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This is a list of
great powers during the medieval period. The term "great power" has only been used in historiography and political science since the Congress of Vienna in 1815.  Lord Castlereagh, the British Foreign Secretary, first used the term in its diplomatic context in 1814. Use of the term in medieval historiography is therefore idiosyncratic to each author. In historiography of the pre-modern period, it is more typical to talk of empires (itself a poorly-defined term, see list of empires).
Islamic empires [ edit ]
Middle Ages proper begin with the collapse of the remnants of Late Antiquity in the 7th century due to the Islamic conquests. The Old World is largely dominated by the Islamic caliphates during the mid 7th to 10th centuries.
Christian states [ edit ]
Eastern Christianity [ edit ]
Latin Christianity [ edit ]
Medieval China [ edit ]
Inner Asia and Mongolia [ edit ]
Sub-Saharan Africa [ edit ]
South and Southeast Asia [ edit ]
Pre-Columbian Americas [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Fueter, Eduard (1922). . United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. 25–28, 36–44. World history, 1815–1930 ISBN 1-58477-077-5.
^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143. "Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model." Encyclopaedia Iranica, Iran: Islamic Period – Ghaznavids, E. Yarshater
^ Jean Paul Roux: Historie des Turcs (Trans:Prof Dr.Aykut Kazancıgil - Lale Arslan Özcan) Kabalcı yayınevi, İstanbul, 2007, ISBN 975-997-091-0, p.205–205
^ Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.
^ "Bulgaria - The Slavs and the Bulgars" . Retrieved . 5 October 2014
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Empires. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press. English, Edward D. ed.
Encyclopedia Of The Medieval World (2 vol. 2004). Farrington, K. (2003).
Historical Atlas of Empires. London: Mercury. Harrison, T., & J. Paul Getty Museum. (2009).
The Great Empires of the Ancient World. Los Angeles, Calif: J. Paul Getty Museum. Khan, A. (2004).
A Historical Atlas of India. New York: Rosen Pub. Jordan, William Chester. (1996)
The Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia for Students (4 Volumes) Labberton, R. H. (1884).
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The Middle Ages: A Concise Encyclopedia. (1989) Morris, I., & Scheidel, W. (2009).
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History of International Relations Open Textbook Project, Cambridge: Open Book, forthcoming. Petitjean, P., Jami, C., Moulin, A. M., & Equipe REHSEIS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France)). (1992).
Science and Empires: Historical Studies about Scientific Development and European Expansion. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Shepherd, W. R., & C.S. Hammond & Company. (1911).
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The Encyclopedia of World History (2001).