List of presidents of Czechoslovakia
|President of Czechoslovakia
Czech: Prezident Československa
Slovak: Prezident Česko-Slovenska
|Formation||14 November 1918|
|First holder||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk|
|Final holder||Václav Havel|
|Abolished||31 December 1992|
|Succession|| Václav Havel|
The President of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prezident Československa, Slovak: Prezident Česko-Slovenska) was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
Vaclav Havel 1990-2003
In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president.
The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.
The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.
Presidents of Czechoslovakia (1918–1992)
- Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS)
- Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ)
- Civic Forum (OF)
|No.||Portrait||Name||Lifespan||Ethnicity||Elected||Took office||Left office||Political affiliation(s)|
|1||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk||1850–1937||Czech||1918
|14 November 1918||14 December 1935||Independent|
|—||Milan Hodža||1878–1944||Slovak||Acting||14 December 1935||18 December 1935||RSZML|
|2||Edvard Beneš||1884–1948||Czech||1935||18 December 1935||5 October 1938||ČSNS|
|—||Jan Syrový||1888–1970||Czech||Acting||5 October 1938||30 November 1938||Independent|
|3||Emil Hácha||1872–1945||Czech||1938||30 November 1938||15 March 1939||Independent|
Emil Hácha became State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a de jure autonomous region incorporated into Nazi Germany.
Edvard Beneš proclaimed himself President within the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, recognized as the only legitimate Czechoslovak Government during World War II.
Jozef Tiso became President of the pseudo-independent, pro-Nazi and clero-fascist Slovak Republic.
Avgustyn Voloshyn became President of the Carpatho-Ukraine few days before occupation by the Kingdom of Hungary.
|4||Edvard Beneš||1884–1948||Czech||1946||4 April 1945||7 June 1948||ČSNS|
Official names: Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989)
|5||Klement Gottwald||1896–1953||Czech||1948||7 June 1948acting to 14 June 1948||14 March 1953(died in office)||KSČ|
|6||Antonín Zápotocký||1884–1957||Czech||1953||14 March 1953acting to 21 March 1953||13 November 1957(died in office)||KSČ|
|—||Viliam Široký||1902–1971||Hungarian||Acting||13 November 1957||19 November 1957||KSČ|
|19 November 1957||22 March 1968||KSČ|
|—||Jozef Lenárt||1923–2004||Slovak||Acting||22 March 1968||30 March 1968||KSČ|
|30 March 1968||28 October 1975||KSČ|
|29 October 1975||10 December 1989||KSČ|
|—||Marián Čalfa||1946-||Slovak||Acting||10 December 1989||29 December 1989||KSČ|
Official names: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1989–1990), Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990–1992)
|29 December 1989||20 July 1992||OF|
|—||Jan Stráský||1940–2019||Czech||Acting||20 July 1992||31 December 1992(dissolution of the country)||ODS|
General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)
Title: Chairman (1948–1953) and First Secretary (1953–1971).
|No.||Portrait||Name||Lifespan||Ethnicity||Took office||Left office|
|1||Klement Gottwald||1896–1953||Czech||February 1948||14 March 1953|
|2||Antonín Novotný||1904–1975||Czech||14 March 1953||5 January 1968|
|3||Alexander Dubček||1921–1992||Slovak||5 January 1968||17 April 1969|
|4||Gustáv Husák||1913–1991||Slovak||17 April 1969||17 December 1987|
|5||Miloš Jakeš||born 1922||Czech||17 December 1987||24 November 1989|
|6||Karel Urbánek||born 1941||Czech||24 November 1989||20 December 1989|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
- List of prime ministers of Czechoslovakia
- List of Bohemian monarchs