 1227
– 22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
178-Gregory IX.jpg Gregory IX
Papa GREGORIUS Nonus
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S Anagni, Papal States  – Canonized Elisabeth of Hungary (1235). Initiated the Inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
179
C o a Celestino IV.svg
25 October 1241
– 10 November 1241
(16 days)
179-Celestine IV.jpg Celestine IV
Papa COELESTINUS Quartus
Goffredo Castiglioni Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  – Died before coronation.
180
C o a Adriano V.svg
25 June 1243
– 7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
180-Innocent IV.jpg Innocent IV
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quartus
Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire  – Convened the First Council of Lyons (1245). Issued the bull Ad extirpanda that permitted the torture of heretics (1252).
181
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
12 December 1254
– 25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
181-Alexander IV.jpg Alexander IV
Papa ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Jenne, Papal States  – Established an Inquisition in France.
182
C o a Urbano IV.svg
29 August 1261
– 2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
182-Urban IV.jpg Urban IV
Papa URBANUS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléon Troyes, County of Champagne, France  – Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
183
C o a Clemente IV.svg
5 February 1265
– 29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
183-Clement IV.jpg Clement IV
Papa CLEMENS
Quartus
Gui Faucoi Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France  –
29 November 1268
– 1 September 1271
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Almost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184
C o a Gregorio X.svg
1 September 1271
– 10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
184-Blessed Gregory X.jpg Bl. Gregory X
Papa GREGORIUS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S Piacenza, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  – Convened the Second Council of Lyons (1274). Responsible for regulation all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
185
C o a Innocenzo V.svg
21 January 1276
– 22 June 1276
(153 days)
185-Blessed Innocent V.jpg Bl. Innocent V
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quintus
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire  – Member of the Dominican Order.
186
C o a Adriano V.svg
11 July 1276
– 18 August 1276
(38 days)
186-Adrian V.jpg Adrian V
Papa HADRIANUS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire  – Annulled Gregory X's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
187
C o a Giovanni XXI.svg
8 September 1276
– 20 May 1277
(254 days)
187-John XXI.jpg John XXI
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano) Lisbon, Portugal  – Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. There has never been a John XX, because the 20th pope of this name formerly when elected, decided to skip the number XX and be counted as John XXI instead. He wanted to correct what in his time was believed to be an error in the counting of his predecessors John XV to XIX
188
C o a Niccolo III.svg
25 November 1277
– 22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
188-Nicholas III.jpg Nicholas III
Papa NICOLAUS
Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Rome, Papal States  –
189
C o a Martino IV.svg
22 February 1281
– 28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
189-Martin IV.jpg Martin IV
Papa MARTINUS Quartus
Simon de Brion Meinpicien, Touraine, France  –
190
C o a Onorio IV.svg
2 April 1285
– 3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
190-Honorius IV.jpg Honorius IV
Papa HONORIUS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli Rome, Papal States  –
191
C o a Niccolo IV.svg
22 February 1288
– 4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
191-Nicholas IV.jpg Nicholas IV
Papa NICOLAUS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. Lisciano, Papal States  – Member of the Franciscan Order.
4 April 1292
– 5 July 1294
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192
C o a Celestino V.svg
5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(161 days)
192-St.Celestine V.jpg St Celestine V
Papa COELESTINUS Quintus
Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B. Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily  – One of the few popes who resigned voluntarily. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Founded the Celestines.
193
C o a Bonifacio VIII.svg
24 December 1294
– 11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
193-Boniface VIII (2).jpg Boniface VIII
Papa BONIFATIUS Octavus
Benedetto Caetani Anagni, Papal States  – Formalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century[edit]

Popes of the 14th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
194
C o a Benedetto XI.svg
22 October 1303
– 7 July 1304
(259 days)
194-Blessed Benedict XI.jpg Bl. Benedict XI
Papa BENEDICTUS Undecimus
Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. Treviso  – Motto: Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum ("Let Your Face shine upon Your servant")

Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam.

195
C o a Clemente V.svg
5 June 1305
– 20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
195-Clement V (2).jpg Clement V
Papa CLEMENS Quintus
Bertrand de Got Villandraut, Gascony, France  – Pope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
20 April 1314
– 7 August 1316
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196
C o a Giovanni XXII.svg
7 August 1316
– 4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
196-John XXII.jpg John XXII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, Quercy, France  – Pope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the Beatific Vision.
197
C o a Benedetto XII.svg
20 December 1334
– 25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
197-Benedict XII.jpg Benedict XII
Papa BENEDICTUS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist. Saverdun, County of Foix, France  – Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336).
198
C o a Gregorio XI.svg
7 May 1342
– 6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
198-Clement VI.jpg Clement VI
Papa CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. Maumont, Limousin, France  – Pope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199
C o a Innocenzo VI.svg
18 December 1352
– 12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
199-Innocent VI.jpg Innocent VI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Sextus
Étienne Aubert Les Monts, Limousin, France  – Pope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
200
C o a Urbano V.svg
28 September 1362
– 19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
200-Blessed Urban V.jpg Bl. Urban V
Papa URBANUS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B. Grizac, Languedoc, France  – Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
201
C o a Gregorio XI.svg
30 December 1370
– 27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
201-Gregory XI.jpg Gregory XI
Papa GREGORIUS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufort Maumont, Limousin, France  – Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
202
C o a Urbano VI.svg
8 April 1378
– 15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
202-Urban VI.jpg Urban VI
Papa URBANUS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Kingdom of Naples  – Western Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.
203
C o a Bonifacio IX.svg
2 November 1389
– 1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
203-Boniface IX.jpg Boniface IX
Papa BONIFATIUS Nonus
Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples  – Western Schism.

15th century[edit]

  • R This pope resigned his office.
  • B The exact birth date of Innocent VIII and almost all popes prior to Eugene IV is unknown, therefore the lowest probable age has been assumed for this table.
Popes of the 15th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
204
C o a Innocenzo VII.svg
17 October 1404
– 6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
204-Innocent VII.jpg Innocent VII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Septimus
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 65 / 67 [B] Western Schism
205
C o a Gregorio XII.svg
30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
205-Gregory XII.jpg Gregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr Venice, Republic of Venice [R] 80 / 91 Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constance, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII. Last pope to resign until Pope Benedict XVI.
4 July 1415
– 11 November 1417
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected.
206
C o a Martino V.svg
11 November 1417
– 20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
206-Martin V.jpg Martin V
Papa MARTINUS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.S Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.
207
C o a Eugenio IV.svg
3 March 1431
– 23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
207-Eugene IV.jpg Eugene IV
Papa EUGENIUS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A. Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63 [B] Member of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Martin V. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
208
C o a Nicolaus V.svg
6 March 1447
– 24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
208-Nicholas V.jpg Nicholas V
Papa NICOLAUS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli, O.P. Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 Member of the Dominican Order. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome (1452). Issued the Papal Bull Dum Diversas allowing Portugal's right to conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
209
Coat of Arms of Pope Callixtus III.svg
8 April 1455
– 6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
209-Callixtus III.jpg Callixtus III
Papa CALLISTUS Tertius
Alfonso de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 The first Spanish pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated.
210
C o a Pio II.svg
19 August 1458
– 15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
210-Pius II.jpg Pius II
Papa PIUS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58 Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211
Coat of arms of Pope Paul II.png
30 August 1464
– 26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
211-Paul II.jpg Paul II
Papa PAULUS Secundus
Pietro Barbo Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
212
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
9 August 1471
– 12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
212-Sixtus IV.jpg Sixtus IV
Papa XYSTUS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel. Authorized an Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
213
C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg
29 August 1484
– 25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
213-Innocent VIII.jpg Innocent VIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Octavus
Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59 [B] Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
214
C o a Alessandro VI.svg
11 August 1492
– 18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
214-Alexander VI.jpg Alexander VI
Papa ALEXANDER Sextus
Roderic Llançol i de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 Nephew of Callixtus III; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). No Alexander V due to the antipope.

16th century[edit]

Popes of the 16th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
215
C o a Pio II.svg
22 September 1503
– 18 October 1503
(26 days)
215-Pius III.jpg Pius III
Papa PIUS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library adjourning the Siena Cathedral.
216
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
31 October 1503
– 21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
216-Julius II.jpg Julius II
Papa IULIUS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M. Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Proposed plans for rebuilding St Peter's Basilica.
217
Medici popes.svg
9 March 1513
– 1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
217-Leo X.jpg Leo X
Papa LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal.
218
C o a Adriano VI.svg
9 January 1522
– 14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
218-Adrian VI.jpg Adrian VI
Papa HADRIANUS Sextus
Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now Netherlands) 62 / 64 Motto: Patere et sustine ("Respect and wait")[15]

The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V. Retained his baptismal name as his regnal name.

219
Medici popes.svg
26 November 1523
– 25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
219-Clement VII.jpg Clement VII
Papa CLEMENS Septimus
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 Motto: Candor illæsus ("Unharmed candor")[16]

Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). His niece was married to the future Henry II of France. Ordered Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.

220
C o a Paulo III.svg
13 October 1534
– 10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
220-Paul III.jpg Paul III
Papa PAULUS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of Henry VIII. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546).
221
C o a Giulio III.svg
7 February 1550
– 29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
221-Julius III.jpg Julius III
Papa IULIUS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome, Lazio, Papal States 62 / 67 Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
222
C o a Marcello II.svg
9 April 1555
– 1 May 1555
(0 years, 22 days)
222-Marcellus II.jpg Marcellus II
Papa MARCELLUS Secundus
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
223
C o a Paulo IV.svg
23 May 1555
– 18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
223-Paul IV.jpg Paul IV
Papa PAULUS Quartus
Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R. Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83 Motto: Dominus mihi adjutor ("The Lord is my helper")[17]

Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.

224
Medici popes.svg
26 December 1559
– 9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
224-Pius IV.jpg Pius IV
Papa PIUS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 Reopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225
C o a Pio V.svg
7 January 1566
– 1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
225-St.Pius V.jpg St Pius V
Papa PIUS Quintus
Antonio Ghislieri, O.P. Bosco, Piedmont, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 Motto: Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas ("It binds us to keep")[18]

Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I (1570). Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Issued the 1570 Roman Missal.

226
C o a Gregorio XIII.svg
13 May 1572
– 10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
226-Gregory XIII.jpg Gregory XIII
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius Decimus
Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 70 / 83 Motto: Aperuit et clausit ("Opened and closed")[19]

Reformed the calendar (1582); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as Patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.

227
C o a Sisto V.svg
24 April 1585
– 27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
227-Sixtus V.jpg Sixtus V
Papa XYSTUS Quintus
Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv. Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
228
C o a Urbano VII.svg
15 September 1590
– 27 September 1590
(12 days)
228-Urban VII.jpg Urban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome, Lazio, Papal States 69 / 69 Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
229
C o a Gregorio XIV.svg
5 December 1590
– 16 October 1591
(0 years, 315 days)
229-Gregory XIV.jpg Gregory XIV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati Somma Lombardo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56 Modified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
230
C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
29 October 1591
– 30 December 1591
(62 days)
230-Innocent IX.jpg Innocent IX
Papa INNOCENTIUS Nonus
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 72 / 72 Supported the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231
C o a Clemente VIII.svg
30 January 1592
– 3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
231-Clement VIII.jpg Clement VIII
Papa CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69 Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.[20]

17th century[edit]

Popes of the 17th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
232
Medici popes.svg
1 April 1605
– 27 April 1605
(26 days)
Leo XI 2.jpg Leo XI
Papa LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69 The nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
233
C o a Paulo V.svg
16 May 1605
– 28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
PaoloHasekura.jpg Paul V
Papa PAULUS Quintus
Camillo Borghese Rome, Lazio, Papal States 52 / 68 Motto: Absit nisi in te gloriari ("May it be absent, except to glory in you")[21]

Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.

234
C o a Gregorio XV.svg
9 February 1621
– 8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
Pope Gregory XV.jpg Gregory XV
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 67 / 69 Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235
C o a Urbano VIII.svg
6 August 1623
– 29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
Bernini-Urban8.jpg Urban VIII
Papa URBANUS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 55 / 76 Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236
C o a Innocenzo X.svg
15 September 1644
– 7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
Inocencio X, Velazquez.jpg Innocent X
Papa INNOCENTIUS Decimus
Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome, Lazio, Papal States 70 / 80 Motto: Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram ("Water on earth")[22]

The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.

237
C o a Alessandro VII.svg
7 April 1655
– 22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
Alexander VII.jpg Alexander VII
Papa ALEXANDER Septimus
Fabio Chigi Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68 Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius IX centuries later.
238
C o a Clemente IX.svg
20 June 1667
– 9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
Clemente IX.jpg Clement IX
Papa CLEMENS Nonus
Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69 Motto: Aliis non sibi Clemens ("Clement to others, not to himself")[23]

Commissioned the colonnade of St. Peter's Square. Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).

239
C o a Clemente X.svg
29 April 1670
– 22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
Clement X.jpg Clement X
Papa CLEMENS Decimus
Emilio Bonaventura Altieri Rome, Lazio, Papal States 79 / 86 Bonum auget malum minuit ("He increases good and diminishes evil")[24]

Canonized the first saint from the Americas: St. Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.

240
C o a Innocenzo XI.svg
21 September 1676
– 12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
Inocencius XI.jpg Bl. Innocent XI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Undecimus
Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78 Motto: Avarus non Implebitur ("The covetous man is not satisfied")[25]

Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.

241
C o a Alessandro VIII.svg
6 October 1689
– 1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
Alexander VIII 1.jpg Alexander VIII
Papa ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80 Condemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
242
C o a Innocenzo XII.svg
12 July 1691
– 27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
Pope Innocent XII.PNG Innocent XII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S Spinazzola, Apulia, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85 Issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.

18th century[edit]

Popes of the 18th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
243
C o a Clemente XI.svg
23 November 1700
– 19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
Clement XI.jpg Clement XI
Papa CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 The "Chinese Rites" controversy. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal.[10]
244
C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg
8 May 1721
– 7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
InnocientXIII.jpg Innocent XIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo dei Conti Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68 Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order.
245
C o a Benedetto XIII.svg
29 May 1724
– 21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
Benedetto XIII.jpg S.D. Benedict XIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P. Gravina in Puglia, Bari, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict XIV due to the antipope but reverted to XIII. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban VII and Urban VIII.
246
C o a Clemente XII.svg
12 July 1730
– 6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpg Clement XII
Papa CLEMENS Duodecimus
Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87 Motto: Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum ("You shall deign to distinguish between good and evil")[26]

Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738). Last pope to be elected at an old age until Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

247
C o a Benedetto XIV.svg
17 August 1740
– 3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
Pierre Subleyras Portrait of Benedict XIV 1746. Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg Benedict XIV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus Decimus
Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83 Motto: Curabuntur omnes ("All will be healed")[27]

Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science.

248
C o a Clemente XIII.svg
6 July 1758
– 2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
ClementXIII.jpeg Clement XIII
Papa CLEMENS Tertius Decimus
Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75 Provided the famous fig leaves on nude male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in "Apostolicum pascendi" (1765).
249
C o a Clemente XIV.svg
19 May 1769
– 22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
PopeClementXIV.JPG Clement XIV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus Decimus
Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv. Sant'
Arcangelo di Romagna
, Papal States
63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Society of Jesus in the brief "Dominus ac Redemptor" (1773).
250
C o a Pio VI.svg
15 February 1775
– 29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland).jpg Pius VI
Papa PIUS Sextus
Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Motto: Floret in domo domini ("It blossoms in the house of God")[28]

Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pope to be a patron of Renaissance art.

29 August 1799
–14 March 1800
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Six-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century[edit]

Popes of the 19th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
251
C o a Pio VII.svg
14 March 1800
– 20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg S.D. Pius VII
Papa PIUS Septimus
Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B. Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Briefly expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252
C o a Leone XII.svg
28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
Pope Leo XII.PNG Leo XII
Papa LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga Genga, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the Bible societies.
253
C o a Pio VIII.svg
31 March 1829
– 30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
Pope Pius VIII.PNG Pius VIII
Papa PIUS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69 Accepted Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254
C o a Gregorio XVI.svg
2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
Gregory XVI.jpg Gregory XVI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam. Belluno, Veneto, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 Member of the Camaldolese Order; last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States.
255
Pio Nono.svg
16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
Popepiusix.jpg Bl. Pius IX
Papa PIUS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S. Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Second longest serving pope in history after Saint Peter.
256
C o a Leone XIII.svg
20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
Leo XIII.jpg Leo XIII
Papa LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S. Carpineto Romano, Lazio, Papal States 67 / 93 Issued the encyclical Rerum novarum; supported Christian democracy against Communism. Had the fourth-longest reign after Pius IX, Saint Peter and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

20th century[edit]

Popes of the 20th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
257
Coat of arms of Pope Pius X.svg
4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
PiusX, Bain (cropped).jpg St Pius X
Papa PIUS Decimus
Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, O.F.S. Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 68 / 79 Motto: Instaurare Omnia in Christo ("Restore all things in Christ")

Encouraged and expanded reception of the Eucharist. Combatted Modernism; issued the oath against it. Advocated the Gregorian Chant and reformed the Roman Breviary.

258
CoA Benedetto XV.svg
3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
Pope Benedict XV (LOC) crop.jpg Benedict XV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus Decimus
Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa, O.F.S. Genoa, Pegli, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia 59 / 67 Motto: In te, Domine, speravi: non confundar in aeternum. ("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. Issued the 1917 Code of Canon Law; supported the missionaries in Maximum Illud. Remembered by Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".

259
C o a Pio XI.svg
6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-01279, Papst Pius XI..jpg Pius XI
Papa PIUS Undecimus
Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti, O.F.S. Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 64 / 81 Motto: Pax Christi in Regno Christi ("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Inaugurated Vatican Radio. Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Created the feast of Christ the King. Opposed Communism and Nazism.

260
Pius 12 coa.svg
2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
Papa Pio XII Eugenio Pacelli.jpg Ven. Pius XII
Papa PIUS Duodecimus
Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, O.F.S. Rome, Lazio, Kingdom of Italy 63 / 82 Motto: Opus Justitiae Pax ("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority of cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II; controversial for his role in the Holocaust.

261
John 23 coa.svg
28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
Pope John XXIII - 1959.jpg St John XXIII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, O.F.S. Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Kingdom of Italy 76 / 81 Motto: Obedientia et Pax ("Obedience and peace")

Opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).

262
Coat of Arms of Pope Paul VI.svg
21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
Pope Paul VI portrait.jpg Bl. Paul VI
Papa PAULUS Sextus
Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 80 Motto: Cum Ipso in Monte ("With Him on the mount")

Last pope to be crowned in a coronation with the tiara. First pope to travel to the United States and Australia; first pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception.

263
John paul 1 coa.svg
26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
(33 days)
Albino Luciani, 1969 (3).jpg S.D. John Paul I
Papa IOANNES PAULUS Primus
Albino Luciani Forno di Canale, Belluno, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 65 Motto: Humilitas ("Humility")

Abolished the coronation opting for the Papal Inauguration. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the Sedia Gestatoria.

264
John paul 2 coa.svg
16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg St John Paul II
(John Paul the Great)[29]
Papa IOANNES PAULUS Secundus
Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowice, 2nd Polish Republic 58 / 84 Motto: Totus Tuus ("Totally yours")

First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Traveled extensively, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. Third longest reign after Pius IX and Saint Peter. Founded World Youth Day (1984). Canonized more saints than all his predecessors.

3rd millennium[edit]

21st century[edit]

Popes of the 21st century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Regnal
Motto:
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
265
Coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI
19 April 2005 –
28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Photograph of Pope Benedict XVI Benedict XVI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus Decimus
Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 78 / 85 Motto: Cooperatores Veritatis ("Cooperators of the truth")

Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Established the Anglican Ordinariate. First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294),[30] retaining regnal name with title of Pope Emeritus.[31]

266
Coat of arms of Pope Francis
13 March 2013–
present
(3 years, 164 days)
Photograph of Pope Francis Francis
Papa FRANCISCUS
Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J. Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina 76 / - Motto: Miserando atque Eligendo ("Lowly but chosen", literally 'by having mercy, by choosing him')[32]

First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III (731–741) and the first from the Americas; first pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First pope from a religious institute since Gregory XVI (1831–1846); first Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914).

Religious orders[edit]

38 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:

  • Benedictines (18):
    • Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, Sergius IV, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Gelasius II, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, Pius VII
and including Camaldolese (1):
Gregory XVI
and including Canons Regular (5):
Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Gregory VIII, Adrian IV
  • Dominicans (5):
    • Innocent V, Benedict XI, Nicholas V, Pius V, Benedict XIII
  • Franciscans (5):
    • Nicholas IV, Sixtus IV, Julius II
and including Conventual Franciscans (2):
Sixtus V, Clement XIV

12 popes have been members of third orders, also called "tertiaries" or "Third Order Secular," and all of them of the Secular Franciscans:

  • Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII

Notes on numbering of popes[edit]

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:

  • Felix II (356–357), Boniface VII (974, 984–985), John XVI (997–998), Benedict X (1058–1059) and Alexander V (1409–1410) are not listed because they are all considered antipopes.[33]
  • The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II; however, most lists still call the last two Felixes Felix III and Felix IV. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V.[33]
  • There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century.[34]
  • Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960.[34] The numbering of following popes called Stephen are nowadays given as Pope Stephen II (752–757) to Pope Stephen IX (1057–1058), rather than Stephen III to Stephen X.
  • When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III respectively, and so, erroneously, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV.[35]
  • Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed. The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus (lord) with a proper name.
  • Pope Joan also never existed; however, legends about her may have originated from stories about the pornocracy.[36]
  • The status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, and was finally settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, who was Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Florence Baptistery.
  • Those who believe in Sedevacantism say that there have been no legitimate popes since Pius XII. This is because they consider all popes since the Second Vatican Council to be heretics.[37][38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
  2. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Archived from the original on 2009-01-19. Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  3. ^ "Papal Primacy of honour: titles and insignia". Newadvent.org. 1 June 1911. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  4. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin (et al.); Bromiley (English translation), Geoffrey William, eds. (2005). "Pope, Papacy". Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [The encyclopedia of Christianity]. 4. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 272–282. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  5. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  6. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (31 October 2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.73–6. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "OCA - St Liberius the Pope of Rome". Ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  9. ^ "Saint Siricius". 
  10. ^ a b c "Papal Timeline". 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  11. ^ Deno John Geanakoplos (15 September 1989). Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-299-11884-6. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "Blessed Eugene III". Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  13. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  14. ^ Philip Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 371, Sheed & Ward, 1948.
  15. ^ "Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Pope Pius V (1566-1572)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  20. ^ John Henry Blunt (1874). "Jansenists". Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons. pp. 234–240. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  21. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  23. ^ "Pope Clement IX (1667-1669)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  24. ^ "Pope Clement X (1670-1676)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "Pope Clement XII (1730-1740)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  27. ^ "Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  28. ^ "The Wind was too Strong". Rome Art Lover. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  29. ^ Bottum, Joseph (18 April 2005). "John Paul the Great". The Weekly Standard. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  30. ^ Brown, Andrew (11 February 2013). "Benedict, the placeholder pope who leaves a battered, weakened church". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  31. ^ Pianigiani, Gaia; Povoledo, Elisabetta (27 February 2013). "Benedict XVI to Keep His Name and Become Pope Emeritus". The New York Times. 
  32. ^ Scarisbrick, Veronica (22 March 2013). "Pope Francis : "Miserando atque eligendo"...". Vatican Radio. The Holy See. Vatican Radio. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  33. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Antipope". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  34. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Chronological Lists of Popes". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  35. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Pope Martin IV". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  36. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Popess Joan". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  37. ^ Weaver, MJ., and Appleby, RS., Being Right: Conservative Catholics in America, Indiana University Press, 1 Jan 1995, p. 257.
  38. ^ Flinn, FK., Encyclopedia of Catholicism, 2007, p. 566.

General[edit]

  • The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451, Adrian Fortescue, Ignatius Press, 2008.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, John N.D. Kelly, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • Catholicism, Henri de Lubac, Ignatius Press, 1988.
  • Rome and the Eastern Churches, Aidan Nichols, Ignatius Press, 2010.
  • I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.
  • Rome Sweet Home, Scott Hahn, Ignatius Press, 1993.
  • Enciclopedia dei Papi, AA.VV., Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.

External links[edit]