List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama

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World map highlighting countries visited by Barack Obama while president

This is a list of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States. As of December 2016, Barack Obama has made 52 international trips to 58 different countries since his presidency began on January 20, 2009.

The number of visits per country where he traveled are:

2009[edit]

President Obama is greeted by Canada's Governor General Michaëlle Jean upon arriving in Ottawa, February 19, 2009.

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2009:

Country Locations Dates Details
Canada Canada Ottawa February 19 First trip outside the United States as president. President Obama met with Governor General Michaëlle Jean, Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Leader of the Opposition Michael Ignatieff.[1][2][3]
United Kingdom United Kingdom London March 31 – April 2 President Obama attended the G-20 summit meeting. Obama met with Prime Minister Gordon Brown at 10 Downing Street, where he took part in a joint press conference with Brown,[4] and met with Leader of the Opposition David Cameron at the U.S. Embassy in Grosvenor Square.[5] Obama also met with Queen Elizabeth II.[6][7][8]
France France
Germany Germany
Strasbourg, Kehl, Baden-Baden April 3–4 President Obama attended the NATO summit meeting.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague April 5 President Obama visited the Czech Republic, then holding the rotating presidency of the European Council. President Obama met with President Václav Klaus. He also made a speech in Hradčany Square, Prague, in which he spoke about the threat of nuclear weapons in the post–Cold War era.[18][20][21][22]
Turkey Turkey Ankara, Istanbul April 6–7 President Obama participated in a wreath laying ceremony at Anitkabir Mausoleum,[23] met with President Abdullah Gül and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and delivered a speech to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Obama also met with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Istanbul,[24] attended the Alliance of Civilizations forum,[25] a forum sponsored by Turkey and Spain to promote understanding between the Western and Islamic worlds, visited the Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque and hold a town hall with students at the Tophane Cultural Center.[26][27][28][29][30]
Iraq Iraq Baghdad April 7 President Obama met with President Jalal Talabani and Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. He also visited U.S. soldiers fighting in the Iraq War.[30][31][32]
Mexico Mexico Mexico City April 16–17[33] President Obama met with President Felipe Calderón.[33][34][35][36][37][38]
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain April 17–19 President Obama attended the 5th Summit of the Americas.[35][39][40][41][42]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh Province June 3–4 President Obama met with King Abdullah and discussed various issues, including the Arab–Israeli conflict and Iran's nuclear program.[43][44][45]
Egypt Egypt Cairo, Giza June 4 President Obama issued an important speech to the Muslim world—entitled "A New Beginning"—at Cairo University. Obama also held talks with President Hosni Mubarak on regional issues. The talks were described as "candid and frank" by Mubarak. Obama also visited the Sultan Hassan Mosque.[43][46][47]
Germany Germany Dresden, Buchenwald, Landstuhl June 5 President Obama visited the Buchenwald concentration camp, ahead of the D-Day commemorations, and Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. He also spoke of the Arab–Israeli conflict, and met with Chancellor Angela Merkel[48] in Dresden Castle,[49] visited Dresden Frauenkirche[50] and gave an interview at Zwinger Palace in Dresden.[51][52][53][54][55]
France France Paris, Caen June 5–7 President Obama visited France to commemorate the 65th anniversary of the Normandy Landings. Obama met dignitaries including French President Nicolas Sarkozy, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.[56][57] In Paris, President Obama and his family took part in sightseeing, including visiting the Centre Georges Pompidou[58] and Notre Dame de Paris.[59][60][61][62][63][64]
Russia Russia Moscow July 6–8 President Obama met with President Dmitry Medvedev to discuss global issues, including the War in Afghanistan. Obama delivered a speech to the New Economic School in Moscow.[65][65]
Italy Italy L'Aquila, Rome July 8–10 President Obama attended the 35th G8 summit. President Obama also met with President Giorgio Napolitano.[66]
Vatican City Vatican City Vatican City July 10 President Obama met with Pope Benedict XVI, and discussed issues such as poverty, stem-cell research, peace in the Middle East, and the need to reach out to the Muslim world. Obama and the Pope also exchanged gifts.[67]
Ghana Ghana Accra, Cape Coast July 11 President Obama met with President John Atta Mills and made a speech to the Parliament of Ghana. He also toured Cape Coast Castle, a former departing point of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.[66]
Mexico Mexico Guadalajara August 9–10 President Obama attended the annual North American Leaders' Summit.[68]
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen October 2 President Obama attended the 13th Olympic Congress, supporting the unsuccessful Chicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. While in Denmark, President Obama met with Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen. He also met with Queen Margrethe II and Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark.[69]
Japan Japan Tokyo November 13–14 The trip was the first stop on a four-nation tour of Asia. While in Japan, President Obama met with Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama.[70] Obama also visited the Tokyo Imperial Palace, meeting with Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, and made a speech at the Suntory Hall[71] in Tokyo.[72]
Singapore Singapore Central Area November 14–15 The trip was the second stop on a four-nation tour of Asia. Obama attended the APEC summit meeting.[73][74] While in Singapore, Obama took part in bilateral meetings with Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[72]
China China Shanghai, Beijing November 15–18 The trip was the third stop on a four-nation tour of Asia. In Shanghai, President Obama met with Shanghai Party Secretary Yu Zhengsheng and Mayor Han Zheng.[72] He also took part in a town-hall style meeting with Chinese students, addressing a range of issues such as internet censorship and U.S. arms deals with Taiwan.[75][76] In Beijing, Obama took part in a bilateral meeting with President Hu Jintao, and met with Premier Wen Jiabao.[72] Obama also met briefly with his half brother Mark Ndesandjo,[77] and visited various cultural sights; these included the Forbidden City[78][79] and part of the Great Wall of China.[80][81][82]
South Korea South Korea Seoul, Osan November 18–19 The trip was the final stop on a four-nation tour of Asia. President Obama met with President Lee Myung-bak at the Blue House, discussing such issues as the inactive South Korea – United States Free Trade Agreement.[83][84][85] Obama also met with American soldiers stationed at Osan Air Base.[86]
Norway Norway Oslo December 10 President Obama accepted the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize, delivering his Nobel lecture, entitled "A Just and Lasting Peace."[87][88]
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen December 18 President Obama made a speech at the Bella Center to attendants of the United Nations Climate Change Conference. He also took part in a bilateral meeting with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,[89] and met with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to discuss completing a nuclear disarmament treaty to replace START I, a 15-year treaty that entered into force on December 5, 1994.[90]

2010[edit]

Presidernt Obama with Russia's President Dimitry Medvedev (L), and France's President Nicolas Sarkozy (R), at the NATO Leaders Summit in Lisbon, Portugal, November 20, 2010

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2010:

Country Locations Dates Details
Afghanistan Afghanistan Bagram, Kabul March 28 President Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan, flying on Air Force One from Camp David to Bagram Air Base, and then flew on by helicopter to the Presidential Palace in Kabul to meet with President Hamid Karzai to discuss the ongoing war in Afghanistan. During his visit, Obama also spoke with troops, and met with U.S. Ambassador Karl Eikenberry and General Stanley A. McChrystal. Obama previously visited eastern Afghanistan in July 2008, during his campaign in the 2008 presidential election.[91]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague April 8 President Obama traveled to Prague, Czech Republic, to sign the New START treaty with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Obama also took part in a formal dinner with the heads of government of eleven European countries: the Czech Republic plus Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.[92]
Canada Canada Huntsville, Toronto June 25–27 President Obama traveled to Huntsville, Ontario (in the Muskoka region) as part of the 36th G8 summit. The President later traveled to Toronto as part of the G-20 summit meeting.[93][94][95][96]
India India Mumbai, New Delhi November 6–9 President Obama traveled on a state visit to Mumbai, India, as part of a trip to Asia. The President commemorated the 2008 Mumbai attacks, visited the Mani Bhavan Museum, and hosted various business activities at the Oberoi Trident. The President later hosted a town hall meeting at St Xavier's College. During his stay in Mumbai, the President stayed at the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, which had previously been a terrorist target. The President proceeded to New Delhi, where he visited Humayun's Tomb and met with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. He also addressed a joint session of the Indian Parliament and participated in a state dinner hosted by Indian's president Pratibha Patil at the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the president of India.[97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113]
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta November 9–10 President Obama traveled on a state visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, as part of a four-country tour of Asia. The President had bilateral meetings with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono at the Istana Negara. Later in the trip, the President visited the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta and delivered a speech at the University of Indonesia as a follow up to his 2009 A New Beginning speech.[114][115][116][117][118][119]
South Korea South Korea Seoul November 10–12 President Obama traveled to Seoul, South Korea, as part of a four-country tour of Asia. While there, the President attended a Veterans Day ceremony at the Yongsan Garrison and had bilateral meetings with President Lee Myung-bak at the Blue House. The President later attended the G-20 summit meeting at the COEX Convention & Exhibition Center.[120][121][122][123][124][125]
Japan Japan Tokyo, Yokohama, Kamakura November 12–14 President Obama traveled to Yokohama after his arrival in Tokyo, as part of a four-country tour of Asia. While in Yokohama, the President attended the APEC summit meeting with several national leaders held at the InterContinental Yokohama Grand Hotel and Pacifico Yokohama Conference Center. He also held bilateral talks with Prime Minister Naoto Kan on the sidelines of the summit making joint press announcements. The President visited the famous statue of Amida Buddha located at the temple of Kōtoku-in in the city of Kamakura[126][127][128]
Portugal Portugal Lisbon November 19–20 President Obama traveled to Lisbon, Portugal to attend the NATO summit meeting. Obama met with President Aníbal Cavaco Silva at Belém Palace, and later held bilateral meetings with Prime Minister José Sócrates. The President later attended a meeting of the North Atlantic Council, meeting with Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili on the sidelines.[129][130][131][132][133]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Bagram December 3 President Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan, where he thanked United States soldiers for their contributions to the war at Bagram Airfield outside Bagram, Parwān Province.[134][135][136][137]

2011[edit]

President Obama lays a wreath at the Warsaw Ghetto Memorial in Warsaw, Poland, May 27, 2011

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama in 2011:

Country Locations Dates Details
Brazil Brazil Brasília, Rio de Janeiro March 19–21 President Obama arrived in Brasília on a state visit on March 19. He met with Brazil's president Dilma Rousseff for the first time at the Palácio do Planalto. Obama aimed to bolster the trade relationship between the United States and Brazil. On March 20, he traveled to Rio de Janeiro and spoke to a crowd at the Theatro Municipal. He visited the favela Cidade de Deus, one of Rio de Janeiro's most impoverished and famous neighborhoods.[138] He then went with his family to visit the Christ the Redeemer statue. During his trip to Brazil, Obama made two public speeches in which he spoke about "colonialism, human freedom and the American Dream."[139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149]
Chile Chile Santiago March 21–22 Obama visited Santiago on a state visit and met with Chile's president Sebastián Piñera at La Moneda Palace to discuss strengthening trade relations. Later, Obama spoke about how the democracies of Latin America could be a guide for the democracies developing in the Middle East in a speech at an art museum in the capital city.[146][150][151][152][153][154]
El Salvador El Salvador San Salvador March 22–23 President Obama met with El Salvador's president Mauricio Funes. The two discussed immigration and drug trafficking. Later he visited the San Salvador Cathedral and the tomb of archbishop Óscar Romero.[151][155][156][157]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin, Moneygall May 23 During his state visit in Ireland, Obama met Irish President Mary McAleese, and also held talks with Taoiseach Enda Kenny. Obama also visited Moneygall, home to the president's great-great-great grandfather Falmouth Kearney who emigrated to the United States in 1850.[158] After returning from Moneygall Obama made a speech at College Green in Dublin to reaffirm US-Irish ties.[159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166]
United Kingdom United Kingdom London May 23–26 Obama arrived on a state visit a day ahead of schedule on Monday, May 23, to avoid any disruption from a volcanic ash cloud in Iceland. During the first official day of his UK state visit Britain President Obama received a ceremonial welcome, including a 41-gun salute, at the Buckingham Palace gardens. Obama toured the palace, met senior royals at Buckingham Palace and later David and Samantha Cameron at Downing Street 10. He also met opposition leader Ed Miliband and visited to the Globe Academy in Southwark, south London, where Obama and Cameron teamed up for a table tennis match against schoolboys. Obama also laid a wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey and participated in state banquet at Buckingham Palace hosted by Queen Elizabeth II. On his second official state visit day Obama hold meetings with Prime Minister Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Clegg and served up food at a barbecue for military families from the US and Britain in the Downing Street garden. Cameron and Obama hold later a joint press conference at Lancaster House. Obama gave a speech at Westminster Hall to the UK Parliament and later hosted a banquet for the Queen, Prince Philip and a select group of other guests at the US ambassador's residence, Winfield House, in London. Obama departed London on May 26 en route to the G8 Summit in Deauville, France.[167][168][169][170][171][172][173][174][175]
France France Deauville May 26–27 Obama attended the 37th G8 summit in Deauville where he had bilateral talks with the President of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Japan, Naoto Kan, and the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy.[176][177][178][179][180][181]
Poland Poland Warsaw May 27–28 On the first day of his two-day state visit, Obama participated in wreath laying ceremonies at both the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Warsaw Ghetto Memorial. The President also met with Jewish community leaders and Holocaust survivors at the Warsaw Ghetto Memorial. At the evening of Day One he also participated a dinner with Central and Eastern European leaders hosted by Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski at the Royal Castle. On Day Two of his visit Obama had meetings with President Bronisław Komorowski and Prime Minister Donald Tusk. He also visited the memorial to the victims of the Smolensk plane crash at the Field Cathedral of the Polish Military in Warsaw.[182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194]
France France Cannes November 3–4 Obama attended the G-20 summit meeting in Cannes where he had bilateral talks with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. During his stay in France Obama meet with L20 International Labor Leaders, joined President Nicolas Sarkozy in an event honoring the alliance between the United States and France and participated with Sarkozy in a joint interview with French television stations TF1 and France 2.[195][196][197][198][199][200]
Australia Australia Canberra, Darwin November 16–17 The two-day state visit was President Obama's first official visit to Australia—previously scheduled trips were canceled due to the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The aim of the visit was to strengthen the Australian American relations and promoting security in the Pacific. On Wednesday 16, the President met with Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard, and the two held a joint press conference in which an increase in U.S. military presence in northern Australia was announced. Later on that day President Obama was hosted at a supper at the Australian Parliament Residence. On Thursday 17, the President spoke to the Australian Parliament at Parliament House, meet with parliamentary leaders, toured a major college with Prime Minister Gillard, and then traveled to Darwin to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the ANZUS alliance. In Darwin participated in a wreath laying ceremony with Prime Minister Gillard at USS Peary Memorial and delivered remarks to Australian troops and U.S. Marines. During his stay in Australia Obama also participated in a wreath laying ceremony at the Australian War Memorial, met with Opposition Leader Tony Abbott, and held a U.S. Embassy meet and greet at the U.S. Embassy in Canberra, where he also participated in a tree dedication ceremony.[201][202][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214][215]
Indonesia Indonesia Nusa Dua[216] on Bali November 17–19 President Obama attended the annually ASEAN Summit and the 6th East Asia Summit on Bali. During his stay in Bali Obama participated in an event to announce a commercial deal with representatives of Boeing and Lion Air, participated in Embassy and U.S. Mission Meet & Greet and hosted bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Singh of India, President Aquino of the Philippines, President Yudhoyono of Indonesia as well as Prime Minister Yingluck of Thailand. The President also announced that U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton plans to visit Myanmar in December 2011 on a trip that could signal a major change in relations between the two countries. On Bali President Obama also had an unscheduled meeting with Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao.[217][218][219][220][221][222][223][224][225][226][227][228][229][230][231][232][233][234][235][236][237]

2012[edit]

President Obama meets with the President of Myanmar, Thein Sein in Yangon, November 19, 2012

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2012:

Country Locations Dates Details
South Korea South Korea Osan, Seoul March 25–27 President Obama visited South Korea to take part in the Nuclear Security Summit, in Seoul. After landing at Osan Air Base, south of Seoul, Mr. Obama traveled to the Korean Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea, where he greeted some of the 28,500 American troops stationed in South Korea. He visited Observation Post Ouellette, a hilltop border post ringed with sandbags, overlooking the heavily fortified, brown hills of the North Korean countryside. After returning from the Korean Demilitarized Zone, Obama hold a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Erdogan of Turkey and attend a bilateral meeting with President Lee Myung-bak of the Republic of Korea at the Blue House. While attending the Nuclear Security Summit Obama hold bilateral meetings with President Medvedev of Russia, President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, President Hu Jintao of China and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani of Pakistan. President Obama also delivered remarks at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Seoul in which he discussed his Prague agenda to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and seek the peace and security of a world without them, including his commitment to safe, clean nuclear energy as part of his comprehensive strategy to develop all sources of American energy.[238][239][240][241]
Colombia Colombia Cartagena April 13–15 President Obama traveled on a state visit to Colombia[242][243][244] to take part in the 6th Summit of the Americas[245][246] at the Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala Convention Center[247] in Cartagena, Colombia and strengthen ties with the Hispanic community in his own country.[242] Before the background of more distance and independence by Latin American and Caribbean countries from the United States of America[248][249][250][251][252] discussed topics expected were the pros and cons of drug legalization in the context of America's War on Drugs[253][254][255][256][257][258][259][260] as well as the U.S. sanctions on Cuba and Cuba's continued exclusion from the Summit of the Americas.[251][255][258][259][260][261][262][263] Before Obama's arrival in Cartagena at Friday April 13, 2012[264] several Secret Service agents providing security for President Barack Obama in Colombia have been recalled following allegations of misconduct.[251][265][266][267][268][269][270] After the summits conclusion President Obama had a bilateral program with President Santos of Colombia which included a meeting and a working lunch. The two leaders then hold a joint press conference in which they announced that the United States–Colombia Free Trade Agreement will take effect May 15, 2012.[271][272][273][274] Obama then toured Cartagena's historic San Pedro Claver church with Columbian President Santos toured the Iglesia de San Pedro Claver[275] and attended an event to hand over land titles to representatives of the Afro-Colombian community at the Plaza de San Pedro in Cartagena, Colombia on April 15, 2012,[244] in which Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira participated.[276] The land restitution is an attempt by Colombia to recognize marginalized communities who were forced from their land by armed groups.[277][278] In the late afternoon, the President returned to the United States, getting back to Washington late Sunday night.[279] The outcome of the summit for President Obama and the United States has been covered by newsagencies and newspapers.[280][281][282][283][284] During his trip to Colombia Obama visited the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas,[285] the largest colonial fort in Colombia.
Afghanistan Afghanistan Bagram, Kabul May 1–2 President Obama visited Afghanistan during an unannounced surprise night visit on the first anniversary of the death of Osama bin Laden to sign a strategic partnership agreement between Afghanistan and the United States of America, to spend time with U.S. troops stationed in Afghanistan and to address the American people from Bagram Air Base to lay out his plans for responsible ending the war in Afghanistan. The president landed at Bagram Air Base at 10.20 p.m. local time in Afghanistan,[286] spent six hours in the country[287] and had been flying out of Afghanistan at about 4:25 a.m. Afghanistan time.[288] He flew from Bagram by helicopter to the Presidential Palace in Kabul[289] to hold a bilateral meeting with President Hamid Karzai and delivered remarks before the signing of the strategic partnership agreement. After the signing he returned by helicopter to Bagram Air base. Here he spoke with U.S. troops, visited wounded soldiers at a hospital on Bagram Air Base, where he awarded 10 Purple Heart decorations, and spoke by radio to military personnel in other parts of the country who were involved in arranging his trip. President Obama then addressed his fellow American citizens from the air base and returned afterwards to the United States by use of Air Force One.[290][291][292][293][294][295][296][297][298][299][300][301][302][303][304][305]
Mexico Mexico Los Cabos,[306] San José del Cabo[307] June 17[308]–19 President Obama attended the G-20 summit meeting. The president stayed at the Esperanza Resort in San José del Cabo for the duration of the trip. During the summit Obama had a meeting with several European heads of state and government to discuss the European sovereign-debt crisis.[309] Obama also hold bilateral meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, in which both presidents among other things discussed the Syrian civil war, Mexican President Felipe Calderon, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Chinese President Hu Jintao and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.[306][308][310][311][312][313][314][315][316][317][318][319]
For further information see: List of presidential trips made by Barack Obama during 2012.
Thailand Thailand Bangkok November 18–19 The President arrived at Don Mueang International Airport in Bangkok via Air Force One. In the afternoon he visited Wat Pho Royal Monastery[320] with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and received a Royal Audience with King Bhumibol Adulyadej at Siriraj Hospital.[321][322] Obama then traveled to the Thai Koo Fah Building and took part in a formal welcome ceremony and signed a guest book at the Government House. Afterwards, the President met with Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra for a bilateral meeting to discuss Thai–U.S. cooperation and mark 180 years of official relations. In the evening, the President and Prime Minister held a joint press conference where Thailand announced it would join talks on deeper trade ties with the US and other countries under the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Later in the evening Obama attended an official dinner with Prime Minister Shinawatra and greeted and met with United States Embassy personnel at the Sports Complex of Chulalongkorn University. Obama spent the night in Bangkok and left Thailand the next morning.[321][323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330][331][332][333][334][335][336][337][338][339][340]
Myanmar Myanmar (Burma) Yangon November 19 After flying in from Bangkok, President Obama became the first U.S. President to visit the country,[341][342][343][344] where he toured Shwedagon Pagoda with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, met with President Thein Sein at Yangon Regional Parliament,[345] met with National League for Democracy Leader Aung San Suu Kyi at her home to discuss Myanmar–U.S. relations in light of the country's democratic reforms, met briefly with representatives of civil society organizations, including an advocate for Burma's Rohingya population,[346] met and greeted United States Embassy personnel at the Embassy, and delivered a speech on freedom, democracy, and the crucial role that respect for minorities' rights plays in ensuring peace and prosperity[347][348] at the University of Yangon. After his speech Obama departed Burma en route Phnom Penh, Cambodia.[325][326][340][349][350][351][352][353][354][355][356]
Cambodia Cambodia Phnom Penh November 19–20 After flying in from Burma, Obama was welcomed by Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen at the Peace Palace and then met with the Prime Minister. The President then attended the US-ASEAN leaders meeting at the Peace Palace. Obama later arrived at the Diamond Island Convention Center, where he attended the Seventh East Asia Summit Dinner. He remained overnight in Phnom Penh. The following day (November 20) Obama participated in the Trans-Pacific Partnership meeting, attended the Seventh East Asia Summit where he held bilateral meetings with Japanese PM Yoshihiko Noda and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and later met and greeted United States Embassy personnel.[325][326][340][341] Obama left Phnom Penh on November 20, en route back to Washington.[341][357][358] He became the first person holding the office to visit Cambodia.[341][354][359]

2013[edit]

President Obama and Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, June 19, 2013

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2013:

Country Locations Dates Details
Israel Israel Tel Aviv, Jerusalem March 20–22 Upon arriving in Tel Aviv, President Obama examined a battery of the "Iron Dome" defense system before traveling to Jerusalem for bilateral talks with Israeli President Shimon Peres and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, after which they held a joint press conference and attended a working dinner together. The primary topics discussed were the situation in Syria, Iran's nuclear program and the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.[360] On Thursday, the President visited the Israel Museum, where he saw the Dead Sea Scrolls and a technology exposition put together by Israeli universities. He then traveled to the West Bank for a bilateral meeting with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, followed by a joint press conference. He then visited a youth center in al-Bireh and met with Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad (who resigned his office less than a month later). Afterward, President Obama returned to Jerusalem and gave a speech to students at the International Convention Center, followed by a state dinner with President Peres.

On Friday, President Obama laid wreaths at the graves of Theodor Herzl and Yitzhak Rabin before visits to Yad Vashem and the Church of the Nativity.[361] While the President was in Bethlehem, a small demonstration took place in the nearby Dheisheh refugee camp with Palestinian security forces looking on.[362] Prior to boarding Air Force One to leave for Jordan, President Obama met with Prime Minister Netanyahu at Ben Gurion Airport and persuaded him to call Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and offer an apology for the 2010 Mavi Marmara incident and offer compensation to victims' families. Erdoğan accepted the apology, opening the door for the normalization of diplomatic relations, which had been severely strained by the incident. On the same day, the State Department announced that nearly $500 million in economic aid would be made available to help Palestine's struggling economy.[363]

The night before President Obama arrived for his visit, thousands of Israelis protested outside President Peres' residence asking him to plead with Obama for clemency for Jonathan Pollard.[364]

Palestinian National Authority Palestinian National Authority Ramallah, Bethlehem
Jordan Jordan Amman, Petra March 22–23 President Obama arrived in Amman on Friday afternoon, where he held bilateral talks with King Abdullah, who hosted the president for dinner. The President and the King discussed the Syrian refugee crisis, the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and the recent political unrest in Jordan. On Saturday morning, President Obama made a short sight-seeing stop in Petra before returning to the US.[360]
Mexico Mexico Mexico City May 2–3 The President met with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto for private talks that emphasized trade, cultural and educational exchange, innovation, and research, but also touched on border security and illegal narcotics trafficking.[365] The President gave an address at the National Anthropology Museum before departing for Costa Rica.[366]
Costa Rica Costa Rica San José May 3–4 President Obama met with Central American and Dominican leaders attending the SICA summit in San José.[367][368] Trade and security were the major topics of discussion.[369]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Belfast, Lough Erne June 17–18 The President attended the 39th G8 summit at Lough Erne Resort in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. On Monday, before arriving in Lough Erne, Obama stopped in Belfast to speak to a group of students about the legacy of the Northern Ireland peace process and the Good Friday Agreement. At Lough Erne, Obama took part in a plenary session on the state of the global economy with the other G8 leaders, and held a bilateral meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss their involvement in the Syrian civil war. On Tuesday, the President took part in plenary sessions on counter-terrorism as well as trade, taxes, and transparency (the agenda for which was determined by host leader David Cameron), before departing for Berlin.
Germany Germany Berlin[370] June 18–19 The President arrived in Berlin on Tuesday night for a state visit to Germany. On Wednesday, he met with German President Joachim Gauck at Schloss Bellevue, followed by a working lunch and joint press conference with Chancellor Angela Merkel at the Bundeskanzleramt. He delivered a speech in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Pariser Platz,[371][372] then met with Peer Steinbrück, the Social Democratic candidate for Chancellor in the 2013 federal election. In the evening, Chancellor Merkel hosted Obama for a state dinner at Schloss Charlottenburg before returning to the U.S.
Senegal Senegal Dakar June 26–28 The President arrived in Dakar for a state visit on Wednesday night. On Thursday, he held a bilateral meeting with President Macky Sall, after which he visited Senegal's supreme court for a meeting with regional judicial leaders. The First Lady spoke at an all-girls middle school with the First Lady of Senegal, before joining the President for a visit to the Maison des Esclaves on Gorée and meeting with civil society leaders at the Goree Institute. President Sall hosted the President and First Lady for a state dinner in the evening. On Friday, the President met with farmers and other members of Senegal's agriculture sector to discuss food security before departing for South Africa.[373][374]
South Africa South Africa Johannesburg, Pretoria, Soweto, Cape Town June 28 – July 1 President Obama arrived in Johannesburg for a state visit late Friday night. On Saturday morning he was hosted for a bilateral visit by President Jacob Zuma to discuss development, peace and security issues, and the promotion of democracy in Africa, followed by a joint press conference. The President then attended a town hall at the Soweto campus of the University of Johannesburg, causing anti-American protests.[375] In the afternoon, the President attended a bilateral meeting with African Union Commission Chair Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma. The President also found time to meet members of the Mandela family, with the 94-year-old former President severely ill.[375]

The First Lady had tea with South African First Lady Thobeka Madiba-Zuma in the morning. In the afternoon, she attended a discussion with young South Africans which was broadcast on MTV Base, with young Americans participating via a Google+ Hangout. President Zuma hosted the Obamas for a state dinner on Saturday evening.

On Sunday morning, the Obamas flew to Cape Town. In the morning, they visited Robben Island. The President then attended a community health discussion at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Center, and discussed the United States' global health agenda. The President gave a speech at the University of Cape Town on Sunday afternoon, highlighting "trade and investment, development, democracy, [and] partnerships on behalf of peace and security" throughout Africa, before departing for Tanzania the following morning.[373][374]

Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam July 1–2 The President arrived in Dar es Salaam for a state visit on Monday morning, where he was hosted for a bilateral visit by President Jakaya Kikwete. He then attended a round-table meeting with American and African business leaders. The First Lady met with Tanzanian First Lady Salma Kikwete, after which she visited the memorial to victims of the 1998 embassy bombing. She then attended the performance of a local dance troupe before joining the President for a state dinner. On Tuesday, the President also visited the embassy memorial, along with George and Laura Bush, followed by a visit to the Ubungo power plant. The First Lady spoke at African First Ladies' Summit, which was hosted by the George W. Bush Institute. The Obamas then returned to the U.S.[373][374]
Sweden Sweden Stockholm September 4–5 The President stopped in Stockholm for a bilateral visit, at the invitation of Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt, prior to attending the G-20 summit meeting in Russia. The trip replaced a planned bilateral visit to Moscow, which was canceled after Russia's granting of temporary asylum to Edward Snowden, the former NSA and CIA employee who revealed classified American intelligence programs utilizing extensive mass surveillance. The trip marked the first time Sweden has hosted a U.S. President for a strictly bilateral visit; the only prior visit of a U.S. President in office to Sweden was by George W. Bush for the EU Summit 2001 (a European Union-U.S. summit in Gothenburg). The possibility of an EU-U.S. free trade agreement was a major topic of discussion, as was the ongoing conflict in Syria. The President also met with King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia on September 5, before departing for Russia.[376][377][378][379]
Russia Russia St. Petersburg September 5–6 The President attended the G-20 summit meeting at Constantine Palace.
South Africa South Africa Johannesburg, Soweto December 9–11 Attended memorial service for former President Nelson Mandela at FNB Stadium in Johannesburg. Obama was joined aboard Air Force One by former President George W. Bush and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who were met in South Africa by former Presidents Carter and Clinton and the Clintons' daughter, Chelsea.[380][381][382][383][384][385][386]

2014[edit]

President Obama with Pope Francis at the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City, March 27, 2014

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2014:

Country Locations Dates Details
Mexico Mexico Toluca February 19 President Obama attended the North American Leaders' Summit, meeting with President of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto and Prime Minister Stephen Harper of Canada.[387]
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam, The Hague March 24–26 President Obama participated in the Nuclear Security Summit held in The Hague, the Netherlands on March 24–25, 2014. He also held bilateral events with Dutch officials.[388] Prior to the summit he visited the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.[389]
Belgium Belgium Brussels March 26–27 President Obama traveled to Brussels on March 26 for a U.S.–EU Summit with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission. While in Belgium, the President also held bilateral events with Belgian Government officials and with the NATO Secretary General.[388] In addition Obama visited Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial and gave a speech to the European Youth with before the background of the 2014 Crimean crisis.[390]
Vatican City Vatican City Vatican City March 27 President Obama traveled to the Vatican City to meet with Pope Francis to discuss fighting poverty and growing inequality.[388]
Italy Italy Rome March 27–28 President Obama traveled to Rome to meet with President Napolitano and Prime Minister Renzi.[388]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh March 28–29 President Obama traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Abdullah to discuss regional security, peace in the Middle East, and other issues of prosperity and security.[391]
Japan Japan Tokyo April 23–25 After arriving in Tokyo, President Obama met with Prime Minister Shinzō Abe during a private dinner at Sukiyabashi Jiro.[392] The following morning, on April 24, the President met with Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko at the Tokyo Imperial Palace, before meeting with Prime Minister Abe at the Akasaka Palace in a joint press conference to discuss the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, particularly the disputes over the Senkaku Islands, in which President Obama emphasized on his commitments to the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan.[393] President Obama also met with students and viewed an ASIMO robot exhibit at the Miraikan and visited the Meiji Shrine,[394] before attending a state dinner at the Imperial Palace, hosted by Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko.[395][396]
South Korea South Korea Seoul April 25–26 President Obama attended a wreath-laying ceremony at the War Memorial of Korea and visited Gyeongbokgung, before meeting with President Park Geun-hye at the Blue House to discuss North Korea's nuclear threat and the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement. In the wake of the sinking of the MV Sewol, President Obama also presented President Park with the American flag that flew over the White House during the day of the disaster (April 16), as well as presenting a magnolia seed to the Danwon High School, which victimized a number of the high school's students and teachers. The following day, the President met with American and Korean business leaders to discuss the trade and economic cooperation between the two countries and delivered remarks at Yongsan Garrison.[396][397][398]
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur April 26–28 After arriving in Kuala Lumpur, President Obama was greeted with a welcoming ceremony outside the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, where he was accompanied by Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdul Halim and Prime Minister Najib Razak.[399] In the evening, the President was also hosted a state dinner by Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdul Halim and Raja Permaisuri Agong Sultanah Haminah Hamidun at the Istana Negara.[400] On April 27, President Obama visited the National Mosque of Malaysia, before holding a bilateral meeting and a joint press conference with Prime Minister Najib at the Perdana Putra to discuss issues on trade, defense, and maritime security, as well as the United States' commitment to contributing to the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.[401] He also delivered remarks at the Malaysian Global Innovation and Creativity Centre and participated in the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative Town Hall meeting at the University of Malaya.[396]
Philippines Philippines Manila April 28–29 On April 28, 2014, President Obama arrived in Manila for a two-day state visit to the Philippines and met with President Benigno Aquino III at the Malacañang Palace to discuss efforts in resolving the territorial and maritime disputes in the South China Sea and the enhancement of the two countries' security and strategic cooperation with the signing of the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was followed by a joint press conference.[402] In the evening, President Obama was hosted a state dinner by President Aquino, where he was also awarded the Order of Sikatuna.[403] On April 29, 2014, the President delivered remarks at Fort Bonifacio, where he met with American and Filipino troops,[404] and attended a wreath-laying ceremony and toured the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial.[396][405]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Bagram May 25–26 President Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan, where he visited with U.S troops at Bagram Airfield outside Bagram.[406][407]
Poland Poland Warsaw June 3–4

President Obama traveled to Warsaw to meet with President Bronisław Komorowski and Prime Minister Donald Tusk. He also meet with President-elect Petro Poroshenko of Ukraine.[408] The President marked the 25th anniversary of Poland’s emergence from communism.

Belgium Belgium Brussels June 4–5 President Obama traveled to Brussels to attend the 40th G7 summit.[408]
France France Paris, Colleville, Ouistreham June 5–6 President Obama traveled to Colleville and Ouistreham to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Normandy Landings. Obama also met with President François Hollande.[408]
Estonia Estonia Tallinn September 3–4 President Obama traveled to Tallinn to met with the Presidents of the Baltic states. The Presidents visited with U.S. and Estonian members of the military. Delivered a speech at Tallinn Airport with Prime Minister Taavi Rõivas.[citation needed] The President delivered a long-form speech at the Nordea Concert House within the Solaris Centre.[409]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Newport, Wiltshire September 4–5 President Obama attended the NATO summit in Newport, Wales.[410] Additionally, the President visited the Mount Pleasant Primary School with Prime Minister David Cameron and Stonehenge in Wiltshire.[411][412]
China China Beijing November 10–12 President Obama attended the APEC summit. On November 11–12, the President held bilateral meetings with President Xi Jinping to discuss China–United States relations and international and regional issues, as well as military relations, the One-China policy, climate change, and terrorism.[413][414] The President also met with Premier Li Keqiang,[415] Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott,[416] and Indonesian President Joko Widodo.[417][418]
Myanmar Myanmar (Burma) Nay Pyi Taw, Yangon November 12–15 In Nay Pyi Taw, President Obama attended the East Asia Summit and the U.S.-ASEAN summit meeting.[419][420] He met with President Thein Sein to discuss Burma's democratic reforms and also held a bilateral meeting with Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng.[421][422] The President attended a round table discussion with members of the Assembly of the Union, Speaker Shwe Mann of the House of Representatives, Speaker Khin Aung Myint of the House of Nationalities, and Opposition Leader Aung San Suu Kyi to further discuss Burma's democratic reforms.[423] In Yangon, President Obama held a bilateral meeting with Suu Kyi at her residence, which was followed by a joint press conference,[424] before participating in the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative Town Hall meeting at the University of Yangon.[425] Additionally, the President had toured the Ministers' Building and attended a round table discussion with civil society organizations at the United States Embassy in Yangon.[418][426][427]
Australia Australia Brisbane November 15–16 President Obama attended the G20 summit held at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre.[428] The President also held a trilateral meeting with Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe to discuss Russia's annexation of Crimea and delivered a speech at the University of Queensland regarding youth voice.[418][429][430]

2015[edit]

President Obama greeting children at the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, July 25, 2015

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2015:

Country Locations Dates Details
India India New Delhi January 25–27 At the invitation of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, President Obama traveled to India to participate in the Indian Republic Day celebration in New Delhi as the chief guest.[431] With this trip, Obama became both the first U.S. president to attend the Republic Day parade and the first to visit India twice while in office.[432] Obama and Modi also addressed an event organized by the U.S.-India Business Council.
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh January 27 President Obama traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with the newly appointed king, Salman. Obama also paid his respects to the late King Abdullah.[433][434]
Jamaica Jamaica Kingston April 9–10 President Obama traveled to Kingston, Jamaica, on a state visit to meet with Jamaican Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller and other leaders of the Caribbean Community. The president also visited the Bob Marley Museum, attended a town hall meeting at the University of the West Indies, and laid a wreath at the National Heroes Park.[435][436]
Panama Panama Panama City April 10–11 President Obama attended the 7th Summit of the Americas. Additionally, the President met with Cuban President Raúl Castro for the first time since the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba.[437]
Germany Germany Schloss Elmau June 7–8 President Obama attended the 41st G7 summit.[438] He also met with Chancellor Angela Merkel for a traditional Frühschoppen breakfast with the village locals in Krün.[439][440] G7 called for end to fossil fuel use by 2100. Obama and the French President François Hollande also agreed on Ukraine and the nuclear program of Iran.[441]
Kenya Kenya Nairobi July 24–26 On July 24–26, 2015, President Obama traveled to Kenya for a three-day state visit, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to visit the country. His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a native of the Kenyan village Nyang'oma Kogelo.[442]

President Obama arrived at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in the Kenyan capital Nairobi on the evening of Friday, July 24, where he was welcomed in the tarmac by Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and his half-sister Auma.[443] After arriving, Obama dined with other members of his paternal family at a restaurant in his hotel.[444][445]

On Saturday, July 25, President Obama delivered remarks at the 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Summit held at the United Nations Office at Nairobi, where he urged African entrepreneurs to promote security and development while working towards economic growth in the African continent.[446] He also visited an innovation fair organized to promote his "Power Africa" initiative of promoting electric power and renewable energy in the Sub-Saharan Africa.[447][448] Later that day, President Obama laid a wreath and paid his respects at a memorial honoring the victims of the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.[449] Obama then headed to the State House for an official welcoming ceremony and a bilateral meeting with President Kenyatta, where the two presidents mainly discussed counter-terrorism with regards to dealing with Al-Shabaab.[450] In the evening, the President was hosted a state dinner by President Kenyatta.[451]

On Sunday, July 26, President Obama delivered a speech addressing the Kenyan people at the Safaricom Indoor Arena. In his speech, he urged Kenyans to eradicate corruption, confront terrorism, and combat inequality, saying: "You can choose the path to progress, but it requires making some important choices... it means continuing down the path of a strong, more inclusive, more accountable and transparent democracy" to "help you extend opportunity, and educate youth, and face down threats, and embrace reconciliation."[452][453] Before departing Kenya, Obama met with civil society groups at Kenyatta University and toured the Nairobi National Park.[454][455]

Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa July 26–28 President Obama held bilateral meetings with the government of Ethiopia and visited the African Union headquarters, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.[456][457]
Turkey Turkey Antalya November 14–17 President Obama attended the G-20 summit meeting in Antalya, where topics such as investment strategy, climate change, financial regulation, anti-corruption, and issues on trade and energy were discussed in an effort to strengthen the global economy and cooperation.[458] According to National Security Advisor Susan Rice, President Obama also discussed "cybersecurity, refugees, global health security, and counter-terrorism" during the summit.[459] He also met with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (to discuss efforts in managing the Syria–Turkey border, amidst the Syrian Civil War refugee crisis) and King Salman of Saudi Arabia.[460][461][462] Additionally, President Obama met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in a 30-minute meeting to discuss efforts in tackling the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and other terrorist groups and resolving the Syrian Civil War, amidst disagreements with the United States regarding Russia's military intervention.[463][464]
Philippines Philippines Manila November 17–20 President Obama attended the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Manila, focusing on inclusive growth.[458]

On the sidelines of the summit, he held bilateral meetings with Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and newly elected prime ministers Malcolm Turnbull of Australia and Justin Trudeau of Canada,[465][466] as well as meetings with Trans-Pacific Partnership and Pacific Alliance leaders.[467]

President Obama also delivered remarks at a Philippine Navy coastal facility by the Manila Bay, where he also toured the BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-15), to highlight the United States' commitment to assist in maritime security in the region, amidst the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[462][468] During his speech in front of the Philippine Navy, President Obama announced that the U.S. government will donate the research vessel RV Melville and two Hamilton-class cutters to the Philippine Navy, one of which will be the USCGC Boutwell (WHEC-719).[469][470][471] He later participated at the APEC 2015 CEO Summit, where he met with Alibaba founder and executive chairman Jack Ma and SALt lamp inventor Aisa Mijeno and urged business executives to combat climate change.[472][473]

Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur November 20–22 President Obama attended the Tenth East Asia Summit in Kuala Lumpur, which focused on military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[458][474] On the sidelines of the summit in Kuala Lumpur, the President met with refugees, many of whom were Rohingya refugees, at the Dignity for Children Foundation refugee center to urge the acceptance of Syrian refugees into the United States,[475][476][477] participated in the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSAELI) town hall at Taylor's University where he urged the Southeast Asian youth to fight against discrimination,[478] and met with Malaysian civil society groups at a round table meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Kuala Lumpur.[468][479] He also participated in a meeting with leaders of the ASEAN Summit, as well as separate meetings with Lao Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong and Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.[462]
France France Paris November 29 –
December 1
President Obama participated in the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference.[480] On the sidelines of the conference, he joined President François Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo in paying respects to the victims of the Paris attacks by laying flowers in front of the Bataclan.[481] Obama held separate bilateral meetings with Chinese President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to "send a strong message to the world about their strong commitment to climate change," being three of the world's largest carbon dioxide emitters.[482] Obama also met with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to discuss their intervention against ISIL, as well as to urge the reduction of tensions between Turkey and Russia following the Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown by the Turkish Air Force.[483]

2016[edit]

President Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro at their joint press conference in Havana, March 21, 2016

The following international trips were made by Barack Obama during 2016:

Country Locations Dates Details
Cuba Cuba Havana March 20–22 On February 18, 2016, a White House official announced that President Obama would undertake a historic visit to Cuba on March 20–22 to mark the end of the 54-year tensions in Cuba–United States relations, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to visit Cuba since Calvin Coolidge in 1928. In an interview with Yahoo! News in December 2015, President Obama said that he would only visit Cuba if he could meet with the Cuban dissident movement, saying: "If I go on a visit, then part of the deal is that I get to talk to everybody, I’ve made very clear in my conversations directly with President Raúl Castro that we would continue to reach out to those who want to broaden the scope for, you know, free expression inside of Cuba."[484][485]

Hours before the President and the First Family's arrival, the weekly demonstration by protesters from more than 50 Ladies in White human rights activists and other opposition groups, hoping for the President's awareness of "women fighting for the liberty of political prisoners," were cleared by Cuban police in the Havana neighborhood of Miramar.[486][487] President Obama and the First Family arrived in Havana's José Martí International Airport on the rainy afternoon of Sunday, March 20, where they were greeted by Cuban officials led by Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla.[488] The First Family first headed to the Meliá Habana Hotel to meet with the staff of the newly reopened U.S. Embassy in Havana and their families.[489][490] The Obamas later toured on foot Old Havana, where they visited the Plaza de Armas, the Palacio de los Capitanes Generales, and the Havana Cathedral, while being guided by Havana historian Eusebio Leal.[491] At the Havana Cathedral, they met with Cardinal Jaime Ortega, the Archbishop of Havana, who along with Pope Francis and the Holy See helped normalize and restore Cuba–United States relations.[492][493] In the evening, the Obamas dined at a local paladar in central Havana.[494]

President Obama began his Monday, March 21, by paying his respects to Cuban national hero José Martí during a brief wreath-laying ceremony at his memorial at Havana's Plaza de la Revolución.[495] He then headed to the Palace of the Revolution to meet with his Cuban counterpart, President Raúl Castro, where he was given a welcome ceremony before the two heads of state began their official talks. During their meeting, the two presidents pledged to work towards a "new path" in reconciling their two countries' relations amid their differences in human rights and democracy.[496] U.S. Secretaries John Kerry and Penny Pritzker of State and Commerce, respectively, were in attendance, while Vice President Miguel Díaz-Canel and Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla were among the several Cuban Council of Ministers who participated in the discussions.[497]

The two leaders later participated in a joint press conference, where President Obama declared a "new day" in Cuba–U.S. relations but acknowledged President Castro's statement regarding the "profound differences" between their two countries regarding human rights and democracy, which Obama criticized. Obama also added that the embargo against Cuba and the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base continue to be obstructions in the normalization and restoration of the two countries' relations, wherein Castro responded saying that it would be "the most important obstacle to our economic development and the well-being of the Cuban people." In addition, Castro criticized the U.S.' demand for a human rights reform in Cuba, saying that "Cuba believes civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights are universal" and later adding that Cuba opposes "political manipulation and double standards in the approach to human rights." When asked by CNN's Jim Acosta about political prisoners in Cuba, Castro denied knowledge of such, insisting that his government only holds spies, terrorists and armed insurrectionists, and demanded for a list to be released.[498][499][500][501]

Later in the afternoon, President Obama attended an event with U.S. and Cuban entrepreneurs that would allow for the exploration of opportunities between the two countries' businesses at an effort to enhance Cuba's private sector and encourage the discontinuation of the trade embargo against Cuba amidst the country's state-owned-dominated economy. During the event, Obama urged the rehabilitation of the country's infrastructure to allow for better transportation of goods, wholesale marketing to help small business owners, and the unification of the country's dual-currency system (the Cuban peso and the Cuban convertible peso), all to improve Cuba's economy.[502][503] In the evening, President Castro treated President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama to a state dinner at the Palace of the Revolution.[504] Secretary of State John Kerry, Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett, First Lady Chief of Staff Tina Tchen, Senator Patrick Leahy, and Representative Charles Rangel of New York's 13th congressional district were among the American entourage who attended the state dinner.[505]

On the morning of his final day in Cuba, Tuesday, March 22, President Obama addressed the Cuban people on national television from the Gran Teatro de La Habana, along Havana's Paseo del Prado. President Castro was among the Cubans in attendance at the theater. He began his remarks by responding to the Brussels bombings that occurred several hours prior, which he condemned, saying: "We can and we will defeat those who threaten the safety and security of people all around the world," and added that the attacks were a reminder "that the world must unite in fighting against the scourge of terrorism."[506] Obama then transitioned to his speech regarding "a new chapter" in Cuba's relations with the United States and the Western Hemisphere, saying that he visited the country to "bury the last remnants of the Cold War in the Americas" and to "extend the hand of friendship to the Cuban people." He called on the U.S. Congress to lift the U.S. embargo against Cuba, saying that "it is an outdated burden on the Cuban people" and a "burden on the Americans who want to work and do business or invest here in Cuba." Obama also touched on the importance of Cubans being able to "realize their potential," as they would not "without continued change in Cuba," urging the removal of the country's two-currency system and the access of the Internet all across Cuba. Speaking for democracy to be "embraced" in Cuba, saying that it "allows for the fullest expression of the ideals of any revolution" and "gives individuals the capacity to be catalysts," he appealed for political freedom within Cubans, including the right of freedom of speech, religion and criticism of government.[507][508][509] Obama also referenced several American and Cuban historical figures during his speech, including Cuban national hero José Martí, writer Ernest Hemingway, baseball legend Jackie Robinson, and singer Gloria Estefan.[510]

Before noon, President Obama headed to the U.S. Embassy in Havana that opened in July 2015 to meet with various Cuban dissidents and leaders of civil society organizations, praising them for their "extraordinary courage" in their fight for "democracy, freedom of speech, worship or assembly" in Cuba and expressed hope that their efforts and ideas will help shape U.S. foreign policy.[511] Among the dissidents and the leaders of the Cuban civil society that attended the round table discussion were Guillermo Fariñas, Dagoberto Valdés Hernández, Ladies in White leader Berta Soler, Antonio Rodiles, and Elizardo Sánchez.[512][513] In the afternoon, the First Family and President Castro attended an exhibition baseball game between the Tampa Bay Rays and the Cuba national baseball team at the Estadio Latinoamericano that was also attended by around 55,000 Cuban and American baseball fans. The Obamas were accompanied by Rachel Robinson, the widow of baseball player Jackie Robinson who trained in Cuba with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.[514] The Rays won the game 4–1.[515] After the game, the Obamas headed to Havana's José Martí International Airport to depart Cuba for Buenos Aires, Argentina, where they were sent-off by President Castro, ending their three-day historic visit.[516]

Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires,
Bariloche
March 23–24 On February 18, 2016, a White House official announced that President Obama would undertake a state visit to Argentina on March 23–24, 2016 to improve the Argentina–United States relations under the administration of newly elected Argentine president, Mauricio Macri, after the two countries' relations under predecessors Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and Néstor Kirchner saw tension in trade and investment.[517][518]

President Obama and the First Family arrived in Buenos Aires' Ministro Pistarini International Airport from Havana, Cuba at around 1:10 a.m. (UTC−3) on Wednesday, March 23, where they were greeted by Argentine Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra.[519][520] Later that morning, President Obama headed to the Casa Rosada for a bilateral meeting and a joint press conference with President Macri. Obama and Macri discussed ways to strengthen cooperation in promoting "universal values and interests," such as in the areas of security, energy, health and human rights, where the two presidents have agreed for U.S. federal agencies to assist Argentina's counter-terrorism efforts, to contribute to peacekeeping missions, combat illegal drug trade and organized crime, respond to diseases and outbreaks like the Zika virus, and develop resources and renewable energy strategies.[521] Obama also praised Macri for his economic reforms that helped create "sustainable and inclusive economic growth" and "reconnected Argentina with the world economy."[522] Thus, Obama declared a "fresh era" of relations that would help Argentina's credibility in the Latin American region and the world, and announced trade and economic initiatives to reset the countries' relations after years of tension.[523][524] Foreign Minister Malcorra announced that Argentina signed agreements with the U.S. to join again on the Visa Waiver Program. Argentina initially joined on the program in 1996, but was removed in 2002.[525][526][527]

In the afternoon, President Obama visited the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral to lay a wreath at the tomb of Argentine general José de San Martín, who was known for his role as a Libertador in the Spanish American wars of independence and is considered the national hero of Argentina. There, he also met with Cardinal Mario Aurelio Poli, the Archbishop of Buenos Aires who replaced Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio when he was elected as Pope Francis. Obama then headed to the Usina del Arte to hold a town hall meeting with young Argentine leaders.[528] In the evening, President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama attended a state dinner hosted by President Macri and First Lady Juliana Awada at the Néstor Kirchner Cultural Centre, where both Obamas were treated with a tango dance.[529][530]

The Obamas began their final day in their Latin American trip with President Obama visiting the Remembrance park in Buenos Aires' Belgrano neighborhood with President Macri to honor the victims of the Dirty War by throwing flowers onto the Río de la Plata river. The Obamas' visit to Argentina coincided with the 40th anniversary of the 1976 Argentine coup d'état that extended the "war" and resulted in the killing and the forced disappearances of around 30,000 people from 1976 to 1983. The two presidents each delivered remarks at the park, where Obama apologized for the U.S.' "slow" policies in responding to the "war" saying: "Each of us have a responsibility each and every day to make sure that wherever we see injustice, wherever we see rule of law flaunted that we take responsibility to make this a better place for our children and grandchildren." Obama also said that the U.S. would help the families of the victims "heal" from the effects of the "war" through transparency by revealing files that prove the violation of human rights during the military dictatorship, upon the request of President Macri.[531][532][533][534]

In the afternoon, the Obama family left Buenos Aires for a trip to the Patagonian town of Bariloche. Arriving at the San Carlos de Bariloche Airport aboard the smaller Boeing C-32 as Air Force One, they spent their remaining hours in the town hiking along the Nahuel Huapi National Park, sailing on the Nahuel Huapi Lake, and staying at the Llao Llao Hotel overlooking the lake and the Andes mountain range, where they were eventually met by the Macris who bid them farewell. At around 9:30 p.m. (UTC−3), the Obamas departed Bariloche for Buenos Aires' Ministro Pistarini International Airport to board the larger Boeing VC-25 that would fly them back to Washington, D.C., ending their five-day Latin American trip that took them to Cuba and Argentina.[535][536][537]

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh April 20–21 In Riyadh, President Obama attended a summit meeting with the Gulf Cooperation Council to discuss ways of addressing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and other regional conflicts, including the Syrian and Yemeni crises.[538][539] He also met with King Salman and held an audience with the Saudi royal court.[540]

Obama's visit to Saudi Arabia coincided with the announcement of a bipartisan bill allowing families of victims of the September 11 attacks to file a lawsuit against Saudi Arabian officials for involvement in the terrorist attacks, which the White House has threatened to veto to avoid tension in Saudi Arabia–United States relations.[541]

United Kingdom United Kingdom London,
Windsor,
Watford
April 21–24 President Obama stopped by London to urge British voters to vote for the United Kingdom to remain in the European Union ahead of the referendum on June 23.[542][543][544]

On April 22, the President and First Lady Michelle Obama attended a private lunch with Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Windsor Castle, a day after the Queen's 90th birthday.[545] President Obama also met with British Prime Minister David Cameron at 10 Downing Street, participating in a joint press conference.[546] Later that evening, the Obamas attended a dinner hosted by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and Prince Harry at Kensington Palace.[547]

On April 23, President Obama first toured Shakespeare's Globe and viewed a snippet from a production of Hamlet to commemorate the 400th death anniversary of William Shakespeare.[548] He then participated in a town hall meeting with the British youth at Lindley Hall, where he addressed questions regarding political issues like terrorism, trade, and the Northern Ireland peace process,[549] as well as social issues and changes involving LGBT rights, racial inequality (touching on the Black Lives Matter movement), and discrimination towards non-binary gender persons.[550][551] There at Lindley Hall, Obama also met with Labour Party and Opposition Leader Jeremy Corbyn.[552] In the afternoon, President Obama and Prime Minister Cameron played golf at The Grove in Watford, Hertfordshire. The two leaders then had dinner at Winfield House, the U.S. ambassador's residence in the United Kingdom.[553] President Obama departed for Germany the following day.

Germany Germany Hanover April 24–25 President Obama traveled to Hanover, Germany to promote the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, which was met with criticism among Germans.[554] He met with German Chancellor Angela Merkel to discuss cooperation in resolving the Syrian and Libyan civil wars and the Ukrainian crisis, before discussing the topics with other European leaders including British Prime Minister David Cameron, French President François Hollande, and Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi.[555]

During a news conference with Chancellor Merkel, President Obama announced his plan to increase U.S. military presence in Syria to at least 250 personnel to combat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and assist local Syrian forces in doing so.[556][557]

Obama and Merkel later joined the United States delegation in their participation at the Hannover Messe, the world's largest industrial fair, with the U.S. being the "partner country" of the fair.[558][559] He became the first sitting U.S. president to attend the fair.[560]

Vietnam Vietnam Hanoi,
Ho Chi Minh City
May 22–25 During the U.S.-ASEAN Summit in February 2016, a White House official confirmed that President Obama had accepted an invitation from Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng to visit Vietnam in May, as part of a trip to Asia.[561] The trip aims to build stronger economic and defense ties with Asian-Pacific allies, amid the South China Sea territorial disputes.[562] The Obama administration has expressed its commitment to assist Vietnam in seeking maritime security and the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.[563]

President Obama arrived in Hanoi on late Sunday, May 22.[564] The following day, he met with Vietnamese President Trần Đại Quang at the Presidential Palace of Vietnam and National Assembly Chairwoman Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân at the former residence of revolutionary Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.

President Obama and President Quang discussed the continuing normalization of ties between the two countries following the Vietnam War, the pursuit of the Trans-Pacific Partnership to support trade and reinforce regional cooperation, and defense cooperation in the South China Sea territorial disputes. The two presidents also signed several bilateral agreements, including a $11.3 billion purchase of 100 Boeing aircraft by the Vietnamese low-cost carrier VietJet Air. During a joint press conference with President Quang, Obama announced the full lifting of a 50-year arms embargo on Vietnam, describing the embargo as "a lingering vestige of the Cold War."[565][566] He also announced that the Peace Corps would operate in Vietnam for the first time, focused on teaching the English language to Vietnamese students.[567][568]

In the afternoon, President Obama attended a state luncheon hosted by President Quang, before meeting with Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc and Communist Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng.[569] In the evening, President Obama dined with American celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain at a local Hanoi restaurant, filming for an episode of Bourdain's show, Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown.[570]

On Tuesday, May 24, President Obama first met with ten activists advocating to solve different social issues facing Vietnam, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press and Internet freedom.[571] He later addressed the Vietnamese people from the Vietnam National Convention Center to discuss the progress made by the United States and Vietnam following the Vietnam War while taking into account their differences in human rights, which Obama prompts Vietnam for, saying that "the country should be more open to scrutiny in order to grow stronger and more prosperous" since "human rights is not a threat to stability but reinforces it."[572][573][574] Following his speech, Obama departed Hanoi for Ho Chi Minh City, the country's largest city, arriving there late afternoon.

In Ho Chi Minh City, President Obama visited the Jade Emperor Pagoda to pay tribute to the culture of Vietnam, which is one of the oldest in Southeast Asia.[575][576] He later met with young entrepreneurs and the local business community at the DreamPlex Coworking Space, where he also promoted the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership, saying that it will boost economic competitiveness and improve labor standards that would prohibit forced and child labor.[577] On Wednesday, May 25, President Obama participated in the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSAELI) town hall, where he urged some 800 young Southeast Asian leaders to tackle climate change.[578][579] Obama ended his three-day visit to Vietnam, departing Ho Chi Minh City for Japan later that afternoon.

Japan Japan Shima,
Ise,
Hiroshima
May 25–27 President Obama traveled to Japan to attend the 42nd G7 summit in Shima, Mie Prefecture, where the agenda focused on the global economy, geopolitical issues like North Korea's nuclear program, the South China Sea territorial disputes and the Ukrainian crisis, and the threats of Islamic extremism in the Middle East.[580] Prior to the G7 summit, Obama held bilateral talks with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe on similar issues. During a joint news conference, Abe protested a recent killing of a 20-year-old Okinawa woman by a former U.S. Marine from Kadena Air Base, which Obama expressed regret for, saying that the U.S. is willing to fully cooperate with the investigation.[581][582] The G7 leaders also visited the Ise Grand Shrine, a Shinto shrine in the city of Ise.[583]

On Friday, May 27, Obama traveled to Hiroshima to visit the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park with Prime Minister Abe to highlight their continued commitment to pursuing peace and security in a world without nuclear weapons.[584] In doing so, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit the site of the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945.[585]

Canada Canada Ottawa June 29 President Obama traveled to Canada for a state visit, where he met with Canadian Governor General David Johnston and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and addressed a joint session of the Canadian Parliament. He also participated in the North American Leaders' Summit with Prime Minister Trudeau and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto.[586]
Poland Poland Warsaw July 7–9 President Obama traveled to Poland to attend the NATO summit meeting in Warsaw and met with Polish President Andrzej Duda, European Council President and former Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk, and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker to discuss counterterrorism, the Syrian refugee crisis, and economics.[587][588] The agenda of Obama's last NATO summit focused on strengthening defense cooperation to protect Eastern Europe from Russian aggression on Ukraine, confronting the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, the European migrant crisis, and the United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union.[589][590] He also announced that around 1,000 extra troops will be deployed to Poland to assist in Russian interference over the Ukrainian crisis.[591]

While in Warsaw, President Obama also addressed American public reaction to the shooting of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the shooting of Philando Castile in Minnesota, cases which have led to protests in the United States and allegations of racial injustice and profiling by police. Obama stated, in part, “When incidents like these occur, there’s a big chunk of our fellow citizens that feels as if because of the color of their skin, they are not being treated the same—and that hurts." The police shootings in Louisiana and Minnesota have led to large, nationwide protests in the United States.[592] During a joint press conference with Presidents Tusk and Juncker, Obama also commented on the shooting of Dallas police officers in the aftermath of the fatal shootings of Sterling and Castile, the deadliest single incident in the history of U.S. law enforcement since the September 11, 2001 attacks, which he called "a vicious, calculated and despicable attack on law enforcement."[593]

Spain Spain Madrid,
Rota
July 9–10 President Obama traveled to Spain, his first visit there as president, to meet with Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy and King Felipe VI.[587] He also met with American military personnel stationed at Naval Station Rota in Rota, Cádiz. The President initially scheduled a trip to Seville on July 11 to visit the remains of Christopher Columbus, but decided to cancel it and return to Washington, D.C. earlier in preparation for his visit to Dallas, Texas later that week.[594][595]
China China Hangzhou September 3–5 President Obama traveled to China to attend the G-20 summit meeting in Hangzhou.[588]
Laos Laos Vientiane September 5–8 President Obama traveled to Laos to attend the East Asia Summit with the leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in Vientiane, becoming the first U.S. president to visit the country.[596]
Israel Israel Jerusalem September 30 President Obama led the U.S. delegation in attending the memorial service for former Israeli President and Prime Minister Shimon Peres.[597]
Greece Greece Athens November 15–16 President Obama traveled to Athens, Greece for his last official state visit, part of his final international trip as president. He met with Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and President Prokopis Pavlopoulos to discuss the Greek government-debt crisis, the European migrant crisis, and their NATO alliance.[598] Obama delivered a "legacy speech" at the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, covering the impact of democracy and the country's government-debt crisis, emphasizing the need for debt relief, and attended a state dinner at the Presidential Mansion.[599][600] While in Athens, he also toured the Acropolis and the Acropolis Museum.[601][602]
Germany Germany Berlin November 16–18 President Obama traveled Berlin for the meeting with European leaders of the "Quint": German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President François Hollande, British Prime Minister Theresa May Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, and Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, in the final such meeting of his presidency. The leaders discussed trade, the Ukrainian crisis, the Syrian Civil War, and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[603][598]
Peru Peru Lima November 18–20 President Obama traveled to Peru to attend the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Lima, his last international trip as President, arriving at Jorge Chávez International Airport.[604] President Obama also hosted a Young Leaders of the Americas Initiative town hall at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru.[605][606]

On the sidelines of the summit, he held bilateral meetings with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

Multilateral meetings[edit]

Group Year
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
APEC November 14–15,
Singapore Singapore
November 13–14,
Japan Yokohama
November 12–13,
United States Honolulu
September 9–10,[a]
Russia Vladivostok
October 5–7,[c]
Indonesia Denpasar
November 10–11,
China Beijing
November 18–19,
Philippines Manila
November 19–20,
Peru Lima
EAS
(ASEAN)
October 25,[b]
Thailand Cha-Am/Hua Hin
October 30,[b]
Vietnam Hanoi
November 18–19,
Indonesia Nusa Dua
November 19–20,
Cambodia Phnom Penh
October 9–10,[c]
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan
November 12–13,
Myanmar Naypyidaw
November 21–22,
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
September 6–8,
Laos Vientiane
G8 July 8–10,
Italy L'Aquila
June 25–26,
Canada Huntsville
May 26–27,
France Deauville
May 18–19,
United States Camp David
June 17–18,
United Kingdom Enniskillen
June 4–5,
Belgium Brussels
June 7–8,
Germany Krün
May 26–27,
Japan Shima
G-20 April 2,
United Kingdom London
June 26–27,
Canada Toronto
November 3–4,
France Cannes
June 18–19,
Mexico Los Cabos
September 5–6,
Russia Saint Petersburg
November 15–16,
Australia Brisbane
November 15–16,
Turkey Antalya
September 4–5,
China Hangzhou
September 24–25,
United States Pittsburgh
November 11–12,
South Korea Seoul
NATO April 3–4,
France Strasbourg
Germany Kehl
November 19–20,
Portugal Lisbon
none May 20–21,
United States Chicago
none September 4–5,
United Kingdom Newport
none July 8–9,
Poland Warsaw
SOA
(OAS)
April 17–19,
Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain
none none April 14–15,
Colombia Cartagena
none none April 10–11,
Panama Panama City
none
NSS none April 12–13,
United States Washington
none March 26–27,
South Korea Seoul
none March 24–25,
Netherlands The Hague
none March 31 – April 1,
United States Washington
NALS August 9–10,
Mexico Guadalajara
none November 13,
United States Honolulu
April 2,
United States Washington
none February 19,
Mexico Toluca
none June 29,
Canada Ottawa
Others UN Climate Change
December 18,
Denmark Copenhagen
none none none none none UN Climate Change
November 30,
France Paris
U.S.-ASEAN Summit
February 15–16,
United States Rancho Mirage
██ = Did not attend; ██ = No meeting held;
^a Hillary Clinton attended in the President's place due to the upcoming presidential election. • ^b The US was not a full member of the East Asia Summit prior to 2011.
^c John Kerry attended in the President's place due to the US government shutdown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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