List of Governors of California before admission
||This article possibly contains original research. (July 2015)|
This is a list of the 31 Governors of California before her admission as the 31st U.S. state in 1850. From 1769 to 1822, the area was a Spanish colony. Upon Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, California officially remained a colony of Spain for one year, although it was in effect independent. From 1822 until statehood in 1836, it was a nominal federal territory of the United Mexican States (UEM).
From 1836 to 1846, it achieved full self-rule as a free and sovereign State alongside the UEM, sending its elected and voting representation to Mexico City. From 1846 to 1850, it was a nominally independent republic—the "Bear Flag Republic"—with the protection of the U.S. military. California was admitted as one of the United States on September 9, 1850.
From 1822 until 1848, the great foe of California was Mexico, which expressed its hatred toward California through neglect, through sending small bands of criminal colonists, and through numerous and failed attempts at tyrannical governance, all which Californians resisted through a series of revolutions that achieved political independence while at the same time benefitting from Mexican military protection. These revolutions culminated in Mexico conceding that California was a "Free and sovereign state" during the tenure of Governor Alvarado in 1836, the year in which Texas also gained its independence.
At the start of the Bear Flag revolt against Mexico in 1846, land surveyor Capt. John C. Fremont on the frontier sent his companion William B. Ide over to Sonoma, California and jailed Spanish Californians who had advocated voluntary union with the USA. Fremont's attempts to conquer California for himself led to a conviction of mutiny in court-martial, Gen. Kearney of the US Army presiding. While this was going on, Californians sought union with the US and freely continued to elect their own civil officials.
For governors of the state after admission among the United States in 1850, see List of Governors of California. Las Californias Province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain included the Baja California Peninsula and mainland California from 1768 to 1804[original research?]. They became separate provinces within New Spain in 1804, establishing Alta California Province with its own governors from 1804 to 1822.[original research?]
Colony of the Kingdom of Spain, 1768–1822
Federal territory, United Mexican States (EUM), 1822–1836
Free and sovereign state, EUM, 1836–1846
Addendum: U.S. military governors of California, 1846–1849
- List of Governors of California
- List of Texas Governors and Presidents
- List of Spanish governors of New Mexico
-  Note that California is recognized as a fully formed Department, with its own Assembly, Departments were the the equivalent of states and sent their representatives to Mexico City. Baja California borrow and maintains the title of "Free and sovereign state" to this day.
- >http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-AlvaradoJ.html Encyclopedia.com
- Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California. 978-1135657727
- Robert R. Miller. Juan Alvarado, Governor of California, 1836-1842. University of Oklahoma Press. 1998
- Irvine, Leigh H. (1905). "Vol. I, Chapter III". A History of The New California — Its Resources And People. New York: The Lewis Publishing Company. OCLC 35952214. Retrieved 2007-07-11.