List of primates by population

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of primate species by estimated global population. This list is not comprehensive, as not all primates have had their numbers quantified.

Common name Binomial name Population Status Trend Notes Image
Hainan black crested gibbon Nomascus hainanus 20[1] CR[1] Steady[1] Population was estimated at over 2,000 in the late 1950s.[1] Nomascus nasutus hainanus.jpg
Eastern black crested gibbon Nomascus nasutus 35–37[2] CR[2] Decrease[2] Previously thought to be possibly extinct. Numbers may be higher.[2]
Blond capuchin Cebus flavius 180[3] CR[3] Decrease[3] Estimate is for mature individuals only.[3] S. flavius SP Zoo 3.jpg
Sarawak surili Presbytis chrysomelas 200–500[4] CR[4] Decrease[4]
Perrier's sifaka Propithecus perrieri 230[5] CR[5] Decrease[5] One of the 25 most endangered primates.[5] Propithecus perrieri 001.jpg
Silky sifaka Propithecus candidus 250[6] CR[6] Decrease[6] Estimate is believed to be a maximum.[6] Silky Sifaka Pink Face Closeup.JPG
Tonkin snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus avunculus 250[7] CR[7] Decrease[7]
Barbara Brown's titi Callicebus barbarabrownae 260[8] CR[8] Decrease[8] Minimum estimation.[8]
Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri 260–330[9] CR[9] Decrease[9] Drawing of Rhinopithecus strykeri.jpg
Superagui lion tamarin Leontopithecus caissara 400[10] CR[10] Decrease[10] Maximum estimate.[10] Leontopithecus caissara.jpg
Greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus 500[11] CR Decrease Prolemur simus Cedric Girard-Buttoz.jpg
Kashmir gray langur Semnopithecus ajax 500[12] EN[12] Decrease[12] Maximum estimate; 250 mature.[12]
Coimbra Filho's titi Callicebus coimbrai 500–1,000[13] EN[13] Decrease[13]
Gray-shanked douc Pygathrix cinerea 550–700[14] CR[14] Decrease[14]
Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala 569[15] EN[15] Decrease[15] While one source gives a minimum estimate of 569, another claims adult species number less than 250.[15]
Gray snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi 750[16] EN[16] Decrease[16]
White-headed langur Trachypithecus poliocephalus 764–864[17] CR[17] Decrease[17]
Northern muriqui Brachyteles hypoxanthus 855[18] CR[18] Decrease[18] Minimum estimate.[18] Northern Muriqui 9.jpg
Black lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus 1,000[19] EN[19] Decrease[19] Mico leao preto SP Zoo.jpg
Tana River mangabey Cercocebus galeritus 1,000–1,200[20] EN[20] Decrease[20]
Kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji 1,117[21] CR[21] Decrease[21] Kipunji walking h.jpg
Sanje mangabey Cercocebus sanjei 1,300[22] EN[22] Decrease[22] Estimate is likely a maximum.[22] Tanzania -Sanje Mangabey.jpg
Southern muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides 1,300[23] EN[23] Decrease[23] Brachyteles arachnoides.jpg
Black crested gibbon Nomascus concolor 1,300–2,000[24] CR[24] Decrease[24] White Cheeked Gibbon Male.jpg
Siau Island tarsier Tarsius tumpara 1,358–12,470[25] CR[25] Decrease[25] Amongst the world's top 25 most endangered primates.[25]
Golden bamboo lemur Hapalemur aureus 1,479[26] CR[26] Decrease[26] [26] Hapalemur aureus 001.jpg
Red slender loris Loris tardigradus 1,500[27] EN[27] Decrease[27] Loris tardigradus tardigradus 002.jpg
Sangihe tarsier Tarsius sangirensis 1,505–2,795[28] EN[28] Decrease[28] Population estimates are considered inconclusive.[28]
Zanzibar red colobus Procolobus kirkii 2,000[29] EN[29] Decrease[29] Maximum estimate.[29] Red Colobus 7.jpg
Black snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti 2,000[30] EN[30] Decrease[30] Maximum estimate; less than 1,000 mature organisms.[30] RhinopitecusBieti.jpg
Pagai Island macaque Macaca pagensis 2,100–3,700[31] CR[31] Decrease[31] Numbered 15,000 in 1980.[31] Beruk Mentawai Macaca pagensis.JPG
Javan surili Presbytis comata 2,285–2,500[32] EN[32] Decrease[32] Presbytiscom.jpg
Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis 2,500[33] CR[33] Decrease[33] Estimates were for 2002 and showed a decline of over 50% in under ten years.[33] Hapalemur alaotrensis JJLM.JPG
Moor macaque Macaca maura 3,000–5,000[34] EN[34] Decrease[34] Mâle macaque maure (Macaca maura).jpg
Golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia 3,200[35] EN[35] Steady[35] Minimum estimate; wild only.[35] In addition to these, there are about 490 golden lion tamarins in 150 zoos around the world.[36] Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia.jpg
Lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus 4,000[37] EN[37] Decrease[37] Estimate is a maximum.[37] Bartaffe, Lion-tailed Macaque, (Macaca silenus) - Zoo Leipzig 02.jpg
Silvery gibbon Hylobates moloch 4,000–4,500[38] EN[38] Decrease[38] Silbergibbon mit Nachwuchs.jpg
Gee's golden langur Trachypithecus geei 5,500[39] EN[39] Decrease[39] Maximum estimate; mature individuals number less than 2,500.[39] Golden Langur.jpg
Eastern gorilla Gorilla beringei 5,880[40] CR[40] Decrease[40] Approximately 5,000 eastern lowland gorillas (G. b. graueri)[40] and 880 mountain gorillas (G. b. beringei).[41] I'm sooooo tired.jpg
Cotton-top tamarin Saguinus oedipus 6,000[42] EN[42] Decrease[42] Estimate for mature organisms is 2,000.[42] Saguinus oedipus (Linnaeus, 1758).jpg
Golden-crowned sifaka Propithecus tattersalli 6,000–10,000[43] CR[43] Decrease[43] Propithecus tattersalli 001.jpg
Golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas 6,000–15,000[44] EN[44] Decrease[44] Goldkopfloewenaeffchen1.jpg
Pig-tailed langur Simias concolor 6,700–17,300[45] EN[45] Decrease[45] Down from an estimated 26,000 in 1980.[45]
Gray-headed lemur Eulemur cinereiceps 7,265[46] CR[46] Decrease[46] Maximum population estimate is 7265 +/- 2,268.[46]
Sumatran orangutan Pongo abelii 7,300[47] CR[47] Decrease[47] Who you lookin' at?.jpg
Madame Berthe's mouse lemur Microcebus berthae 8,000[48] EN[48] Decrease[48] Estimate is a maximum.[48]
Natuna Island surili Presbytis natunae 10,000[49] VU[49] Decrease[49]
Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset Callibella humilis 10,000[50] VU[50] Decrease[50]
Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus 15,000[51] EN[51] Decrease[51] Population may be underestimated.[51] Portrait of a father.jpg
Udzungwa red colobus Procolobus gordonorum 15,400[52] EN[52] Decrease[52] Population may be overestimated.[52]
Northern giant mouse lemur Mirza zaza 16,500–17,500[53] VU[53] Decrease[53]
Siberut macaque Macaca siberu 17,000–30,000[54] VU[54] Decrease[54] Numbered 39 000 in 1980.[54]
Nilgiri langur Trachypithecus johnii 20,000[55] VU[55] Decrease[55] Maximum estimate; mature individuals number less than 10,000.[55] Nilgiri Langur.JPG
Red-eared guenon Cercopithecus erythrotis 20,000[56] VU[56] Decrease[56] Minimum estimate.[56]
Kloss's gibbon Hylobates klossii 20,000–25,000[57] EN[57] Decrease[57]
Bonobo Pan paniscus 29,500–50,000[58] EN[58] Decrease[58] Population may be underestimated.[58] Pan paniscus (female).jpg
Mentawai langur Presbytis potenziani 36,000[59] EN[59] Decrease[59] Maximum estimate.[59]
Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus 47,000–73,000[60] CR[60] Decrease[60] OrangutanP1.jpg
Western gorilla Gorilla gorilla 150,000–250,000[61] CR[61] Decrease[61] Figures are considered an overestimation.[61] Western Lowland Gorilla at Bronx Zoo 2 cropped.jpg
Common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes 172,700–299,700[62] EN[62] Decrease[62] Gombe Stream NP Jungtier fressend.jpg
Gelada Theropithecus gelada 200,000[63] LC[63] Decrease[63] Gelada-Pavian.jpg
Müller's Bornean gibbon Hylobates muelleri 250,000–375,000[64] EN[64] Decrease[64] MuellersGibbon.jpg
Human Homo sapiens 7,658,000,000[65] LC[66] Increase[66] Akha cropped hires.JPG

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Geissmann, T. & Bleisch, W. (2008). "Nomascus hainanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  2. ^ a b c d Geissmann, T. & Bleisch, W. (2008). "Nomascus nasutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  3. ^ a b c d de Oliveira, M.M., Boubli, J.-P. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2008). "Cebus flavius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ a b c Nijman, V., Hon, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). "Presbytis chrysomelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Propithecus perrieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Patel, E., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Propithecus candidus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b c Xuan Canh, L., Khac Quyet, L., Thanh Hai, D. & Boonratana, R. (2008). "Rhinopithecus avunculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ a b c d Veiga, L.M., Printes, R.C., Rylands, A.B., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L (2011). "Callicebus barbarabrownae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b c Geissmann, T., Momberg, F. & Whitten, T. (2012). "Rhinopithecus strykeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c d Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B., Mendes. S.L. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Leontopithecus caissara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Kurt Gron (July 22, 2010). "Greater bamboo lemur". Primate Info Net. Wisconsin Primate Research Center (WPRC) Library at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d Groves, C.P. & Molur, S. (2008). "Semnopithecus ajax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  13. ^ a b c Veiga, L.M., Sousa, M.C., Jerusalinsky, L., Ferrari, S.F., de Oliveira, M.M., Santos, S.S.D., Valente, M.C.M. & Printes, R.C. (2008). "Callicebus coimbrai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ a b c Ngoc Thanh, V., Lippold, L., Nadler, T. & Timmins, R.J. (2008). "Pygathrix cinerea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ a b c d Kumar, A., Sinha, A. & Kumar, S. (2008). "Macaca munzala". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ a b c Bleisch, W., Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M. (2008). "Rhinopithecus brelichi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ a b c Bleisch, B., Xuan Canh, L., Covert, B. & Yongcheng, L. (2008). "Trachypithecus poliocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ a b c d Mendes, S.L., de Oliveira, M.M., Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Brachyteles hypoxanthus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ a b c Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B., Mendes. S.L. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Leontopithecus chrysopygus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ a b c Butynski, T.M., Struhsaker, T., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y. (2008). "Cercocebus galeritus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ a b c Davenport, T.R.B. & Jones, T. (2008). "Rungwecebus kipunji". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  22. ^ a b c d Ehardt, C., Butynski, T.M. & Struhsaker, T. (2008). "Cercocebus sanjei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ a b c Mendes, S.L., de Oliveira, M.M., Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Brachyteles arachnoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ a b c Bleisch, B., Geissmann, T., Timmins, R.J. & Xuelong, J. (2008). "Nomascus concolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ a b c d Shekelle, M. & Salim, A. (2011). "Tarsius tumpara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  26. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A. Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Hapalemur aureus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ a b c Nekaris, A. (2008). "Loris tardigradus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  28. ^ a b c d Shekelle, M. & Salim, A. (2011). "Tarsius sangirensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  29. ^ a b c d Struhsaker, T. & Siex, K. (2008). "Procolobus kirkii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  30. ^ a b c d Bleisch, W. & Richardson, M. (2008). "Rhinopithecus bieti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  31. ^ a b c d Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Macaca pagensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  32. ^ a b c Nijman, V. & Richardson, M (2008). "Presbytis comata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  33. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Hapalemur alaotrensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ a b c Supriatna, J., Shekelle, M. & Burton, J. (2008). "Macaca maura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ a b c d Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Leontopithecus rosalia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  36. ^ Current Status of Golden Lion Tamarins – National Zoo| FONZ Archived 2011-08-24 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ a b c d Kumar, A., Singh, M. & Molur, S. (2008). "Macaca silenus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  38. ^ a b c Andayani, N., Brockelman, W., Geissmann, T., Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. (2008). "Hylobates moloch". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ a b c d Das, J., Medhi, R. & Molur, S. (2008). "Trachypithecus geei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  40. ^ a b c d Robbins, M. & Williamson, L. (2008). "Gorilla beringei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  41. ^ Aldred, J. (2012-11-13). "Mountain gorilla numbers rise by 10%". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  42. ^ a b c d Savage, A. & Causado, J. (2008). "Saguinus oedipus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  43. ^ a b c Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Propithecus tattersalli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  44. ^ a b c Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B., Mendes. S.L. & de Oliveira, M.M. (2008). "Leontopithecus chrysomelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  45. ^ a b c d Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Simias concolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  46. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Eulemur cinereiceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  47. ^ a b c Singleton, I., Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. (2008). "Pongo abelii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. ^ a b c d Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Microcebus berthae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ a b c Nijman, V. & Lammertink, M. (2008). "Presbytis natunae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  50. ^ a b c Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Callibella humilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  51. ^ a b c d Butynski, T.M., Cortes, J., Waters, S., Fa, J., Hobbelink, M.E., van Lavieren, E., Belbachir, F., Cuzin, F., de Smet, K., Mouna, M., de Iongh, H., Menard, N. & Camperio-Ciani, A. (2008). "Macaca sylvanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  52. ^ a b c d Struhsaker, T, Butynski, T.M. & Ehardt, C. (2008). "Procolobus gordonorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ a b c Rode, E.J., Nekaris, K.A.I. , Schwitzer, C. & Hoffmann, M. (2011). "Mirza zaza". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  54. ^ a b c d Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Macaca siberu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  55. ^ a b c d Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S. (2008). "Trachypithecus johnii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ a b c d Oates, J.F., Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C.P. (2008). "Cercopithecus erythrotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  57. ^ a b c Whittaker, D. & Geissmann, T. (2008). "Hylobates klossii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  58. ^ a b c d Fruth, B., Benishay, J.M., Bila-Isia, I., Coxe, S., Dupain, J., Furuichi, T., Hart, J., Hart, T., Hashimoto, C., Hohmann, G., Hurley, M., Ilambu, O., Mulavwa, M., Ndunda, M., Omasombo, V., Reinartz, G., Scherlis, J., Steel, L. & Thompson, J. (2008). "Pan paniscus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  59. ^ a b c d Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2008). "Presbytis potenziani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  60. ^ a b c Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. (2008). "Pongo pygmaeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ a b c d Walsh, P.D., Tutin, C.E.G., Oates, J.F., Baillie, J.E.M., Maisels, F., Stokes, E.J., Gatti, S., Bergl, R.A., Sunderland-Groves, J. & Dunn. A. (2008). "Gorilla gorilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  62. ^ a b c Oates, J.F., Tutin, C.E.G., Humle, T., Wilson, M.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmforth, Z., Blom, A., Boesch, C., Cox, D., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Gatti, S., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, C., Hunt, K.D., Kamenya, S., Maisels, F., Mitani, J.C., Moore, J., Morgan, B.J., Morgan, D.B., Nakamura, M., Nixon, S., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V., Stokes, E.J. & Walsh, P.D. (2008). "Pan troglodytes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  63. ^ a b c Gippoliti, S. & Hunter, C. (2008). "Theropithecus gelada". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  64. ^ a b c Geissmann, T. & Nijman, V. (2008). "Hylobates muelleri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  65. ^ U.S. and World Population Clock, July 27, 2018, retrieved July 27, 2018
  66. ^ a b Homo sapiens, IUCN, retrieved November 24, 2014