List of possible impact structures on Earth

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This is a list of possible impact structures on Earth. More than 130 features on Earth include candidate impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature and/or have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG)[1] and/or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS),[2]. The Earth Impact Database (EID) is used at Wikipedia as authoritative using the terminology "confirmed".[3] The list below includes a three-step confidence level as indicated by the Russian Academy of Sciences, by Anna Mikheeva:[4] 1 for probable, 2 for potential, 3 for questionable. Structures with confidence 0 are considered "confirmed" (EID) or "proven" (Mikheeva) and should be placed in the lists per continent. Discredited structures, which represent other geological features than impact craters have confidence level 4.[4]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

List of possible impact structures[edit]

The following tables list geological features on Earth that some individuals have associated with impact events, but for which there is currently no confirming scientific evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. In order for a structure to be a confirmed as an impact crater, it must meet a stringent set of well established criteria. Some proposed impact structures are eventually confirmed, whereas others are shown to be misidentified (see below). Recent extensive surveys have been done for Australian (2005),[5] African (2014),[6] and South American (2015)[7] craters, as well as those in the Arab world (2016).[8] A book review by A. Crósta and U. Reimold disputes some of the evidence presented for several of the South American structures.[9]

Legend
Confidence[4] 0 - proven[note 1]
1 - probable
2 - potential
3 - questionable
4 - discredited
Diameter Kilometers
Age Approximate
Name Location Confidence Diameter Age Notes Image Coordinates
38th Parallel structures United States (Missouri, etc.) variable 2-17 320 ± 10 Ma [11]
38th parallel structures loc.svg
37°30′N 88°18′W / 37.5°N 88.3°W / 37.5; -88.3 (Hicks Dome)
37°48′N 90°12′W / 37.8°N 90.2°W / 37.8; -90.2 (Avon crater)
37°48′N 91°24′W / 37.8°N 91.4°W / 37.8; -91.4 (Crooked Creek crater)
37°54′N 92°42′W / 37.9°N 92.7°W / 37.9; -92.7 (Decaturville crater)
37°42′N 92°24′W / 37.7°N 92.4°W / 37.7; -92.4 (Hazelgreen crater)
38°00′N 93°36′W / 38.0°N 93.6°W / 38.0; -93.6 (Weaubleau-Osceola structure)
37°42′N 95°42′W / 37.7°N 95.7°W / 37.7; -95.7 (Rose Dome)
Ak-Bura (Murgab) Tajikistan 1 80 0.3 ka
1700 AD
[12][13][14][15] 38°5′38.5″N 74°16′58″E / 38.094028°N 74.28278°E / 38.094028; 74.28278 (Ak-Bura)
Al Madafi Saudi Arabia 1 6 6-66 Ma [16][17][18][17][18] 28°40′N 37°11′E / 28.67°N 37.18°E / 28.67; 37.18 (Al Madafi)
Alamo bolide impact United States (Nevada) 0 100 ± 40 367 Ma [19][12][20][note 1] 37°19′N 116°11′W / 37.31°N 116.18°W / 37.31; -116.18 (Alamo)
Anéfis Mali 2 3.9 23? Ma [21][12][22][23] 18°04′19″N 0°02′53″W / 18.072°N 0.048°W / 18.072; -0.048 (Anefis)
Aorounga Central Chad 0 11.6 <345 Ma [24][25][26]
Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad.jpg
19°13′44″N 19°15′40″E / 19.229°N 19.261°E / 19.229; 19.261 (Aorounga center)
Arganaty Kazakhstan (Almaty region) 0 300 250 Ma [27][28][29][note 1] 46°30′N 79°48′E / 46.5°N 79.8°E / 46.5; 79.8 (Arganaty)
Arlit Niger 2 10 ? [30][31][32] 21°21′11″N 9°08′42″E / 21.353°N 9.145°E / 21.353; 9.145 (Arlit)
Australian impact structure Australia (Northern Territory) Highly speculative 600 >545 Ma [33] 25°33′S 131°23′E / 25.550°S 131.383°E / -25.550; 131.383 (MAPCIS)
Azuara Spain 1 35-40 30-40 Ma [34]
Azuara-impact-structure-Map.jpg
41°07′N 0°13′W / 41.117°N 0.217°W / 41.117; -0.217 (Azuara)
Bajada del Diablo Argentina 2 40 450 ± 300 ka [35][36][37] 42°46′S 67°24′W / 42.767°S 67.400°W / -42.767; -67.400 (Bajada del Diablo)
Bajo Hondo Argentina (Buenos Aires Province) 2 3.9 <10 Ma [38][39] 42°15′S 67°55′W / 42.250°S 67.917°W / -42.250; -67.917 (Bajo Hondo)
Bangui magnetic anomaly Central African Republic 2 600-800? >542 Ma [40][6][41]
Bangui anomaly.JPG
6°00′N 18°18′E / 6°N 18.3°E / 6; 18.3 (Bangui)
Bateke Plateau Gabon 3 7.1 <2.6 [42][43] 0°38′45″S 14°27′29″E / 0.64583°S 14.45806°E / -0.64583; 14.45806 (Bateke)
Bedout Australia (offshore) 2 250 250 Ma [44][45][46] 18°S 119°E / 18°S 119°E / -18; 119 (Bedout)
Bee Bluff United States (Texas) 0 2.4 40? Ma [47][48][49][note 1] 29°02′N 99°51′W / 29.03°N 99.85°W / 29.03; -99.85 (Bee Bluff)
Björkö Sweden (Björkö, Ekerö) 1 10 1200 Ma [50][51] 59°18′N 17°36′E / 59.30°N 17.60°E / 59.30; 17.60 (Björkö)
Bloody Creek Canada (Nova Scotia) 1 40 ? [52] 44°45′N 65°14′W / 44.750°N 65.233°W / 44.750; -65.233 (Bloody Creek)
Bohemian crater Czech Republic 2 260-300 >700? Ma [53][12][54][55] 50°00′N 14°42′E / 50.0°N 14.7°E / 50.0; 14.7 (Bohemian)
Bow City Canada (Alberta) 2 8 70 Ma [56] 50°25′N 112°16′W / 50.417°N 112.267°W / 50.417; -112.267 (Bow City)
Bowers crater Antarctic Ocean (Ross Sea) 2 100 3-5 Ma [57][58][59][60] 71°12′S 176°00′E / 71.2°S 176°E / -71.2; 176 (Bowers)
Brushy Creek Feature United States (Louisiana) 1 2.0 11–30 ka [61][62] 30°46′N 90°44′W / 30.76°N 90.73°W / 30.76; -90.73 (Brushy Creek Feature)
Burckle Indian Ocean 1 30? 3000 BC [63][64][65] 30°52′S 61°22′E / 30.86°S 61.36°E / -30.86; 61.36 (Burckle)
Catalina structures
(Navy, Catalina, Emery Knoll)
Pacific Ocean (NE) 2 12, 32, 37 16-18 Ma [66][67][68] 32°55′N 118°05′W / 32.91°N 118.09°W / 32.91; -118.09 (Catalina)
Cerro do Jarau Brazil (Paraná) 1 10 117 Ma [69][70][71] 30°12′S 56°32′W / 30.200°S 56.533°W / -30.200; -56.533 (Cerro)
Charity Shoal Canada (Ontario) 2 1.2 <470 Ma [72][73][74][75]
NOAA map of Charity Shoal in Lake Ontario.jpg
44°2′15″N 76°29′37″W / 44.03750°N 76.49361°W / 44.03750; -76.49361 (Charity Shoal)
Corossol Canada (Quebec) 3 4 <470 Ma [76][77][78][79] 50°03′N 66°23′W / 50.050°N 66.383°W / 50.050; -66.383 (Corossol)
Darwin Crater Tasmania 0 1.2 816 ka [80][note 1]
Darwin Crater Landsat.jpg
42°19′S 145°40′E / 42.317°S 145.667°E / -42.317; 145.667 (Darwin crater)
Decorah United States (Iowa) 2 5.6 470 Ma [81][82][83]
USGS Decorah crater.jpg
43°18′50″N 91°46′20″W / 43.31389°N 91.77222°W / 43.31389; -91.77222 (Decorah)
Diamantina River ring feature Australia (Queensland) 2 120 300 Ma [84][85]
UpperDiamantinaCrustalAnomaly.png
22°09′S 141°54′E / 22.150°S 141.900°E / -22.150; 141.900 (Winton crustal anomaly)
Dumas magnetic anomaly Canada (Saskatchewan) 1 3.2 70 ± 5 Ma [86][87] 49°55′N 102°07′W / 49.92°N 102.12°W / 49.92; -102.12 (Dumas)
Duolun China (Inner Mongolia) 2 120 ± 50 129 ± 3 Ma [88][89] 42°3′N 116°15′E / 42.050°N 116.250°E / 42.050; 116.250 (Duolun)
El-Baz Egypt 1 4 ? [90][26][91] 24°12′N 26°24′E / 24.200°N 26.400°E / 24.200; 26.400 (El-Baz)
Eltanin Pacific Ocean (SE) 0 35? 2.5 Ma [92][93][94][note 1] 57°47′S 90°47′W / 57.783°S 90.783°W / -57.783; -90.783 (Eltanin)
Faya Basin Chad 1 2 385 ± 15 Ma [95][96] 18°10′N 19°34′E / 18.167°N 19.567°E / 18.167; 19.567 (Faya)
Falkland Plateau anomaly Atlantic Ocean
(near Falkland Islands)
2 250-300 250 Ma [97][12][98][99][100][101] 51°S 62°W / 51°S 62°W / -51; -62 (Malvinas)
Fried Egg structure Atlantic Ocean (near Azores) 2 6 17 Ma [102][103] 36°N 27°W / 36°N 27°W / 36; -27 (Fried Egg)
Garet El Lefet Libya 1 3 ? [104][105][106] 25°00′N 16°30′E / 25.0°N 16.5°E / 25.0; 16.5 ("Garet El Lefet")
Gatun structure Panama 1 3 20 Ma [107] 09°05′58″N 79°47′22″W / 9.09944°N 79.78944°W / 9.09944; -79.78944 (Gatun structure)
General San Martín Argentina 2 11 1.2 Ma [108][109][110] 38°0′S 63°18′W / 38.000°S 63.300°W / -38.000; -63.300 (General San Martin)
Gnargoo Australia (Western Australia) 1 75 <300 Ma [111][112] 24°48′24″S 115°13′29″E / 24.80667°S 115.22472°E / -24.80667; 115.22472 (Gnargoo)
Guarda Portugal 1 30 200 Ma [113][114] 40°38′N 07°06′W / 40.633°N 7.100°W / 40.633; -7.100 (Guarda)
Gulf of Mexico United States, Mexico, Cuba Highly Speculative 1500-2000 250-300 Ma [115]
GulfofMexico3D.jpg
25°00′N 90°00′W / 25.000°N 90.000°W / 25.000; -90.000 (Guarda)
Hartney anomaly Canada (Manitoba) 1 8 120 ± 20 Ma [116][87][117] 49°24′N 100°40′W / 49.4°N 100.67°W / 49.4; -100.67 (Hartney)
Hiawatha Greenland 2 31 <1985 [118][119]
Hiawatha v45 scene1 4k 5mtopo.1760.tif
78°44′N 66°14′W / 78.733°N 66.233°W / 78.733; -66.233 (Hiawatha)
Hickman Australia (Western Australia) 2 30 10–100 ka [120] 23°2′13″S 119°40′59″E / 23.03694°S 119.68306°E / -23.03694; 119.68306 (Hickman)
Hico United States (Texas) 1 9 <60 Ma [121][122][123] 32°01′N 98°02′W / 32.01°N 98.03°W / 32.01; -98.03 (Hico)
Hotchkiss Canada (Alberta) 1 4 220 ± 100 Ma [124][125] 57°32′20″N 118°52′41″W / 57.539°N 118.878°W / 57.539; -118.878 (Hotchkiss)
Howell United States (Tennessee) 1 2.5 380 ± 10 Ma [126][127][128] 35°14′N 86°37′W / 35.23°N 86.61°W / 35.23; -86.61 (Howell)
Ibn-Batutah Libya 2 2.5 120 ± 20 Ma [129][130] 21°34′10″N 20°50′15″E / 21.56944°N 20.83750°E / 21.56944; 20.83750 (Ibn-Batutah)
Ishim Kazakhstan (Akmola region) 0 300 430-460 Ma [131][132][133][note 1] 52°0′N 69°0′E / 52.000°N 69.000°E / 52.000; 69.000 (Ishim Akmola)
Iturralde Bolivia 1 8.0 11–30 ka [134]
Iturralde Crater PIA03359 cropped.jpg
12°35′S 67°40′W / 12.583°S 67.667°W / -12.583; -67.667 (Iturralde)
Jackpine Creek magnetic anomaly Canada (British Columbia) 1 25 120 ± 20 Ma [135][136] 55°36′N 120°06′W / 55.6°N 120.1°W / 55.6; -120.1 (Jackpine)
Jebel Hadid Libya 2 4.7 <66 Ma [137][138] 20°52′12″N 22°42′18″E / 20.87000°N 22.70500°E / 20.87000; 22.70500 (Jebel Hadid)
Jeptha Knob United States (Kentucky) 0 4.3 425 Ma [139][note 1] 38°11′N 85°07′W / 38.183°N 85.117°W / 38.183; -85.117 (Jeptha Knob)
Johnsonville United States (South Carolina) 0 11 300? Ma [140][12][141][note 1] 33°49′N 79°22′W / 33.817°N 79.367°W / 33.817; -79.367 (Snows Island)
Jwaneng South Botswana 2 1.3 <66 Ma [142][143] 24°42′S 24°46′E / 24.700°S 24.767°E / -24.700; 24.767 (Jwaneng South)
Luna India 2 2.1 4.0 ka
2000 BC
[144][145] 23°42′17″N 69°15′37″E / 23.70472°N 69.26028°E / 23.70472; 69.26028 (Kachchh)
Kebira Egypt 2 31 100 Ma [146][147]
Kebira Crater.jpg
24°40′N 24°58′E / 24.667°N 24.967°E / 24.667; 24.967 (Kebira)
Kilmichael United States (Mississippi) 1 13 45 Ma [148][149][150][151] 33°30′N 89°33′W / 33.5°N 89.55°W / 33.5; -89.55 (Kilmichael)
Krk structure Croatia 2 12 40 Ma [152][153] 45°04′N 14°37′E / 45.06°N 14.62°E / 45.06; 14.62 (Krk)
Kurai Basin Russia (Altai Region) 1 20 <200 Ma [154][155] 50°12′N 87°54′E / 50.200°N 87.900°E / 50.200; 87.900 (Kurai)
La Dulce Argentina 1 2.8 445? ka [156][109] 38°13′S 59°13′W / 38.21°S 59.21°W / -38.21; -59.21 (La Dulce)
Labynkyr Russia 0 67 150? Ma [157][12][158][159][note 1] 62°19′30″N 143°05′24″E / 62.325°N 143.090°E / 62.325; 143.090 (Labynkyr)
Lac Iro Chad 1 13 ? [160][6][161]
Lake Iro.jpg
10°10′N 19°40′E / 10.167°N 19.667°E / 10.167; 19.667 (Iro Lake)
Lairg Gravity Low Scotland 2 40 1200 Ma [162] 58°1′12″N, 4°24′0″W
Lake Cheko Russia (Siberia) 3 50 1908 AD [163] 60°57′50″N 101°51′36″E / 60.964°N 101.86°E / 60.964; 101.86 (Cheko)
Lake Tai (Tai Hu) China (Jiangsu) 1 70 ± 5 365 ± 5 Ma [164][165][166] 31°14′N 120°8′E / 31.233°N 120.133°E / 31.233; 120.133 (Tai)
Loch Leven Scotland 2 18x8 290 Ma [167][168] 56°12′N 3°23′W / 56.200°N 3.383°W / 56.200; -3.383 (Loch Leven)
Lorne Basin Australia (New South Wales) 2 30 250 ± 2 Ma [169][170] 31°36′S 152°37′E / 31.60°S 152.62°E / -31.60; 152.62 (Lorne)
Lycksele structure 2 Sweden 2 130 1500 ± 300 Ma [171][172][173] 64°55′N 18°47′E / 64.92°N 18.78°E / 64.92; 18.78 (Lycksele)
Madagascar structure 3 Madagascar 4 12 ? [174][175] 18°50′20″S 46°13′16″E / 18.839°S 46.221°E / -18.839; 46.221 (Madagascar)
Magyarmecske anomaly Hungary 1 7 299 Ma [176][177][178][179] 45°57′N 17°58′E / 45.95°N 17.97°E / 45.95; 17.97 (Magyarmecske)
Mahuika New Zealand (offshore) 2 20? 0.6 ka
1400 AD
[180][181][182] 48°18′S 166°24′E / 48.3°S 166.4°E / -48.3; 166.4 (Mahuika)
Maniitsoq structure Greenland 2 100 3000 Ma [183][184][185] 65°15′N 51°50′W / 65.250°N 51.833°W / 65.250; -51.833 (Maniitsoq)
Mejaouda (El Mrayer) Mauritania 1 3 <542? Ma [186][12][106][22][187] 22°43′19″N 7°18′43″W / 22.722°N 7.312°W / 22.722; -7.312 (Mejaouda)
Merewether Canada (Newfoundland) 0 20 0.9 ka
1100 AD
[188][189][note 1] 58°02′N 64°03′W / 58.04°N 64.05°W / 58.04; -64.05 (Merewether)
Meseta de la Barda Negra Argentina 1 1.5 4 ± 1 Ma [190][191] 39°10′S 69°53′W / 39.167°S 69.883°W / -39.167; -69.883 (Barda Negra)
Middle-Urals Ring Structure Russia 1 400–550 >542 Ma [192][193][194] 56°N 56°E / 56°N 56°E / 56; 56 (Urals Ring)
Mistassini-Otish impact structure Canada (Quebec) 1 600 2200 Ma [195][196] 50°34′N 73°25′W / 50.57°N 73.42°W / 50.57; -73.42 (Mistassini lake)
Mount Ashmore dome Indian Ocean (in Timor Sea) 2 >50 35 Ma [197][198][199] 12°33′S 123°12′E / 12.55°S 123.2°E / -12.55; 123.2
Mousso Chad 2 3.8 <542 Ma [200][201] 17°58′N 10°53′E / 17.967°N 10.883°E / 17.967; 10.883 (Mousso)
Mt. Oikeyama Japan 2 90 30? ka [202][203] 35°24′18″N 138°00′47″E / 35.405°N 138.013°E / 35.405; 138.013 (Oikeyama)
Mulkarra Australia (South Australia) 1 17 105 Ma [204][205] 27°51′S 138°55′E / 27.85°S 138.92°E / -27.85; 138.92 (Mulkarra)
Nastapoka (Hudson Bay) arc Canada (Quebec) 3 450 1800? Ma [206][12][207][208]
Arc Nastapoka.png
57°00′N 78°50′W / 57.000°N 78.833°W / 57.000; -78.833 (Hudson Bay)
Ouro Ndia Mali 2 3 <2.6 Ma [209][12][22] 14°59.8′N 4°30.0′W / 14.9967°N 4.5000°W / 14.9967; -4.5000 (Ouro Ndia)
Pantasma Nicaragua 3 10 ? [210] 13°22′N 85°57′W / 13.37°N 85.95°W / 13.37; -85.95 (Pantasma)
Panther Mountain United States (New York) 1 10 375 Ma [211][212][213]
Panther rosette stream pattern.gif
42°03′N 74°24′W / 42.050°N 74.400°W / 42.050; -74.400 (Panther Mountain)
Peerless structure United States (Montana) 1 6 470 ± 10 Ma [214][215] 48°48′N 105°48′W / 48.8°N 105.8°W / 48.8; -105.8 (Peerless)
Piratininga Brazil (Paraná) 3 12 117 Ma [216][70][217] 22°28′S 49°09′W / 22.467°S 49.150°W / -22.467; -49.150 (Piratininga)
Praia Grande Brazil (Santos Basin, offshore) 1 20 84 Ma [218][70][71] 25°39′S 45°37′W / 25.650°S 45.617°W / -25.650; -45.617 (prai grande)
Ramgarh India (Rajasthan) 0 3 ? [219][220][221][note 1]
Ramgarh Crater.JPG
25°20′16″N 76°37′29″E / 25.33778°N 76.62472°E / 25.33778; 76.62472 (Ramgarh)
Ross Antarctic Ocean (Ross Sea) 2 600? <38 Ma [222][58][223] 77°30′S 178°30′E / 77.5°S 178.5°E / -77.5; 178.5 (Ross)
Rubielos de la Cérida Spain 0 80x40 30-40 Ma [224][225][226][note 1]
Rubielos de la Cérida impact structure-karte topo.jpg
40°46′59″N 1°15′00″W / 40.783°N 1.25°W / 40.783; -1.25 (Rubielos)
Sakhalinka Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 12 70 Ma [227][228][229][230][231] 30°15′N 170°03′E / 30.250°N 170.050°E / 30.250; 170.050 (Sakhalinka)
São Miguel do Tapuio Brazil (Piauí) 1 22 120 Ma [232][12][71][233][234][235] 5°37.6′S 41°23.3′W / 5.6267°S 41.3883°W / -5.6267; -41.3883 (Sao Miguel Do Tapuio)
Shanghewan China (Jilin) 1 30 ? [236][237][238] 44°29′N 126°11′E / 44.483°N 126.183°E / 44.483; 126.183 (Shangewan)
Shiva Indian Ocean 1 500 66 Ma [239] 18°40′N 70°14′E / 18.667°N 70.233°E / 18.667; 70.233 (Shiva)
Shiyli Kazakhstan 0 5.5 46 ± 7 Ma [240][241][note 1] 49°10′N 57°51′E / 49.167°N 57.850°E / 49.167; 57.850 (Shiyli)
Silverpit Atlantic Ocean (North Sea) 1 20 60 ± 15 Ma [242][243][244][245][246][247][248][249]
Silverpit northwest perspective.jpg
54°14′N 1°51′E / 54.233°N 1.850°E / 54.233; 1.850 (Silverpit)
Sirente Italy 4 10 1.7 ka
320 ± 90 AD
[250][251] 42°10′38″N 13°35′45″E / 42.17722°N 13.59583°E / 42.17722; 13.59583 (Sirente)
Sithylemenkat Lake United States (Alaska) 3 12 33? ka [252][253][254][255] 66°07′34″N 151°23′20″W / 66.12611°N 151.38889°W / 66.12611; -151.38889 (Sithylemenkat)
Smerdyacheye Lake Russia 1 20 10–30? ka [256][257] 55°44′06″N 39°49′23″E / 55.735°N 39.823°E / 55.735; 39.823 (Smerdyacheye)
Sudan 3 (Mahas) Sudan [citation needed] 2.8 ? [citation needed] 20°01.9′N 30°13.7′E / 20.0317°N 30.2283°E / 20.0317; 30.2283 (Mahas)
Sudan 2 (Bayuda) Sudan 2 10 ? [258][259][260]
A map of Sudan showing three craters
Mahas
Mahas
Bayuda
Bayuda
Red Sea Hills
Red Sea Hills
Three craters in Sudan
18°03.5′N 33°30.2′E / 18.0583°N 33.5033°E / 18.0583; 33.5033 (Bayuda)
Sudan 1 (Red Sea Hills) Sudan 2 6 ? [261][262][263]
A map of Sudan showing three craters
Mahas
Mahas
Bayuda
Bayuda
Red Sea Hills
Red Sea Hills
Three craters in Sudan
17°57.1′N 37°56.1′E / 17.9517°N 37.9350°E / 17.9517; 37.9350 (Red Sea)
Svetloyar Lake Russia 0 40 2.6 ka
600 BC
[264][265][note 1] 56°49′08″N 45°05′35″E / 56.819°N 45.093°E / 56.819; 45.093 (Svetloyar)
Takamatsu Japan 1 4-8 15 Ma [266][267][268][269][270] 34°18′N 134°03′E / 34.3°N 134.05°E / 34.3; 134.05 (Takamatsu)
Tarek (Gilf Kebir) Egypt 3 2.1 112? Ma [271][12][272][273] 24°36′04″N 27°12′18″E / 24.601°N 27.205°E / 24.601; 27.205 (Tarek)
Tatarsky North Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 14 ? [274][275] 49°57′35″N 141°23′40″E / 49.95972°N 141.39444°E / 49.95972; 141.39444 (Tatarsky1)
Tatarsky South Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 20 ? [276][275] 48°17′38″N 141°23′40″E / 48.29389°N 141.39444°E / 48.29389; 141.39444 (Tatarsky2)
Tefé River structure Brazil (Amazonas) 2 15 65 ± 20 Ma [277][71][278] 4°57′S 66°03′W / 4.950°S 66.050°W / -4.950; -66.050 (Tefé)
Talundilly Australia (Queensland) 1 84 128 ± 5 Ma [279][280][281] 24°44′S 144°37′E / 24.73°S 144.62°E / -24.73; 144.62 (Talundilly)
Temimichat Mauritania 1 0.7 2? Ma [282][12][283] 24°15′N 9°39′W / 24.250°N 9.650°W / 24.250; -9.650 (Temimichat)
Tsenkher Mongolia 1 3.6 5 Ma [284][285][286] 43°38′41″N 98°22′09″E / 43.64472°N 98.36917°E / 43.64472; 98.36917 (Tsenkher)
Toms Canyon United States (New Jersey) 1 22 35 Ma [287][288][289][290] 39°08′N 72°51′W / 39.133°N 72.850°W / 39.133; -72.850 (Toms Canyon)
Umm al Binni Iraq 0 3.4 <5.0 ka
3000 BC
[291][note 1] 31°14′29″N 47°06′21″E / 31.24139°N 47.10583°E / 31.24139; 47.10583 (Umm al Binni)
Ust-Kara Russia (Nenetsia, offshore) 2 25 70 ± 2.2 Ma [292][293]
Kara crateri crater Russia lansat 7 image.gif
69°17′N 65°21′E / 69.28°N 65.35°E / 69.28; 65.35 (Ust-Kara)
Vélingara Senegal 1 48 23-40 Ma [294][295]
Vélingara ring-structur in senegal.png
13°02′N 14°08′W / 13.033°N 14.133°W / 13.033; -14.133 (Vélingara)
Versailles United States (Kentucky) 1 1.5 <400 Ma [296][297] 38°05′N 84°40′W / 38.09°N 84.67°W / 38.09; -84.67 (Versailles)
Vichada Colombia (Vichada) 2 50 30? Ma [298][12]
Vichada Structure Skylab G40B091120000.jpg
4°30′N 69°15′W / 4.500°N 69.250°W / 4.500; -69.250 (Vichada)
Victoria Island United States (California) 2 5.5 37-49 Ma [299] 37°53′N 121°32′W / 37.89°N 121.53°W / 37.89; -121.53 (Victoria Island structure)
Warburton East Australia (South Australia) 2 200 300-360 Ma [300][301][302][303] 28°00′S 140°30′E / 28°S 140.5°E / -28; 140.5 (Warbuton)
Warburton West Australia (South Australia) [citation needed] 200 300-360 Ma [303][301]
Weaubleau United States (Missouri) 1 19 330 ± 10 Ma [304][305][306]
Weaubleau Structure shaded relief.jpg
38°00′N 93°36′W / 38.0°N 93.6°W / 38.0; -93.6 (Weaubleau)
Wembo-Nyama (Omeonga) DR Congo 2 36-46 60? Ma [307][308][309] 3°37′52″S 24°31′07″E / 3.63111°S 24.51861°E / -3.63111; 24.51861 (Wembo-Nyama ring structure)
Wilkes Land 2 Antarctica 2 480 250-500 Ma [310]
Antarctica Map Wilkes L Crater.png
70°S 140°E / 70°S 140°E / -70; 140 (Wilkes)
Woodbury United States (Georgia) 1 7 500 ± 100 Ma [311][312] 32°55′N 84°33′W / 32.92°N 84.55°W / 32.92; -84.55 (Woodbury)
Yallalie Australia (Western Australia) 0 12 99? Ma [313][12][314][315][316][317][note 1] 30°26′40″S 115°46′16″E / 30.44444°S 115.77111°E / -30.44444; 115.77111 (Yallalie)
Zerelia West Greece 2 20 7.0 ka
5000 BC
[318][319] 39°09′48″N 22°42′32″E / 39.16333°N 22.70889°E / 39.16333; 22.70889 (Zerelia West)
Zerelia East Greece 2 10 7.0 ka
5000 BC
[318][319] 39°09′43″N 22°42′51″E / 39.16194°N 22.71417°E / 39.16194; 22.71417 (Zerelia East)

Overview[edit]

The Cheko crater is thought by one research group to be the result of the famous Tunguska event, although sediments in the lake have been dated back more than 5,000 years. There is highly speculative conjecture about the supposed Sirente impact (c. 320 ± 90 AD) causing the Roman emperor Constantine's vision at Milvian Bridge.[320][better source needed]

The Burckle crater and Umm al Binni structure are proposed to be behind the floods that affected Sumerian civilization.[321][322] The Kachchh impact may have been witnessed by the Harappan civilization and mentioned as a fireball in Sanskrit texts.[145]

The ages of the Bloody Creek crater[323] and Hiawatha crater are disputed, with some evidence suggesting it hit glacier ice 12,000-13,000 years ago, coeval with the Younger Dryas.

As the trend in the Earth Impact Database for about 26 confirmed craters younger than a million years old show that almost all are less than two km (1.2 mi) in diameter (except the three km (1.9 mi) Agoudal and four km (2.5 mi) Rio Cuarto), the suggestion that two large craters, Mahuika (20 km (12 mi)) and Burckle (30 km (19 mi)), formed just within the last few millennia has been met with skepticism.[324][325][326]


However, the source of the young (less than a million years old) and enormous Australasian strewnfield (c. 790 ka) is suggested to be a crater about 100 km (62 mi) across somewhere in Indochina,[327][328] with Hartung and Koeberl (1994) proposing the elongated 100 km × 35 km (62 mi × 22 mi) Tonlé Sap lake in Cambodia (visible in the map at the side) as a suspect structure.[329]

The Decorah crater has been conjectured as being part of the Ordovician meteor event.[330][better source needed]

Several twin impacts have been proposed such as the Rubielos de la Cérida and Azuara (30–40 Ma),[331] Cerro Jarau and Piratininga (c. 117 Ma),[70] and Warburton East and West (300–360 Ma).[303] However, adjacent craters may not necessarily have formed at the same time such as case of the confirmed Clearwater East and West lakes.

Some confirmed impacts like Sudbury or Chicxulub are also sources of magnetic anomalies[332] and/or gravity anomalies. The magnetic anomalies Bangui and Jackpine Creek,[136] the gravity anomalies Wilkes Land crater and Falkland Islands,[98] and others have been considered as being of impact origin. Bangui apparently has been discredited,[26][333] but appears again in a 2014 table of unconfirmed structures in Africa by Reimold and Koeberl.[6]

Several anomalies in Williston Basin were identified by Swatzky in the 1970s as astroblemes including Viewfield, Red Wing Creek, Eagle Butte, Dumas, and Hartney, of which only the last two are unconfirmed.[87]

The Eltanin impact has been confirmed (via an iridium anomaly and meteoritic material from ocean cores) but, as it fell into the Pacific Ocean, apparently no crater was formed. The age of Silverpit and the confirmed Boltysh crater (65.17 ± 0.64 Ma), as well as their latitude, has led to the speculative hypothesis that there may have been several impacts during the KT boundary.[334][335] Of the five oceans in descending order by area, namely the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic, only the smallest (the Arctic) does not yet have a proposed unconfirmed impact crater.

Craters larger than 100 kilometres (62 mi) in the Phanerozoic (after 541 Ma) are notable for their size as well as for the possible coeval events associated with them especially the major extinction events.

For example, the Ishim impact structure[132] is conjectured to be bounded by the late Ordivician-early Silurian (c. 445 ± 5 Ma),[133] the two Warburton basins have been linked to the Late Devonian extinction (c. 360 Ma),[301] both Bedout and the Wilkes Land crater have been associated with the severe Permian–Triassic extinction event (c. 252 Ma),[336][337] Manicouagan (c. 215 Ma) was once thought to be connected to the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event (c. 201 Ma)[338] but more recent dating has made it unlikely, while the consensus is the Chicxulub impact caused the one for Cretaceous–Paleogene (c. 66 Ma).

However, other extinction theories employ coeval periods of massive volcanism such as the Siberian Traps (Permian-Triassic) and Deccan Traps (Cretaceous-Paleogene).

Undiscovered but inferred[edit]

An approximate map of the strewnfield.
Australasian strewnfield. Shaded areas represent tektite finds.

There is geological evidence for impact events having taken place on Earth on certain specific occasions, which should have formed craters, but for which no impact craters have been found. In some cases this is because of erosion and Earth's crust having been recycled through plate tectonics, in others likely because exploration of the Earth's surface is incomplete. Typically the ages are already known and the diameters can be estimated.

Parent crater of Expected crater diameter Age Notes
Dakhleh glass 0.4 km 150 ka [339][340]
Argentinian tektites 5 km 480 ka [341]
Australasian tektites 32–114 km 780 ka [328]
Central American tektites 14 km 820 ka [342][343]
Skye ejecta deposits Unknown 60 Ma [344]
Stac Fada Member 40 km 1.2 Ga [345]
Barberton Greenstone Belt microtektites 500 km 3.2 Ga [346]
Marble Bar impact spherules "hundreds of kilometers" 3.4 Ga [347][better source needed]

Mistaken identity[edit]

Some geological processes can result in circular or near-circular features that may be mistaken for impact craters. Some examples are calderas, maars, sinkholes, glacial cirques, igneous intrusions, ring dikes, salt domes, geologic domes, ventifacts, tuff rings, forest rings, and others. Conversely, an impact crater may originally be thought as one of these geological features, like Meteor Crater (as a maar) or Upheaval Dome (as a salt dome).

The presence of shock metamorphism and shatter cones are important criteria in favor of an impact interpretation, though massive landslides (such as the Köfels landslide of 7800 BC which was once thought to be impact-related) may produce shock-like fused rocks called "frictionite".[348]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Shown as "proven" by Mikheeva (2017),[4] not "confirmed" by EID (2018)[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Impact Field Studies Group
  2. ^ Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures
  3. ^ Earth Impact Database
  4. ^ a b c d Mikheeva, 2017
  5. ^ P. W. Haines (2005). Impact cratering and distal ejecta: the Australian record, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 52, p. 481–507.
  6. ^ a b c d W. Reimold & C. Koeberl (2014). Impact structures in Africa: A review, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 93, May 2014, Pages 57–175.
  7. ^ R. Acevedo, M. C. Rocca, J. Ponce, S. Stinco (2015). Impact Craters in South America, Springer, Apr 25, 2015.
  8. ^ M. C. Chabou (2016). An updated inventory of meteorite impact structures in the Arab world, 1st ArabGU International Conference, Feb 2016, Algeria
  9. ^ A. Crósta and U. Reimold (2016). A Book Review: "Impact Craters in South America, by R. D. Acevedo et al."
  10. ^ List of confirmed impact craters by name - Earth Impact Database
  11. ^ Rampino, M.R, and T. Volk. 1996. Multiple impact event in the Paleozoic: Collision with a string of comets or asteroids?. Geophysical Research Letters 23. 49-52. Accessed 2019-04-06.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), Accessed May 2016
  13. ^ Murgab
  14. ^ Meteorite crater site of Ak-Bura
  15. ^ Bacharev, A (1952), The Murgab meteorite crater. Astron. Tsirk., No 122, p.8-10
  16. ^ Al Madafi
  17. ^ a b Garvin, J. B. & Blodget, H. W. (1986). Suspected Impact Crater Near Al Madafi, Saudi Arabia, Meteoritics, Vol. 21, p.366
  18. ^ a b Roger Weller. Al Madafi crater
  19. ^ Alamo
  20. ^ Henry Brean (2015). New study ranks Nevada crater among world's largest, Las Vegas Review Journal
  21. ^ Anefis
  22. ^ a b c A. Rossi (2002). Seven Possible New Impact Structures In Western Africa Detected On Aster Imagery, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII
  23. ^ Roger Weller Anefis crater
  24. ^ Aorounga
  25. ^ Ocampo, A. & Pope, K. (1996). Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C) Images Reveal Multiple Impact Craters at Aorounga, Northern Chad, Lunar and Planetary Science, volume 27, page 977.
  26. ^ a b c S. Master & W. Reimold (2000). The impact cratering record of Africa: An updated inventory of proven, probable, possible, and discredited impact structures on the African continent, Catastrophic Events Conference 2000.
  27. ^ Arganaty
  28. ^ Zeilik, B. (1987). The Arganaty cosmogenic crater in southern Kazakhstan and the ring structures associated with it. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Doklady, vol. 297, no. 4, 1987, p. 925-928.
  29. ^ M. Barash (2012). Mass Extinction of Ocean Organisms at the Paleozoic–Mesozoic Boundary: Effects and Causes. Oceanology, 2012, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 238–248.
  30. ^ Unnamed ("Arlit")
  31. ^ David Rajmon (2010). Impact Field Studies Group
  32. ^ Marc Fokker (2008). Astroforum Netherlands
  33. ^ Connelly, Daniel P. "Guide to MAPCIS for AGCC" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  34. ^ Azuara
  35. ^ Bajada del Diablo
  36. ^ R. D. Acevedo, J. Rabassa, M. J. Orgeira, et al. (2010) Bajada Del Diablo Impact Crater Strewn-Field, Patagonia, Argentina: The Largest Crater Field In The World? 73rd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
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  38. ^ Bajo Hondo
  39. ^ M. C. Rocca (2005). BAJO HONDO, CHUBUT, PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA: A NEW METEORITE IMPACT CRATER IN BASALT?, 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
  40. ^ Bangui
  41. ^ Girdler, R.; Taylor, P.; Frawley, J. (1992). A possible impact origin for the Bangui magnetic anomaly (Central Africa). Tectonophysics, Volume 212, Issue 1, p. 45-58
  42. ^ Bateke
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  44. ^ Bedout
  45. ^ Becker et al. (2004). Bedout: A Possible End-Permian Impact Crater Offshore of Northwestern Australia, Science , No.304, 1469-1476
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  47. ^ Bee Bluff
  48. ^ R. A. Graham (2005) Reinvestigation of the Bee Bluff Structure South of Uvalde, Texas, 'The Uvalde Crater'. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005)
  49. ^ Bee Bluff
  50. ^ Björkö
  51. ^ H. Henkel, A. Bäckström, B. Bergman, O. Stephansson, and M. Lindström (2005). Geothermal Energy from Impact Craters? The Björkö Study, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005
  52. ^ Bloody Creek
  53. ^ Bohemia
  54. ^ M. Papagiannis (1989). Photographs from geostationary satellites indicate the possible existence of a huge 300 KM impact crater in the Bohemian region of Czechoslovakia, Meteoritics, Vol. 24, p.313.
  55. ^ P. Rajlich (1992). Bohemian Circular Structure, Czechoslovakia: Search for the Impact Evidence, International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution. Held 1992, in Sudbury, Canada
  56. ^ Bow City
  57. ^ Bowers
  58. ^ a b L. P. Hrjanina (Khryanina), 2006. "Once again about Kainozoic meteorite structures in the Ross Sea, Antarctica" (PDF).
  59. ^ Gerard-Little, P., Abbott, D., Breger, D. and Burckle, L (2006). "Evidence for a Possible Late Pliocene Impact in the Ross Sea, Antarctica".CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
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  61. ^ Brushy Creek
  62. ^ Heinrich, P.V. (2003) Possible Meteorite Impact Crater in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana Search and Discovery Article. no. 50006. American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
  63. ^ Burckle
  64. ^ Abbott, Dallas H. , Martos, Suzanne, Elkinton, Hannah, Bryant, Edward F., Gusiakov, Viacheslav, and Breger, Dee (2006). Impact craters as sources of megatsunami generated chevron dunes. 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting (22-25 October 2006)
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  66. ^ Catalina
  67. ^ Mark R. Legg, Craig Nicholson, Chris Goldfinger, Randall Milstein, and Marc Kamerling (2004). Large enigmatic crater structures offshore southern California, Geophys. J. Int. (2004) 159, 803–815
  68. ^ Brandsma Dan, Lund Steve P., Henyey Thomas L. (1989). Paleomagnetism of Late Quaternary marine sediments from Santa Catalina basin, California continental borderland . J. Geophys. Res. B, Vol.94, No.1, P. 547-564
  69. ^ Jarau
  70. ^ a b c d A. Crósta, R. Romano (2004). Brazilian Impact Craters: A Review, 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2004)
  71. ^ a b c d A. Crósta, M. Vasconcelos (2013). Update On The Current Knowledge Of The Brazilian Impact Craters, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2013)
  72. ^ Charity Shoal
  73. ^ Holcombe, T.L., J. S. Warren, D. F. Reid, W. T. Virden, and D. L. Divins, 2001, Small Rimmed Depression in Lake Ontario: An Impact Crater? Journal of Great Lakes Research. vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 510-517.
  74. ^ Holcombe, T.L., S. Youngblut, and N. Slowey, 2013, Geological structure of Charity Shoal crater, Lake Ontario, revealed by multi beam bathymetry. Geo-Marine Letters. vol. 33, no. 4, pp 245-252.
  75. ^ Suttak, P.A., 2013, High-resolution lake-based magnetic mapping and modeling of basement structures, with examples from Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey and Charity Shoal, Lake Ontario. unpublished MS thesis, School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 113 pp.
  76. ^ Corossol
  77. ^ Higgins, M.D., P. Lajeunesse, G. St-Onge, R. Sanfacon, and M. Duchesne, 2013, Impact Breccia Clast from the Corossol Crater, Canada. 76th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. id.5190.
  78. ^ Lajeunesse, P., St‐Onge, G., Locat, J., Duchesne, M.J., Higgins, M.D., Sanfaçon, R. and Ortiz, J., 2013. The Corossol structure: A possible impact crater on the seafloor of the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48(12), pp. 2542–2558.
  79. ^ Lajeunesse, P., Duchesne, M.J., St-Onge, G., Locat, J., Higgins, M., Sanfaçon, R. and Ortiz, J., 2016. The Corossol Structure: a glaciated crater of possible impact origin in the northwestern Gulf of St Lawrence, eastern Canada. In Dowdeswell, J. A., Canals, M., Jakobsson, M., Todd, B. J., Dowdeswell, E. K. & Hogan, K. A. (eds) 2016. Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 46(1), pp.127–128.
  80. ^ Darwin
  81. ^ Decorah
  82. ^ Briggs, D.E., Liu, H.P., McKay, R.M. and Witzke, B.J., 2018. The Winneshiek biota: exceptionally well-preserved fossils in a Middle Ordovician impact crater. Journal of the Geological Society, 175(6), pp.865-874.
  83. ^ French, B.M., McKay, R.M., Liu, H.P., Briggs, D.E. and Witzke, B.J., 2018. The Decorah structure, northeastern Iowa: geology and evidence for formation by meteorite impact. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 130(11-12), pp.2062-2086.
  84. ^ "Potential asteroid impact identified in western Queensland". Geoscience Australia. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  85. ^ Glikson, A.; R.J. Korsch, and P. Milligan. 2016. The Diamantina River ring feature, Winton region, western Queensland. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 63. 1–11. Accessed 2019-04-06.
  86. ^ Dumas
  87. ^ a b c Gubins, A. & Strangway, D. (1978). Magnetic Fields Associated with a Probable Late Cretaceous Astrobleme at Dumas, Saskatchewan, LUNAR AND PLANETARY SCIENCE IX, PP. 433–435
  88. ^ Duolun
  89. ^ Wu Siben (1989). (1989). "Geologic feature of the Duolun impact crater". Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 20: 1219. Bibcode:1989LPI....20.1219W.
  90. ^ El-Baz
  91. ^ El-Baz, F. (1981). Science, 213, 439–440.
  92. ^ Eltanin
  93. ^ Shuvalov V.V. (2006). Numerical modeling of the Eltanin impact: determination of projectile size and tsunami amplitude. 40 ESLAB Symposium: 1 International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk, 8-12 May, 2006, Noordwijk: ESA, P. 201-202
  94. ^ Weiss Rober, Lynett Patrick; Wunnemann Kai (2015). The Eltanin impact and its tsunami along the coast of South America: Inigshts for potential deposits Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. - Vol. 409. - P. 175-181
  95. ^ Faya Basin
  96. ^ M. Schmieder and E. Buchner (2010). The Faya Basin (Chad) revisited – structural insights from central peak morphology and potential Martian analogs, Nördlingen Ries Crater Workshop (2010).
  97. ^ Falkland
  98. ^ a b M. Rocca and J. Presser (2015) A possible new very large impact structure in Malvinas Islands, Historia Natural, Tercera Series, Volumen 5(2), 2015.
  99. ^ Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M. C. L.; Ponce, J.; Stinco, S. G. (2015). Impact Craters in South America. Springer. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-319-13093-4.
  100. ^ Maximiliano C.L. Rocca et al. (2017). (2017). "Geophysical evidence for a large impact structure on the Falkland (Malvinas) Plateau". Terra Nova. 29 (4): 233–237. doi:10.1111/ter.12269.
  101. ^ Hannah Osborne (May 5, 2017). "Crater Potentially Linked to the Biggest Mass Extinction Event in Earth's History is Discovered". Newsweek Tech & Science.
  102. ^ Fried Egg
  103. ^ Amos, J (2009) 'Fried Egg' may be impact crater BBC News.
  104. ^ Garet El Lefet
  105. ^ Roger Weller. Garet El Lefet crater
  106. ^ a b J. Classen (1977). Catalogue of 230 certain, probable, possible, and doubtful impact structures, Meteoritics, vol. 12, Mar. 31, 1977, p. 61-78.
  107. ^ Gatun
  108. ^ General San Martín
  109. ^ a b Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.; Zárate, M. A. (2007) La Dulce Crater: Evidence For A 2.8 Km Impact Structure In The Eastern Pampas Of Argentina, 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
  110. ^ R. D. Acevedo, M. Rocca, J. Rabassa and J. F. Ponce (2011) Meteorite Impact Craters In South America: A Brief Review. 74th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting (2011)
  111. ^ Gnargoo
  112. ^ R. Iaskty and A. Glikson (2005). "Gnargoo: a possible 75 km-diameter post-Early Permian – pre-Cretaceous buried impact structure, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia", Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol 52, 2005
  113. ^ Guarda
  114. ^ Monteiro Jose Fernando (1991). The Guarda circular structure: a possible complex impact crater . Lunar and Planet. Sci., Houston (Tex.), Vol.22, P. 915-916
  115. ^ Stanton, M. S., 2002, Is the Gulf's Origin Heaven Sent? AAPG Explorer (Dec. 2002) American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa Oklahoma.
  116. ^ Hartney
  117. ^ C. Anderson (1980). A Seismic Reflection Study of a Probable Astrobleme near Hartney, Manitoba
  118. ^ Hiawatha
  119. ^ Kjær, Kurt H.; et al. (2018). "A large impact crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland". Science Advances. 4 (11): eaar8173. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aar8173. PMC 6235527. PMID 30443592.
  120. ^ Hickman
  121. ^ Hico
  122. ^ J. Glidewell (2009). SEISMIC DATA THROUGH THE HICO STRUCTURE: A POSSIBLE IMPACT FEATURE IN NORTHCENTRAL TEXAS, 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
  123. ^ Wiberg Leanne (1982). The Hico Structure: a possible impact structure in north-central Texas, USA. Lunar and Planet. Sci. 13: Abstr. Pap. 13th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., Houston, Tex., March 15-19, Pt 2., Houston, Tex., P. 863-864
  124. ^ Hotchkiss
  125. ^ M. Mazur and R. Stewart (1998). Interpreting the Hotchkiss structure: A possible meteorite impact feature in northwestern Alberta, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology (CREWES).
  126. ^ Howell
  127. ^ B. Deane, P. Lee, K. Milam, J. Evenick, and R.Zawislak (2004). THE HOWELL STRUCTURE, LINCOLN COUNTY, TENNESSEE: A REVIEW OF PAST AND CURRENT RESEARCH, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV
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  129. ^ Ibn-Batutah
  130. ^ E. Ghoneim (2009). Ibn-Batutah: A possible simple impact structure in southeastern Libya, a remote sensing study, Geomorphology, Volume 103, Issue 3, p. 341-350.
  131. ^ Ishim
  132. ^ a b Frank Dachille (1976). (1976). "Frequency of the formation of large terrestrial impact craters". Meteoritics. 11: 270. Bibcode:1976Metic..11..270D.
  133. ^ a b Zeylik B. S.; Seytmuratova E. Yu, 1974: A meteorite-impact structure in central Kazakhstan and its magmatic-ore controlling role. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1, Pages 167–170
  134. ^ Iturralde
  135. ^ Jackpine Creek
  136. ^ a b S. Goussev, R. Charters, J. Peirce and W. Glenn (2002). Jackpine Creek Magnetic Anomaly: A Case of the HRAM Prospect Scale Interpretation. CSEG: The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists
  137. ^ Jebel Hadid
  138. ^ Martin Schmieder, Elmar Buchner, & Daniel Paul Le Heron (2009). The Jebel Hadid structure (Al Kufrah Basin, SE Libya)—A possible impact structure and potential hydrocarbon trap?, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Volume 26, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 310–318
  139. ^ Jeptha Knob
  140. ^ Snows Island
  141. ^ Talwani Pradeep, Wildermuth Eric, Parkinson Chris D. (2003). An impact crater in northeast South Carolina inferred from potential field data. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.30, No.7, P.19/1-19/4
  142. ^ Jwaneng South
  143. ^ Sharad Master, Brad Pitts and Marek Wendorff (2009). Jwaneng South Structure, Botswana: a New 1.3 km Diameter Buried Cenozoic Impact Crater Discovered by Airship-mounted Gravity Gradometer, 11th SAGA Biennial Technical Meeting and Exhibition
  144. ^ Kachchh
  145. ^ a b R. V. Karanth, P. Thakker, and M. Gadhavi 2006. A preliminary report on the possible impact crater of Kachchh, Current Science, vol. 91, no. 7, October 2006
  146. ^ Kebira
  147. ^ Reimold W.U., Koeberl Ch. (2014). Impact structures in Africa: A review J. Afr. Earth. Sci. 93: 57-175
  148. ^ Kilmichael
  149. ^ M.S. Huber, D.T. King, Jr., L.W. Petruny, and C. Koeberl (2013). REVISITING KILMICHAEL (MISSISSIPPI), A POSSIBLE IMPACT STRUCTURE, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
  150. ^ Robertson P.B., Butler M.D. (1982). New evidence for the impact origin of Kilmichael Mississippi. Lunar and Planet. Sci. 13: Abstr. Pap. 13th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., Houston, Tex., March 15-19, 1982. Pt 2, Houston, Tex., P. 653-654
  151. ^ King D.T. Petruny Jr. and L.W. (2002). COSMIC IMPACT IN THE COASTAL PLAIN OF MISSISSIPPI? THE RIDDLE THE OF THE KILMICHAEL STRUCTURE 65th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
  152. ^ Krk
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  154. ^ Kurai Basin
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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Download coordinates as: KML · GPX