List of prime ministers of India
The Prime Minister (PM) is the chief executive of the government of India. In India's parliamentary system, the Constitution names the president as the head of state de jure, but his or her de facto executive powers are vested in the prime minister and their Council of Ministers. Appointed and sworn-in by the President, the prime minister is usually the leader of the party or alliance that has a majority in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India.
Since 1947 India has had 15 prime ministers.[a] Jawaharlal Nehru was the India's first prime minister, serving as prime minister of the Dominion of India from 15 August 1947 until 26 January 1950, and thereafter of the Republic of India until his death in May 1964. (India conducted its first general elections in 1952. Earlier, Nehru had served as prime minister of the Interim Government of India in the British Raj from 2 September 1946 until 14 August 1947, his party, the Indian National Congress having won the 1946 Indian provincial elections.) Nehru was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri, whose 1 year 7-month term ended in his death in Tashkent, then in the USSR, where he had signed the Tashkent Declaration between India and Pakistan. Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter, succeeded Shastri in 1966 to become the country's first female prime minister. Eleven years later, her party the Indian National Congress lost the 1977 Indian general election to the Janata Party, whose leader Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress prime minister. After Desai resigned in 1979, his former associate Charan Singh briefly held office until the Congress won the 1980 Indian general election and Indira Gandhi returned as prime minister. Her second term as prime minister ended five years later on 31 October 1984, when she was assassinated by her bodyguards. Her son Rajiv Gandhi was sworn in as India's youngest premier. Members of Nehru–Gandhi family have been prime minister for approximately 38 years.
After a general election loss, Rajiv Gandhi's five-year term ended; his former cabinet colleague, Vishwanath Pratap Singh of the Janata Dal, formed the year-long National Front coalition government in 1989. A seven-month interlude under prime minister Chandra Shekhar followed, after which the Congress party returned to power, forming the government under P. V. Narasimha Rao in June 1991, Rajiv Gandhi having been assassinated earlier that year. Rao's five-year term was succeeded by four short-lived governments—Atal Bihari Vajpayee from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 13 days in 1996, a year each under United Front prime ministers H. D. Deve Gowda and Inder Kumar Gujral, and Vajpayee again for 19 months in 1998–99. In 1999, Vajpayee's National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won the general election, the first non-Congress alliance to do so, and he served a full five-year term as prime minister. The Congress, and its United Progressive Alliance won the general elections in 2004 and 2009, Manmohan Singh serving as prime minister between 2004 and 2014. The BJP won the 2014 Indian general election, and its parliamentary leader Narendra Modi formed the first non-Congress single party majority government. Modi has served as prime minister since, his party winning the 2019 Indian general election.
|BJP (2)[b] INC/INC(I)/INC(R)[c] (6+1 acting[d]) JD (3) JP (1) JP(S) (1) SJP(R) (1)|
|Party||Term of office||Time in office||Lok Sabha[e]||Ministry||Appointed by|
|Took office||Left office|
|Indian National Congress||15 August 1947||15 April 1952||16 years, 286 days||Constituent Assembly[f]||Nehru I||The Earl Mountbatten of Burma|
|15 April 1952||17 April 1957||1st||Nehru II||Rajendra Prasad|
|17 April 1957||2 April 1962||2nd||Nehru III|
|2 April 1962||27 May 1964†||3rd||Nehru IV|
|Indian National Congress||27 May 1964||9 June 1964||13 days||Nanda I||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|3||Lal Bahadur Shastri
|Indian National Congress||9 June 1964||11 January 1966†||1 year, 216 days||Shastri|
|Indian National Congress||11 January 1966||24 January 1966||13 days||Nanda II|
|Indian National Congress||24 January 1966||4 March 1967||11 years, 59 days||Indira I|
|Indian National Congress (R)||4 March 1967||15 March 1971||4th|
|15 March 1971||24 March 1977||5th||Indira II||V. V. Giri|
|Janata Party||24 March 1977||28 July 1979[RES]||2 years, 126 days||6th||Desai||B. D. Jatti|
|Janata Party (Secular)||28 July 1979||14 January 1980[RES]||170 days||Charan||Neelam Sanjiva Reddy|
|Indian National Congress (I)||14 January 1980[§]||31 October 1984†||4 years, 291 days||7th||Indira III|
|Indian National Congress (I)||31 October 1984||31 December 1984||5 years, 32 days||Rajiv||Zail Singh|
|31 December 1984||2 December 1989||8th|
|8||Vishwanath Pratap Singh
|2 December 1989||10 November 1990[NC]||343 days||9th||Vishwanath||R. Venkataraman|
|Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)
||10 November 1990||21 June 1991[RES]||223 days||Chandra Shekhar|
|10||P. V. Narasimha Rao
|Indian National Congress (I)||21 June 1991||16 May 1996||4 years, 330 days||10th||Rao|
|11||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Bharatiya Janata Party||16 May 1996||1 June 1996[RES]||13 days||11th||Vajpayee I||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|12||H. D. Deve Gowda
|1 June 1996||21 April 1997[RES]||324 days||Deve Gowda|
|13||Inder Kumar Gujral
|21 April 1997||19 March 1998[RES]||332 days||Gujral|
|(11)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Bharatiya Janata Party
|19 March 1998[§]||10 October 1999[NC]||6 years, 64 days||12th||Vajpayee II||K. R. Narayanan|
|10 October 1999||22 May 2004||13th||Vajpayee III|
|Indian National Congress
|22 May 2004||22 May 2009||10 years, 4 days||14th||Manmohan I||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|22 May 2009||26 May 2014||15th||Manmohan II||Pratibha Patil|
|Bharatiya Janata Party
|26 May 2014||30 May 2019||7 years, 187 days||16th||Modi I||Pranab Mukherjee|
|30 May 2019||Incumbent||17th||Modi II||Ram Nath Kovind|
- List of prime ministers by length of term
|No.||Name||Party||Length of term|
|Longest continuous term||Total years of premiership|
|1||Jawaharlal Nehru||INC||16 years, 286 days||16 years, 286 days|
|2||Indira Gandhi||INC/INC(I)/INC(R)||11 years, 59 days||15 years, 350 days|
|3||Manmohan Singh||INC||10 years, 4 days||10 years, 4 days|
|4||Narendra Modi||BJP||7 years, 187 days||7 years, 187 days|
|5||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||BJP||6 years, 64 days||6 years, 77 days|
|6||Rajiv Gandhi||INC(I)||5 years, 32 days||5 years, 32 days|
|7||P. V. Narasimha Rao||INC(I)||4 years, 330 days||4 years, 330 days|
|8||Morarji Desai||JP||2 years, 126 days||2 years, 126 days|
|9||Lal Bahadur Shastri||INC||1 year, 216 days||1 year, 216 days|
|10||Vishwanath Pratap Singh||JD||343 days||343 days|
|11||Inder Kumar Gujral||JD||332 days||332 days|
|12||H. D. Deve Gowda||JD||324 days||324 days|
|13||Chandra Shekhar||SJP(R)||223 days||223 days|
|14||Charan Singh||JP(S)||170 days||170 days|
|Acting||Gulzarilal Nanda||INC||13 days||26 days|
- List by party
|No.||Political party||Number of Prime ministers||Total years of holding PMO|
|1||INC/INC(I)/INC(R)||6 (+1 acting)||54 years, 123 days|
|2||BJP||2||13 years, 264 days|
|3||JD||3||2 years, 269 days|
|4||JP||1||2 years, 126 days|
- Parties by total duration (in years) of holding Prime Minister's Office
- President of India
- Vice President of India
- Deputy Prime Minister of India
- List of presidents of India
- List of vice presidents of India
- List of prime ministers of India by education
- List of children of the prime ministers of India
- List of prime ministers of India by previous experience
- List of heads of state and government of Indian origin
- List of nicknames of the prime ministers of India
- † Assassinated or died in office
- § Returned to office after a previous non-consecutive term
- RES Resigned
- NC Resigned following a no-confidence motion
- 15 including Gulzarilal Nanda who twice acted in the role, of which 6 having at least one full term, ruling country for about 60 years.
- In office
- Known as Indian National Congress (R) between 1969–1978 Indian National Congress (I) between 1978–96. 
- Gulzarilal Nanda twice appointed as acting Prime minister of India following deaths of two prime ministers.
- Although the prime minister can be a member of either house of the Parliament, they have to command the confidence of the Lok Sabha. Upon dissolution of the Lok Sabha, the outgoing PM remains in office until their successor is sworn in.
- The Constituent Assembly of India consisted of 389 members elected in 1946 by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Assembly was replaced by the Provisional Parliament of India after adoption of the Constitution on 26 January 1950 until the first general elections.
- Pylee, M.V. (2003). Constitutional Government in India. S. Chand Publishing. p. 252. ISBN 9788121922036. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- Mahurkar, Uday (15 May 1996). "At 98, two-time interim PM Gulzarilal Nanda is the epitome of Gandhian ideals". India Today. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Malhotra, Inder (15 January 1995). "Book review: Lal Bahadur Shastri Prime Minister of India 1964-66: A Life of Truth in Politics". India Today. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Vijaykumar, Neeti (19 January 2017). "Today in 1966: Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister". The Week. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Before Modi, there was Morarjibhai". Rediff.com. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "JD-U demands Bharat Ratna to former PM Charan Singh". The Economic Times. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Denyer, Simon (2 December 2011). "In India, next generation of Gandhi dynasty". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Iype, George (3 May 2004). "What the former PMs are doing". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Ghosh, Deepshikha (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee: The 3-Time PM Who Captivated India With His Oratory". NDTV. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "PM Modi, Rahul Gandhi Greet Manmohan Singh On His 86th Birthday". Outlook. 26 September 2018. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Panda, Ankit (16 May 2014). "BJP, Modi Win Landslide Victory in Indian Elections". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Statistical Report on General Elections, 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "Former Prime Ministers". PM India. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2015.